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DOCUMENTS,  --^rJS|:^ 






COMMENCING    MARCH    3,    1789,    AND  ENDING    MARCH    3,    1815. 



BY  WALTER  LOWRIE,  Secretary  of  the  Senate, 


xMATTHEW  ST.  CLAIR  CLARKE,  Clerk  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 

VOLUIflE    IV. 





M  '^  f  T 


•If  ¥m:  if,  .u-i  i:^..:i  ,1 

,«•■.;  vr 

.■"jirr    .<■  ;i    /-'.i  ii' 

'!';''*!■ ;!!''!  :•}''"!■  '';vi" 

•j'l;    ■;.  (' 

•1  li      -V  •  ■  ■/  >3  ■ 






1st  Congress.]  No.    1.  fist  Session. 


"^  COMMUNICATED  TO   THE   SENATE   MAY  25,   1789. 

Gentlemen  qf  the  Senate: 

In  pursuance  of  the  order  of  the  late  Congress,  treaties  between  the  United  States  and  several  nations  of 
Indians,  have  been  negotiated  and  signed.  These  treaties,  with  sundry  papers  respectin.g  tliem,  I  now  lay  before 
you,  for  your  consideration  and  advice,  by  the  hands  of  General  Knox,  under  whose  official  superintendence  the 
business  was  transacted,  and  who  will  be  ready  to  communicate  to  you  any  information  on  such  points  as  may  appear 
to  require  it. 

New  York,  May  25,  1789. 

.Qrticles  of  a  Treaty  made  at  fort  Harmar^  the  ninth  day  of  January^  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  eighty-nine,  between  Jlrthur  St.  Cluir^  Esquire^  Governor  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States  of 
^imericu  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  and  commissioner  plenipotentiary  of  the  said  United  States  for  removing 
all  causes  of  controversy,  regulating  trade,  and  settling  boundaries,  between  the  Indian  nations  in  the  northern 
department,  and  the  said  United  States,  of  the  one  part,  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  cfthe  Six  Nations,  of  the 
other  part,  viz. 

Article  1.  Whereas  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  did,  by  their  commissioners,  Oliver  Wol- 

cott,  Richard  Butler,  and  Artliur  Lee,  Esquires,  duly  appointed  for  that  purpose,  at  a  treaty  held  with  the  said  Six 

Nations,  viz:  with  the  Mohawks,  Oneidas,  Onoudagas,  Tuscaroras,  Cayugas.  and  Senecas,  at  fort  Stanwix,  on  the 

twenty-second  day  of  October,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-four,  give  peace  to  the  said  nations,  and 

receive  them  into  their  friendship  and  protection:    And  whereas  the  said  nations  have  now  agreed,  to  and  with  the 

said  Arthur  St.  Clair,  to  renew  and  confirm  all  the  engagements  and  stipulations  entered  into  at  the  before  mentioned 

-  ^  treaty  at  fort  Stanwix:    And  whereas  it  was  then  and  there  agreed,  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the 

,    '(  said  Six  Nations,  that  a  boundary  line  should  be  fixed  between  the  lands  of  the  said  Six  Nations  and  the  territory 

X  of  the  said  United  States,  wliich  boundary  line  is  as  follows,  viz:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  a  creek,  about  four  miles 

■?r  east  of  Niagara,  called  Ononwayea,  or  Johnston's  Landing  Place,  upon  the  lake  named  by  the  Indians  Oswego,  and 

t^  by  us  Ontario;  from  thence  southerly,  in  a  direction  always  four  miles  east  of  the  carrying  place,  between  lake  Erie 

pv  and  lake  Ontario,  to  the  moutli  of  Fehoseroron,  or  Buffalo  creek,   upon  lake  Erie;  thence  south,   to  the  northern 

l-i-.  boundary  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania;  thence  west,  to  the  end  of  the  said  north  boundary;  thence  south,  along  the 

west  boundary  of  the  said  State,  to  the  river  Ohio.     The  said  line,  from  the  mouth  of  Ononwayea  to  the  Ohio,  shall 

be  the  western  boundary  of  the  lands  of  the  Six  Nations,  so  that  tlie  Six  Nations  shall  and  do  yield  to  the  United 

States,  all  claim  to  the  country  west  of  the  said  boundary;  and  then  they  shall  be  secured  in  the  possession  of  the 

lands  they  inhabit  east,  nortli,  and  south  of  tlie  same,  reserving  only  sis  miles  square,  round  the  fort  of  Oswego,  for 

the  support  of  the  same.    The  said  Six  Nations,  except  tlie  Mohawks,  none  of  whom  have  attended  at  tins  time,  for 

and  in  consideration  of  the  peace  then  granted  to  them,  the  presents  they  then  received,  as  well  as  in  consideration 

of  a  quantity  of  goods,  to  the  value  ol  three  thousand  dollars,  now  delivered  to  them  by  the  said  Arthur  St.  Clair, 

the  receipt  whereof  they  do  hereby  acknowledge,  do  hereby  renew  and  confirm  the  said  boundary  line  in  the  words 

before  mentioned,  to  the  end  may  be  and  remain  as  a  division  line  between  the  lands  of  the  said  Six  Nations 

and  the  territory  of  the  United  States,  forever.    And  the  undersigned  Indians,  as  well  in  their  own  names  as  in  the 

name  of  their  respective  tribes  and  nations,  their  heirs  and  descendants,  for  the  considerations  before  mentioned,  do 

release,  quit  claim,  relinquish,  and  cede,  to  the  United  States  of  America,  all  the  lands  west  of  the  said  boundary  or 

division  line,  and  between  the  said  line  and  the  strait,  from  the  mouth  of  Ononwayea  and  Buffalo  creek,  for  them, 

the  said  United  States  of  America,  to  have  and  to  hold  the  same,  in  true  and  absolute  propriety,  forever. 

Article  2.  The  United  States  of  America  confirm  to  the  Six  Nations,  all  the  lands  wiiicli  they  inhabit,  lying 
east  and  north  of  the  before  mentioned  boundary  line,  and  relinquish  and  quit  claim  to  tlie  same  and  every  part 
thereof,  excepting  only  six  miles  square  round  the  fort  of  Oswego,  which  six  miles  square  round  said  fort  is  again 
reserved  to  the  United  States  by  these  presents. 

Article  3.  The  Oneida  and  Tuscarora  nations  are  also  again  secured  and  confirmed  in  the  possession  of  their 
respective  lands. 

Article  4.  The  United  States  of  America  j-enew  and  confirm  the  peace  and  friendship   entered  into  with  the 
,1  Six  Nations,  (except  the  Mohawks)  at  the  treaty  before  mentioned,  held  at  fort  Stanwix,  declaring  the  same  to  be 

rk  2  * 



INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789- 

perpetual.     And  if  tlie  Mohawks  shall,  within  six  months,  declare  their  assent  to  the  same,  they  shall  be  considered 

as  included.  ,  .  ,      ,  ,  n    l   u  -a 

Done  at  fort  Haraiar,  on  the  Muskingum,  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  parties  have  hereunto,  interchangeably,  set  their  hands  and  seals. 

[Signed  by  twenty -four  of  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians.] 


Siiould  a  robbery  i>r  murder  be  committed  by  an  Indian  or  Indians  of  the  Six  Nations,  upon  the  citizens  or  sub- 
iects  of  the  United  States,  or  by  the  citizens  or  subjects  of  the  United  States,  or  any  of  them,  upon  any  of  the  Indians 
of  tlie  said  nation*,  the  parties  accused  of  the  same  shall  be  tried,  and  if  found  guilty,  be  punished  according  to  the 
laws  of  the  State  or  ot  tlie  Territory  of  the  United  States,  as  the  case  may  be,  wliere  tlie  same  was  committed. 
Anil  should  any  horses  be  stolen,  either  by  the  Indians  of  the  said  nations,  from  the  citizens  or  subjects  of  the 
United  States  or  any  of  them,  or  by  any  of  the  said  citizens  or  subjects  trom  any  of  the  said  Indians,  they  may  be 
reclaimed,  into  whose  possession  soever  they  may  have  come:  and,  upon  due  proof,  sliall  be  restored,  any  sale  in 
open  market  notwithstanding,  and  the  persons  convicted  shall  be  punished  with  the  ulniost  severity  the  laws  will 
admit  And  the  said  nations  engage  to  deliver  the  persons  that  may  be  accused,  ot  their  nations,  of  either  of  the 
before  mentioned  crimes,  at  the  ^nearest  post  of  the  United  States,  if  the  crime  was  committed  within  the  terri- 
tory of  the  United  States;  or  to  the  civil  authority  of  the  State,  if  it  shall  have  happened  within  any  of  the  United 

^*'^*'^'-  AR.  ST.  CLAIR. 

Articles  of  u  Treaty  made  at  fort  Harmar,  between  .Arthur  St.  Clair,  Governor  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States 
northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  and  coinmissioner  plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States  of  .America  for  removing  all 
causes  of  controversy,  regulating  trade,  and  settling  boundaries,  icith  the  Indian  nations  in  the  Northern 
department,  of  the  one  part,  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  JVyandot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  Chippeiva, 
Pattaivcdima,  and  Sac  nations,  on  the  other  part. 

\rticle  1.  Whereas  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  did,  by  their  commissioners.  George  Rogers 
Clarke  Richard  Butler,  and  Arthur  Lee.  Esquires,  duly  appointed  for  that  purpose,  at  a  treaty  holden  with  the 
Wyanciot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  and  Chippewa  nations,  at  fort  Mcintosh,  on  tlie  twenty -first  day  ot  January,  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-five,  conclude  a  peace  with  the  Wyandots,  Delawares. 
Ottawas  and  Chippewas,  and  take  them  into  their  friendship  and  protection:  And  whereas,  at  the  said  treaty,  it 
was  stipulated  that  all  prisoners  that  had  been  made  by  those  nations,  or  either  of  them,  should  be  delivered  up  to 
the  United  States:  And  whereas  the  said  nations  have  now  agreed,  to  and  with  the  aforesaid  Arthur  St.  Clair,  to 
renew  and  confirm  all  the  engagements  they  had  made  with  the  United  States  of  America,  at  the  before  mentioned 
treaty  except  so  iar  as  are  altered  by  these  presents:  And  there  are  now  in  the  possession  ot  some  individuals  of  these 
nation's,  certain  prisoners,  who  have  been  taken  by  others,  not  in  peace  with  the  said  United  States,  or  in  violation 
of  the  treaties  subsisting  between  the  United  States  and  them;  the  said  nations  agree  to  deliver  up  all  the  prisoners 
now  in  their  hands  (by  what  means  soever  they  may  have  come  into  their  possession)  to  the  said  Governor  St.  Clair, 
at  Fort  Harmar;  or,  in  his  absence,  to  tiie  officer  commanding  there,  as  soon  as  conveniently  may  be;  and.  for  the 
true  performance  of  this  agreement,  they  do  now  agree  to  deliver  into  his  hands,  two  persons  of  the  Wyandot 
nation,  to  be  retained  in  the  hands  of  the  United  States,  as  hostages,  until  the  said  prisoners  are  restored;  after  which, 
they  shall  be  sent  back  to  their  nation. 

Af      '     ■     ■     "  ■  ■'     "  " 

that  a 

porta°-e  be'twTerrtiiarand'thrTuscarawa  branch  of  Mustinguin;  then,  down  the"  said  branch,  to  the  forks  at  the 
I      crossfn-'  place  above  fort  Lawrence;  tlience.  westerly,  to  the  portage  on  tliat  branch  of  the  Big  Miami  river  whicli 
i      runs  in?o  the  Ohio,  at  the  mouth  of  which  branch  the  fort  stood  wliich  was  taken  by  the  French  in  the  year  of  our 
'      Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-two;  then,  along  the  said  portage,  to  the  Great  Miami  or  Oniie  nver, 
^       and,  down  tlie  southeast  side  of  the  same,  to  its  moutli;  thence,  along  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  to  the  mouth 
of  Ca\'^hoga,  where  it  began.     And  the  said  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  and  Chippewa  nations,  for  and  in  consi- 
deration of  tiie  peace  then  granted  to  them  by  the  said  United  States,  and  the  presents  they  then  received,  as  well 
as  of  a  quantity  of  goods,  to'  tiie  \alue  of  six  tliousand  dollars,  now  delivered  to  them  by  the  said  Arthur  St.  Clair, 
the  receipt  whereof  they  do  hereby  acknowledge,  do,  by  these  presents,  renew  and  confirm  tlie  said  boundary  ine; 
to  the  end  that  the  same  may  remain  as  a  division  line  between  the  lands  of  the  United  States  of  America  and  tlie 
lands  of  said  nations,  forever.     And  tlie  undersigned  Indians  do  hereby,  in  their  own  names,  and  the  names  of  their 
respective  nations  and  tribes,  their  heirs  and  descendants,  for  tiie  consideration  above  inentroned,  release,  quit  claim, 
relinquish,  and  cede,  to  the  said  United  States,  all  the  land  east,  south,  and  west,  of  tiie  lines  above  described,  so 
far  as  the  said  Indians  formerly  claimed  the  same;  for  tiiem,  the  said  United  States,  to  have  and  to  hold  the  same, 
in  true  and  absolute  propriety,  forever.  ,     ,      ,  ^        ,.       .,        ,      -^   i  •     x    .■        •  i      x- 

Art  3.  The  United  States  of  America  do,  by  these  presents,  relinquish  and  quit  claim  to  the  said  nations  respec- 
tively, all  tlie  lands  lying  between  the  limits  above  described,  for  them,  the  said  Indians,  to  live  and  hunt  upon,  and 
otherwise  to  occupy  as  they  shall  see  fit:  but  tlie  said  nations,  or  either  of  them,  shall  not  be  at  liberty  to  sell  or 
dispose  of  the  same,  or  any  pait  thereof,  to  any  sovereign  Power,  except  tlie  United  States:  nor  to  the  subjects  or 
citizens  of  any  odier  sovereign  Power,  nor  to  the  subjects  or  citizens  of  the  United  States.  ,      ^     ., 

Art.  4.  It  is  agreed,  between  tlie  said  United  States  and  the  said  nations,  tiiat  tiie  individuals  of  said  nations 
shall  beat'liberty  to  liunt  within  the  territory  ceded  to  the  United  States,  without  hindrance  or  molestation,  so  long 
as  they  demean  themselves  peaceably,  and  offer  no  injury  or  annoyance  to  any  of  the  subjects  or  citizens  of  the  said 
United  States. 

end  that  he  or  they  may  be  tried,  and,  if  found  guilty,  punished  according  to  the  laws  established  in  the  territorj^ 
of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  for  the  punishment  of  such  ofiences,  if  the  same  shall  have  been 
committed  within  the  said  territory:  or  according  to  the  laws  of  the  State  where  the  ottence  may  have  been  com- 
mitted, if  the  same  lias  happened  in  any  of  tlie  United  States.  In  like  manner,  it  any  subject  or  citizen  of  the 
United  States  shall  commit  murder  or  robbery  on  any  Indian  or  Indians  of  tlie  said  nations,  upon  complaint  being 
made  thereof,  he  or  they  shall  be  arrested,  tried,  and  punished,  agreeable  to  the  laws  of  tiie  State,  or  of  the  terntoiy 
wherein  tlie  offence  was  committed;  tiiat  nothing  may  interrupt  tlie  peace  and  harmony  now  established  between  the 
United  States  and  said  nations.  ,    .     .,  .  j-       •  x    i?  ^k      -.- 

\rt.  6.  And  whereas  the  practice  of  stealing  horses  iias  prevailed  very  much,  to  the  great  disquiet  of  the  citi- 
zens of  the  United  States,  and,  if  persisted  in.  cannot  fail  to  involve  both  the  United  States  of  America  and  the 
Indians  in  endless  animosity,  it  is  agreed  tiiat  it  shall  be  put  an  entire  stop  to  on  both  sides:  nevertlieless,  should 
some  individuals,  in  defiance  of  this  agreement,  and  of  the  laws  provided  against  such  offences,  continue  to  make 
depredations  of  that  nature,  the  person  convicted  thereof  shall  be  punished  with  the  utmost  severity  the  laws  ot  the 
respective  States,  or  territory  of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  where  the  offence  may  hiive  been  commit- 


ted,  will  admit  of;  and  all  horses  so  stolen,  either  by  the  Indians,  from  the  citizens  or  subjects  of  the  United  States, 
or  by  the  citizens  or  subjects  of  the  United  States  from  any;  of  the  Indian  nations,  may  be  reclaimed,  into  whose 
possession  soever  tliey  may  have  passed,  and,  upon  due  proof,  shall  be  restored,;  any  sales  in  market  ouvert  notwith- 
standing. And  the  civil  magistrates  in  the  United  States,  respectively,  and  in  the  territory  of  the  United  States 
northwest  of  the  Ohio,  shall  give  all  necessary  aid  and  protection  to  Indians  claiming  such  stolen  horses. 

Art.  7.  Trade  shall  be  opened  with  the  said  nations,  and  they  do  hereby  respectively  engage  to  aftbrd  pro- 
tection to  the  persons  and  property  of  such  as  may  be  duly  licensed  to  reside  among  them  for  the  purposes  of  trade 
and  to  their  agents,  factors,  and  servants;  but  no  person  shall  be  permitted  to  reside  at  their  towns,  or  at  their 
hunting  camps,  as  a  trader,  who  is  not  furnished  with  a  licence  for  that  purpose,  under  the  hand  and  seal  of  the 
Governor  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  for  the  time  being,  or  under  the  hand  and  seal 
of  one  of  his  deputies  for  the  management  of  Indian  aftairs;  to  the  end  that  they  may  not  be  imposed  upon  in  their 
traffic.  And  it  any  person,  or  persons,  shall  intrude  themselves  without  such  licence,  they  promise  to  apprehend 
him,  or  them,  and  to  bring  them  to  the  said  Governor,  or  one  of  his  deputies,  for  the  purpose  before  mentioned,  to 
be  dealt  with  according  to  law:  and  that  they  maybe  defended  against  persons  who  might  attempt  to  forge  such 
licences,  they  further  engage  to  give  information  to  the  said  Governor,  or  one  of  his  deputies,  of  the  names  of  all 
traders  residing  among  them,  from  time  to  time,  and  at  least  once  in  every  year. 

Art.  8.  Should  any  nation  of  Indians  meditate  a  war  against  the  United  States,  or  either  of  them,  and  the 
same  shall  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  befoie  mentioned  nations,  or  either  of  them,  they  do  hereby  engage  to  "ive 
immediate  notice  thereof  to  the  Governor,  or,  in  his  absence,  to  the  ofiicer  commanding  the  troops  of  "the  UnTted 
States  at  the  nearest  post.  And  should  any  nation,  with  hostile  intentions  against  the  U^nited  Stiites,  or  either  of 
them,  attempt  to  pass  through  their  country,  they  will  endeavor  to  prevent  the  same,  and  in  like  manner  give  infor- 
mation of  such  attempt  to  the  said  Governor,  or  commanding  officer,  as  soon  as  possible,  that  all  causes  of  mistrust 
and  suspicion  may  be  avoided  between  them  and  the  United  States;  in  like  manner,  the  United  States  shall  <^ive 
notice  to  the  said  Indian  nations,  of  any  hai'm  that  may  be  meditated  against  them,  or  either  of  them,  that  stiall 
'come  to  their  knowledge;  and  do  all  in  their  power  to  hinder  and  prevent  the  same,  that  the  friendship  between 
them  may  be  uninterrupted. 

Art.  9.  If  any  person  or  persons,  citizens  or  subjects  of  the  United  States,  or  any  other  person,  not  bein" 
an  Indian,  shall  presume  to  settle  upon  the  lands  confirmed  to  the  said  nations,  he  and  they  shall  be'  out  of  the 
protection  of  the  United  States;  and  the  said  nations  may  punish  him,  or  them,  in  such  manner  as  they  see  lit. 

Art.  10.  The  United  States  renew  the  reservations  heretofore  made  in  the  before  mentioned  treaty  at  fort 
M'Intosh,  for  the  establishment  of  trading  posts,  in  manner  and  form  following:  that  is  to  say:  six  miles  square 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Miami  or  Omie  rivers;  six  miles  square  at  the  portage  upon  that  branch  of  the  Miami  which 
runs  into  the  Ohio;  six  miles  square  upon  the  lake  Sandusky,  where  the  fort  formerly  stood;  and  two  miles  square  ' 
upon  each  side  tiie  Lower  Rapids,  on  Sandusky  river:  which  posts,  and  the  lands  annexed  to  them,  shall  be  for  the 
use  and  under  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  11.  The  post  at  Detroit,  widi  a  district  of  land  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Rosine,  at  the  west 
end  of  lake  Erie,  and  running  up  the  southern  bank  of  said  river  six  miles;  thence  northerly,  and  always  six  miles 
west  of  the  strait,  until  it  strikes  the  lake  St.  Clair,  shall  be  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  12.  In  like  manner,  the  post  at  Michilimackinac,  with  its  dependencies,  and  twelve  miles  square  about 
♦he  same,  shall  be  reserved  to  the  sole  use  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  13.  The  United  States  of  America  do  hereby  renew  and  confirm  the  peace  and  friendship  entered  into 
with  the  said  nations,  at  the  treaty  before  mentioned,  held  at  fort  M'Intosh;  and  ttie  said  nations  again  acknowled^^e 
themselves,  and  all  their  tribes,  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  said  United  States,  and  no  other  Power  wliatevel-. 

Art.  14.  The  United  States  of  America  do  also  receive  into  their  friendship  and  protection,  the  nations  of 
die  Pattawarimas  and  Sacs;  and  do  hereby  establish  a  league  of  peace  and  amity  between  them,  respectively;  and 
all  the  articles  of  this  treaty,  so  far  as  they  apply  to  these  nations,  are  to  be  considered  as  made  anil  concluded  in 
all,  and  every  part,  expressly  with  them  and  each  of  them. 

Art.  15.  And  whereas,  in  describing  the  boundary  before  mentioned,  the  words,  if  strictly  constructed 
would  carry  it  from  the  portage  on  that  branch  of  the  Miami  which  runs  into  the  Ohio,  over  to  the  river  Auglaize; 
which  was  neither  the  intention  of  the  Indians,  nor  of  the  commissioners:  it  is  hereby  declared,  that  the  line  shall 
run  from  the  said  portage  directly  to  the  first  fork  of  the  Miami  river,  which  is  to  the  southward  and  eastward  of 
the  Miami  village;  thence  down  die  main  branch  of  the  Miami  river  to  the  said  village,  and  thence  down  that  river 
to  lake  Erie,  and  along  the  margin  of  the  lake  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

Done  at  fort  Harmar,  on  the  Muskingum,  this  ninth  day  of  January,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  eighty-nine. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  parties  have  hereunto  interchangeably  set  dieir  hands  and  seals. 


[Signed  by  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Sac,  Chippewa,  Ottawa,  Pattawatanii,  Delaware,  and  Wyandot  tribes 
of  Indians.] 

Be  it  remembered,  that  the  Wyandots  have  laid  claim  to  the  lands  that  were  granted  to  the  Shawnees  at  die 
treaty  held  at  the  Miami;  and  have  declared,  that,  as  the  Shawnees  have  been  so  restless,  and  caused  so  much 
trouble,  both  to  them  and  to  the  United  States,  if  they  will  not  now  be  at  peace,  they  will  dispossess  diein,  and  take 
the  country  into  their  own  hands;  for  that  the  country  is  theirs  of  right,  and  the  Sliawanees  are  only  living  upon  it 
by  their  permission.  They  further  lay  claim  to  all  the  country  west  ol  the  Miami  boundary,  from  the  village  to  the 
lake  Erie,  and  declare  that  it  is  now  under  their  management  and  direction. 

separate  article. 

Whereas  die  Wyandots  have  represented,  that  within  the  reservation  from  the  river  Rosine,  along  the  strait, 
they  have  two  villages,  from  which  they  cannot,  with  any  convenience,  remove;  it  is  agreed,  they  shaU  remain  in 
possession  of  the  same,  and  shall  not  be  in  any  manner  disturbed  therein. 

The  Secretary  of  War  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

The  Secretary  of  War,  having  examined  the  negotiations  of  the  Governor  of  the  Western  ten-itory,  with  certain 
Northern  and  Northwestern  Indians,  and  the  treaties  made  in  consequence  thereof,  at  fort  Harmar,  on  the  9tli 
of  January,  1789,  begs  leave  to  report: 


That  the  several  Treaties  of  Peace  which  have  been  made  with  the  Northern  tribes  of  Indians,  and  those 
thwest  of  the  Ohio,  since  the  conclusion  of  the  late  war  with  Great  Britain,  are  as  folhiws,  to  wit: 
1st.    The  treaty  at  fort  Stanwix,  on  the  22d  day  of  October,  1784,  between  Oliver  Wolcott,  Richard  Butler, 
and  Arthur  Lee,  commissioners  plenipotentiary  from  the  United  States,  on  the  one  part,  and  the  sachems  and 
warriors  o(  the  Six  Nations,  on  the  other. 

\v  ^''  i'^''*^  treaty  entered  into  by  the  said  commissioners  plenipotentiary,  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the 
Wyandot,  Delaware,  Chippewa,  and  Ottawa  nations  of  Indians,  at  fort  Mcintosh,  the  2Ist  day  of  January,  1785. 
IT  -^1  T'^*^  treaty  at  the  mouth  of  the  great  Miami,  the  31st  of  January  1786,  between  commissioners  from  the 
"if,^L"  States,  and  the  Chiefs  and  Warriors  of  the  Shawanee  nation. 
That  the  treaties  of  fort  Stanwix  and  fort  Mcintosh  were  entered  on  the  journals  of  the  United  States,  in  Con- 
gress assembled,  June  the  3d,  1785,  and  the  treaty  of  the  Miami,  on  the  17th  day  of  April  1786. 


INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

That  it  may  be  proper  to  observe,  that  the  Indians  are  greatly  tenacious  of  their  lands,  and  generally  do  not 
relinquish  their  right,  excepting  on  the  principle  of  a  specific  consideration,  expressly  given  for  the  purchase  of  the 

That  tlie  practice  of  the  late  English  colonies  and  government,  in  purchasing  the  Indian  claims,  has  firmly 
established  the  habit  in  tliis  respect,  so  that  it  cannot  be  violated  but  with  difficulty,  and  an  expense  greatly 
exceeding  the  value  of  the  object. 

That  the  treaties  of  fort  Stanwix  and  effort  Mcintosh  do  not  state  that  the  limits  therein  defined  are  by  virtue 
of  a  purchase  from  the  Indians. 

That  the  said  treaties  have  been  opposed,  and  complained  of,  will  appear  by  the  representation  to  Congress, 
accompanying  this  report,  marked  No.  1 . 

That,  in  consequence  of  the  said  representation,  Congress,  on  the  21st  day  of  July,  1787,  passed  the  following 

"  Resolved,  That  the  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs  for  the  Northern  department,  inform  the  five  nations, 
the  Hurons,  and  other  Indian  nations,  who  joined  in  the  representation  made  to  Congress,  dated  the  18th  day  of 
December,  1786,  that  Congress,  on  the  18th  of  the  present  month,  July,  1787,  received  their  said  representation, 
and  have  taken  it  into  their  serious  consideration,  and,  in  due  time,  will  send  them  an  answer." 
That,  on  the  5th  of  October  following.  Congress  resolved: 

"  That  a  general  treaty  be  held  with  the  tribes  of  Indians  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  inhabiting  the 
country  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  and  about  Lake  Erie,  as  soon  after  the  first  of  April  next  as  conveniently  may  be, 
and  at  such  place,  and  at  such  particular  time,  as  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory  shall  appoint,  for  the 
purpose  of  knowing  the  causes  of  uneasiness  among  the  said  tribes,  and  hearing  tiieii-  complaints,  of  regulating  trade, 
and  amicably  settling  all  affairs  concerning  lands  and  boundaries,  between  them  and  the  United  States. 

' '  That  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory  hold  the  said  treaty  agreeably  to  such  instructions  as  shall  be 
given  him  for  that  purpose." 

That,  on  the  12th  of  October,  1787,  Congress  resolved: 

"  That  twenty  thousand  dollars  be,  and  hereby  are,  appropriated  for  the  purpose  of  Indian  treaties,  whenever  the 
same  shall  hereatter  be  judged  necessary  by  a  majority  of  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  and  that  the 
resolutions  for  holding  a  general  treaty  %vith  the  Indians,  passed  the  fifth  day  of  the  present  month,  be,  and  they  are 
hereby,  repealed." 

That  on  the  22d  of  October,  1787,,  Congress  resolved: 

"  That  the  Governor  of  tlie  Western  Territory  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  empowered  to  hold  a  general  treaty  with  the 
Indian  tribes  in  the  ensuing  spring,  if,  in  Ins  judgment,  the  public  good  requires  it;  and  that  he  be  authorized  to  draw 
for  such  sums  of  money,  appropriated  by  the  resolve  of  Congress  of  the  12th  instant,  as  may  be  necessary  to  eftect 
this  object,  not  exceeding  the  sum  of  fourteen  thousand  dollars. " 
That,  on  the  2d  of  July.  1788,  Congress  resolved: 

"  That  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars,  in  addition  to  the  fourteen  thousand  dollars  already  appropriated,  be 
appropriated  for  defraying  the  expenses  of  the  treaties  which  have  been  ordered,  or  which  may  be  ordered  to  be  held 
on  the  present  year,  with  the  several  Indian  tribes  in  the  Northern  department,  and  for  extinguishing  the  Indian 
claims;  the  whole  of  the  said  twenty  thousand  dollars,  together  with  six  thousand  dollars  of  the  said  fourteen  thou- 
sand dollars,  to  be  applied  solely  to  the  purpose  of  extinguishing  Indian  claims  to  the  lands  they  have  already  ceded 
to  the  United  States,  by  obtaining  regular  conveyances  tor  the  same,  and  for  extending  a  purchase  beyond  the  limits 
hitherto  fixed  by  treaty;  but  that  no  part  of  the  said  sums  be  applied  for  any  purpose  other  than  those  above  men- 

That  the  instructions  to  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory,  marked  No.  2,  will  further  show  the  sense  of 
Congress  on  this  subject. 

That  the  treaties  of  fort  Harmar,  on  the  9th  of  January,  1789,  with  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Six  Nations, 
the  Mohawks  excepted,  and  with  the  Sachems  and  Warriors  of  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  Chippewa,  Patti- 
watima,  and  Sac  nations,  inhabiting  pai-ts  of  the  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  appear  to  have  been  negotiated  by 
the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory,  so  as  to  unite  the  interests  of  the  United  States  with  the  justice  due  the  said 
Indian  nations. 

That  the  reservation  in  the  treaty  Avith  the  Six  Nations,  of  six  miles  square,  round  the  fort  at  Oswego,  is  within 
the  territory  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  ought  to  be  so  explained  as  to  render  it  conformable  to  the  constitution 
of  the  United  States. 

That,  if  this  explanation  should  be  made,  and  the  Senate  of  the  United  States  should  concur  in  their  approbation 
of  the  said  treaties,  it  miglit  be  proper  that  the  same  should  be  ratified,  and  published,  with  a  proclamation  enjoining 
an  observance  thereof. 

All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

H.  KNOX. 
War  Office,  May  25d.  1789. 

No.  1. 

Speech  of  the  United  Indian  Nations,  at  their  Confederate  Council,  held  near  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  river,  the 

28th  November  and  \Sth  December,  1786. 

Present — The  Five  Nations,  the  Hurons,  Delawares,  Shawanese,  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Powtewattimies,  Twich- 

twees,  Cherokees,  and  the  Wabash  confederates. 

To  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  of  America: 

Brethren  of  the  United  States  of  America:  It  is  now  more  than  three  years  since  peace  was  made  between 
the  King  of  Great  Britain  and  you,  but  we,  the  Indians,  were  disappointed,  finding  ourselves  not  included  in  that 
peace,  according  to  our  expectations:  for  we  thought  that  its  conclusion  would  have  promoted  a  friendship  between 
the  United  States  and  Indians,  and  that  we  might  enjoy  that  happiness  that  formerly  subsisted  between  us  and  our 
elder  brethren.  We  have  received  two  very  agreeable  messages  from  the  thirteen  United  States.  We  also  received 
a  message  from  the  King,  whose  war  we  were  engaged  in.  desiring  us  to  remain  quiet,  which  we  accordingly  complied 
with.  During  the  time  of  this  tranquillity,  we  were  deliberating  the  best  method  we  could  to  form  a  lasting  recon- 
ciliation witli  the  thirteen  United  States.  Pleased  at  the  same  time,  we  thought  we  were  entering  upon  a  reconcili- 
ation and  friendship  with  a  set  of  people  born  on  the  same  continent  with  ourselves,  certain  that  the  quarrel  between 
us  was  not  of  our  own  making.  In  the  course  of  our  councils,  we  imagined  we  hit  upon  an  expedient  that  would 
promote  a  lasting  peace  between  us. 

Brothers:  V\  e  still  are  of  the  same  opinion  as  to  the  means  which  may  tend  to  reconcile  us  to  each  other;  and 
we  are  sorry  to  find,  although  we  had  the  best  thoughts  in  our  minds,  during  the  beforementioned  period,  mischief 
has,  nevertnless,  happened  between  you  and  us.  We  are  still  anxious  of  putting  our  plan  of  accommodation  into 
execution,  and  we  shall  briefly  inform  you  of  the  means  that  seem  most  probable  to  us  of  effecting  a  firm  and  lasting 
peace  and  reconciliation:  the  first  step  towards  which  should,  in  our  opinion,  be,  that  all  treaties  carried  on  with  the 
United  States,  on  our  parts,  should  be  with  the  general  voice  of  the  whole  confederacy,  and  carried  on  in  the  most 
open  manner,  Avithout  any  restraint  on  either  side;  and  especially  as  landed  matters  are  often  the  subject  of  our  coun- 
cils with  you,  a  matter  ot  the  greatest  importance  and  of  general  concern  to  us,  in  this  case  we  hold  it  indispensably 
necessary  that  any  cession  of  our  lands  should  be  made  in  the  most  public  manner,  and  by  the  united  voice  of  the 
confederacy;  holding  all  partial  treaties  as  void  and  of  no  effect. 


Brothers:  We  tliink  it  is  owing  to  you  that  the  tranquillity  which,  since  the  peace  between  us,  has  not  lasted, 
and  that  that  essential  good  has  been  followed  by  niischiet  and  confusion,  having  managed  every  thing  respecting  us 
your  own  way;.  You  kindled  your  council  fires  where  you  thought  proper,  without  consulting  us,  at  which  you  held 
separate  treaties,  and  have  entirely  neglected  our  plan  of  having  a  general  conference  with  the  different  nations  of 
the  confederacj^.  Had  this  happened,  we  have  reason  to  believe  every  thing  would  now  have  been  settled  between  ] 
us  in  a  most  fnendly  manner.  We  did  every  thing  in  our  power,  at  the  treaty  of  fort  Stanwix,  to  induce  you  to 
follow  this  plan,  as  our  real  intentions  were,  at  that  very  time,  to  promote  peace  and  concord  between  us,  and  that 
■we  might  look  upon  each  other  as  friends,  having  given  you  no  cause  or  provocation  to  be  otherwise. 

Brothers:  Notwithstanding  the  mischief  that  has  happened,  we  are  still  sincere  in  our  wishes  to  have  peace  and 
tranquillity  established  between  us,  earnestly  hoping  to  find  the  same  inclination  in  you.  We  wish,  therefore,  you 
would  take  it  into  serious  consideration,  and  let  us  speak  to  you  in  the  manner  we  proposed.  Let  us  have  a  treaty 
with  you  early  in  the  spring:  let  us  pursue  reasonable  steps;  let  us  meet  half  ways,  for  our  mutual  convenience;  we 
shall  then  bring  in  oblivion  the  misfortunes  that  have  happened,  and  meet  each  other  on  a  footing  of  friendship. 

Brothers:  We  say  let  us  meet  halfway,  and  let  us  pursue  such  steps  as  become  upright  and  honest  men.  We 
beg  that  you  will  prevent  your  surveyors  and  other  people  from  coming  upon  our  side  the  Ohi(>  river.  We  have 
told  you  before,  we  wished  to  pursue  just  steps,  and  we  are  determined  they  shall  appear  just  and  reasonable  in  the 
eyes  of  the  world.  This  is  the  determination -of  all  the  chiefs  of  our  confederacy  now  assembled  here,  notwithstand- 
ing the  accidents  that  have  happened  in  our  villages,  even  when  in  council,  where  several  innocent  chiefs  were  killed 
when  absolutely  engaged  in  promoting  a  peace  with  you,  the  thirteen  United  States. 

Although  then  interrupted,  the  chiefs  here  present  still  wish  to  meet  you  in  the  spring,  for  the  beforementioned 
good  purpose,  when  we  hope  to  speak  to  each  other  without  either  haughtiness  or  menaces. 

Brothers:  We  again  request  of  you,  in  the  most  earnest  manner,  to  order  your  surveyors  and  others,  thatmark 
out  lands,  to  cease  from  crossing  the  Ohio,  until  we  sliall  have  spoken  to  you,  because  the  mischief  that  has  recently 
happened  has  originated  in  that  quarter;  we  shall  likewise  prevent  our  people  from  going  over  until  that  time. 

Brothers:  it  shall  not  be  our  faults  if  the  plans  which  we  have  suggested  to  you  should  not  be  carried  into  exe- 
cution; in  that  case  the  event  will  be  very  precarious,  and  if  fresh  ruptures  ensue,  we  hope  to  be  able  to  exculpate 
ourselves,  and  shall  most  assuredly,  with  our  united  force,  be  obliged  to  defend  those  rights  and  privileges  which 
have  been  transmitted  to  us  by  our  ancestors;  and  if  we  should  be  thereby  reduced  to  misfortunes,  the  world  will  pity  us 
when  they  think  of  the  amicable  proposals  we  now  inake  to  prevent  the  unnecessary  effusion  of  blood.  These  are 
our  thoughts  and  firm  resolves,  and  we  earnestly  desire  that  you  will  transmit  to  us,  as  soon  as  possible,  your  answer, 
be  it  what  it  may. 
Done  at  our  Confederated  Council  Fire,  at  the  Huron  \illage,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  river,  December 
18th,  1786. 

The  Five  Nations, 

Hurons,  Ottawas,  Tuichtivees,  Shawanese, 
Chippewas,  Clierokees,  Belawares, 
Powtewatimies,  The  H'abash  Confederates. 

No.  2. 

October  26th,  1787. 

Instructions  to  the  Governor  of  the  Territory  of  the  United  States  Northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  relative  to  an 

Indian  treaty  in  the  Northern  Department. 

You  are  carefully  to  examine  into  the  real  temper  of  the  Indian  tribes,  inhabiting  the  Northern  Indian  De- 
partment of  the  United  States.  If  you  find  it  hostile,  and  that  the  welfare  of  the  frontiers,  and  the  settlements 
forming  in  that  country,  demand  a  treaty,  you  will  then,  in  conjunction  with  the  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs 
for  the  Northern  Department,  unless  the  attendance  of  the  said  superintendent  shall  be  prevented,  by  any  unfore- 
seen event,  hold  as  general  a  one  as  you  can,  with  all  the  tribes. 

The  primary  objects  of  the  treaty  are,  the  removing  all  causes  of  controversy,  so  that  peace  and  harmony  may 
continue  between  the  United  States  and  the  Indian  tribes,  the  regulating  trade,  and  settling  boundaries.  For  these 
pu™)ses,  you  will  do  every  thing  that  is  right  and  proper. 

The  treaties  which  have  been  made,  may  be  examined,  but  must  not  be  departed  from,  unless  a  change  of  boun- 
dary, beneficial  to  the  United  States,  can  be  obtained. 

Although  the  purchase  of  the  Indian  right  of  soil  is  not  a  primary  object  of  holding  this  treaty,  yet  you  will  not 
neglect  any  opportunity  that  may  offer,  of  extinguishing  the  Indian  rights  to  the  westward,  as  far  as  the  river  Mis- 

You  may  stipulate,  that  the  East  and  West  line  ordered  to  be  run  by  the  ordinance  of  the  20th  of  May,  1785, 
shall  be  the  boundary  between  the  United  States  and  the  Indian  tribes:  provided,  they  stipulate  that  it  shall  run 
throughout,  unto  the  river  Mississippi.  And  you  may  stipulate,  that  any  white  persons  going  over  the  said  boundary, 
without  a  licence  from  the  proper  officer  of  the  United  States,  may  be  treated  in  such  manner  as  the  Indians  shall 
think  propel'. 

You  will  use  every  possible  endeavor  to  ascertain  who  are  the  real  head  men  and  warriors  of  tlie  several  tribes, 
and  who  have  the  greatest  influence  among  them;  these  men  you  will  attach  to  tiie  United  States,  by  every  means 
in  your  power. 

Every  exertion  must  be  made  to  defeat  all  confederations  and  combinations  among  the  tribes,  and  to  conciliate 
the  white  people  inhabiting  the  frontiers,  towards  them. 

CHARLES  THOMSON,  Secretary. 

July  2d,  1788. 

Mditionul  instructions  to  the  Governor  of  the  Territory  of  the  United  States  Northwest  of  the  river  Ohio,  relative 
to  the  treaty  to  be  held  with  the  ff  estern  Indians,  in  pursuance  of  the  resolutions  of  Congress,  passed  in 
October  last. 


A.n  additional  suni  of  twenty  thousand  dollars  has  been  appropriated  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  a  permanent 
peace  with  the  Indian  tribes,  with  which  you  are  authorized  to  holcl  a  treaty.  This  sum,  and  six  thousand  dollars 
out  of  the  fourteen  thousand  heretofore  appropriated  for  holding  the  said  treaty,  are  particularly  directed  to  be  ap- 

Flied  solely  to  the  purpose  of  obtaining  a  boundary  advantageous  to  the  United  States,  between  them  and  the  said 
ndian  tribes,  and  for  further  extinguishing  by  purchase  Indian  titles,  in  case  it  can  be  done  on  terms  beneficial  to 
.  the  Union. 

But  it  is  not  expected  that  any  further  purchases  of  lands  will  be  made  unless  on  terms  evidently  advantageous  to 
the  United  States,  or  that  any  part  of  the  said  additional  sum  will  be  expended,  but  in  cases  apparently  necessary. 
In  fixing  a  boundary  between  the  United  States  and  the  Indian  tribes,  instead  of  the  East  and  West  line  men- 
tioned in  your  instructions,  you  will  endeavor  to  establish  an  east  and  west  line  as  far  north  as  the  completion 
of  the  forty  first  degree  of  north  latitude. 

In  your  negotiations  witli  the  Indians,  you  will  make  immediate  payments,  so  far  as  you  shall  have  moneys  in 
hand;  but,  in  case  you  shall  find  it  necessary  to  engage  any  considerable  part  of  the  said  additional  sum,  you  are  to 
stipulate,  that  the  payments  thereof  be  made  in  two  or  three  equal  annual  instalments,  the  first  to  be  as  late  in  the 
year  1789,  as  can  be  obtained. 

CHARLES  THOMSON,  Secretary. 

10  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

TTie  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

New  York,  May  2d,  1788.  "* 

Sir:  .  ,  . 

I  have  the  honor  to  lay  betore  you  the  treaties  concluded,  in  pursuance  of  the  instructions  received  from  Congress 
on  the  twenty  sixth  of  October,  1787,  and  second  of  July,  1788,  with  several  of  the  Indian  nations,  in  Januarylast. 
That  they  were  not  presented  at  an  earlier  period,  was  owing,  in  part,  to  my  own  indisposition;  to  the  severity  of  the 
winter,  which  rendered  the  communication  by  the  Ohio,  for  a  long  time  impracticable;  and  to  the  circumstance  that 
the  last  Congress  did  not  assemble  after  it  was  in  my  power  to  have  sent  them  forvyard. 

With  the  treaties,  I  beg  leave  to  submit  the  minutes  of  the  proceedings  at  the  diflerent  meetings,  after  the  nations 
were  assembled,  and  I  have  added  to  them,  by  way  of  appendix,  all  the  letters  and  messages  that  passed  between 
them  and  me  prior  to  their  assembling.  These  were  communicated  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  from  time  to  time,  and 
though  they  will,  no  doubt,  be  submitted  by  him  to  your  consideration,  I  thought  it  best,  as  they  form  a  considerable 
part  of  the  transactions,  to  connect  them  in  that  way,  that  the  whole  might  be  seen  together. 

By  the  instruction  of  July  the  second.  I  was  directed  to  endeavor  at  extending  the  northern  boundary,  as  far 
north  as  the  completion  of  the  forty  first  degree  of  north  latitude.  Besides  that  it  would  have  been  extremely 
difficult  to  have  made  the  Indians  comprehend  how  that  was  to  be  ascertained,  I  found  that  any  attempt  to  extend 
the  limits  at  that  time,  would  be  verv  ill  received,  if  not  defeat  entirely  the  settling  a  peace  with  them;  it  was 
therefore  not  proposed,  and  the  boundaries  remain  as  settled  at  the  former  treaties,  except  the  rectifying  an  error 
about  the  portage  at  the  Miami  village. 

The  negotiation  was  both  tedious  and  troublesome,  and  for  a  long  time  had  an  unpromising  aspect,  but  it  came 
at  last  to  as  favorable  an  issue  as  could  have  been  expected;  and  I  trust  will  be  attended  with  consequences  friendly  to 
the  frontier  parts  of  the  United  States.  There  are,  however,  several  nations  on  the  Wabash,  and  the  rivers  which  empty 
themselves  mto  it,  that  are  ill  disposed,  and  from  whom  there  is  reason  to  expect,  that  a  part  of  the  frontier  of  Vir- 
ginia, and  the  settlement  forming  on  the  Miami,  will  meet  annoyance;  indeed,  that  they  have  not  been  disturbed 
during  the  winter  was  not  expected,  either  by  me  or  the  cliiefs  of  the  nations,  who  met  me  at  fort  Harmar.  The 
Wyandots  did  appoint  persons  to  go  to  them,  and  inform  them  of  the  result  of  the  treaty,  and  insist  upon  their  de- 
sisting from  further  hostilities,  which  may  have  had  some  effect  in  producing  the  late. tranquillity. 

The  claim  of  the  Wyandot  nation  to  the  lands  reserved  to  the  Shawanese,  was  strongly  insisted  upon  by  them, 
and  to  be  made  an  article  of  the  treaty — to  tliat  I  could  not  consent;  but,  to  satisfy  them,  and  that  it  might  be  kept 
in  remembrance,  it  is  inserted  at  the  bottom  of  it,  by  way  of  memorandum.  It  seems  this  is  a  claim  that  nas  always 
been  held  up,  and  the  reason  it  was  so  much  insisted  on  at  this  time,  they  said,  was,  that  thev  were  sure  that  the 
Shawanese,  and  Cherokees  incorporated  with  them,  would  continue  to  give  us  trouble;  tnat  it  could  not  be 
expected  to  be  borne  with  much  longer;  that  they  would  be  driven  out  of  the  country,  and  then  it  would  be  claimed 
and  held  by  the  United  States,  by  right  of  conquest;  they  farther  added,  that,  if  the  Shawanese  continued  their 
depredations,  they  would  themselves  drive  them  oft'.  They  also  proposed  that  a  post  should  be  taken  by  the  United 
States,  at  the  Miami  village,  as  the  surest  means  to  overawe  the  nations  on  the  Wabash.  It  is  certainly  well 
situated  for  that  purpose,  and  would  command  the  greatest  part  of  tlie  Indian  trade.  As  it  was  very  uncertain  whe- 
ther Congress  might  approve  of  such  a  measure,  as  a  post  so  far  inland,  would  with  difficulty  be  supported,  and 
were  in  no  readiness  to  carry  it  into  execution,  ifit  should  be  approved.  I  desired  them  to  consider  well,  whether  it 
could  be  done  without  a  contest  with  the  Indians  who  live  there;  ana  whether,  in  that  case,  there  was  not  danger 
of  they  themselves  being  involved,  through  the  ungovernableness  of  their  young  men.  They  acknowledged 
they  thought  there  was  danger  of  both,  but  promised  to  send  some  of  their  principal  men  to  the  Miamies,  and  pre- 
pare them  for  receiving  a  garrison  peaceably,  and  are  to  give  me  notice  in  the  spring. 

The  reason  why  tlie  treaties  were  made  separately  with  the  Six  Nations  and  the  Wyandots,  and  more  westerly 
tribes,  was,  a  jealousy  that  subsisted  between  them,  which  I  was  not  willing  to  lessen,  by  appearing  to  consider 
them  as  one  people — they  do  not  so  consider  themselves;  and  I  am  persuaded  their  general  confederacy  is  entirely 
broken:  indeed,  it  would  not  be  verj  difficult,  if  circumstances  required  it,  to  set  them  at  deadly  variance. 

The  great  length  of  time  that  elapsed  between  the  appointed  period  for  the  meeting,  and  that  at  which  the  Indians 
assembled,  during  which,  numbers  of  them  were  constantly  going  and  coming,  has  increased  the  expense  in  the 
article  of  provisions  considerably;  the  utmost  possible  ec(momy,  however,  was  used  through  the  whole  of  the  busi- 
ness, and,  in  transacting  it,  I  flatter  myself  witn  meeting  the  approbation  of  Congi-ess. 

With  the  utmost  respect,  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c. 

The  President  of  the  United  States. 

[The  three  following  are  the  treaties  first  referred  to  in  the  report  of  the  Secretary  of  Wan] 

Articles  of  a  Treaty  concluded  at  fort  Stanwix,07i  the  twenty-second  day  of  October,  one  thousand  seven  hundred 
and  eighty-four,  between  Oliver  TFolcolt,  Richard  Butler,  and  Arthur  Lee,  commissioners  plenipotentiary 
from  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  on  the  one  part,  and  the  sachems  and  ivarriors  of  the  Six 
Nations,  on  the  other. 

The  United  States  of  America  give  peace  to  the  Senecas,  Mohawks,  Onondagas,  and  Cayugas,  and  receive  them 
into  their  protection,  upon  the  following  conditions: 

Article  1.  Six  hostages  shall  be  immediately  delivered  to  the  commissioners  by  the  said  nations,  to  remain  in 
possession  of  the  United  States  till  all  the  prisoners,  white  and  black,  which  were  taken  by  the  said  Senecas,  Mo- 
hawks, Onondagas,  and  Cayugas,  or  by  any  of  them,  in  the  late  war,  from  among  the  people  of  the  United  States, 
shall  be  delivered  up. 

Art.  2.  The  Oneida  and  Tuscarora  nations  shall  be  secured  in  the  possession  of  the  lauds  on  which  they  are 
settled.  _  _ 

Art.  3.  A  line  shall  be  drawn,  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  a  creek  about  four  miles  east  of  Niagara,  called  Oyon- 
wayea,  or  Johnston's  Landing  Place,  upon  the  lake  named  by  the  Indians  Oswego,  and  Ontario;  from  thence 
southerly,  in  a  direction  always  four  miles  east  of  the  carrying  path,  between  lakes  Erie  and  Ontario,  to  the  mouth 
of  Tehoseroron,  or  Bui!alo  creek,  on  lake  Erie;  thence  south,  to  the  north  boundary  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania; 
thence  west,  to  the  end  of  the  said  north  boundary;  thence  south,  along  the  west  boundary  of  the  said  State,  to  the 
river  Ohio;  the  said  line,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Oyonwayea  to  the  Ohio,  shall  be  the  western  boundary  of  the  lands 
of  the  Six  Nations;  so  that  the  Six  Nations  shall  and  do  yield  to  the  United  States,  all  claims  to  the  country  west 
of  the  said  boundary;  and  then  they  shall  be  secured  in  the  peaceful  possession  of  the  lands  they  inhabit,  east  and 
north  of  the  same,  reserving  only  six  miles  square  round  the  fort  of  Oswego,  to  the  United  States,  for  the  support  of 
the  same.  ■  -    i     o- 

Art.  4.  The  commissioners  of  the  'United  States,  in  consideration  of  the  present  circumstances  of  the  Six 
Nations,  and  in  execution  of  the  humane  and  liberal  views  of  the  United  States,  upon  die  signing  of  the  above 
articles,  will  order  goods  to  be  delivered  to  tlie  said  Six  Nations,  for  their  use  and  comfort. 



[Signed  by  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Mohawk,  Onondaga,  Seneca,  Oneida,  Cayuga,  Tuscarora,  and 
Seneca  Abeal  tribes  of  Indians.] 

1789.]  SIX    NATIONS,   WYANDOTS.    AND  OTHERS.  '  Jj 

Articles  of  a  Treaty  concluded  at  fort  Mcintosh,  the  twenty-first  dayofJanum-y^  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
eighty-five,  betiveen  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  of  the  Lnited  States  of  America,  of  the  one  part,  and 
the  sachems  and  ivarriors  of  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Chippewa,  and  Ottawa  nations,  of  the  other. 

The  commissioners  plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  give  peace  to  the  Wyandot, 
Delaware,  Chippewa,  and  Ottawa  nations  of  Indians,  on  the  following  conditions: 

Article  1.  Three  chiefs,  one  from  among  the  Wyandot,  and  two  from  among  the  Delaware  nations,  shall  be 
delivered  up  to  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States,  to  be  by  them  retained  till  all  the  prisoners,  whiteand  black, 
taken  by  the  said  nations,  or  any  of  them,  shall  be  restored. 

Art.  2.  The  said  Indian  nations  do  acknowledge  themselves  and  all  their  tribes  to  be  under  the  protection  of 
the  United  States,  and  of  no  other  sovereign  whatsoever. 

Art.  3.  The  boundary  line  between  the  United  States  and  the  Wyandot  and  Delaware  nations,  shall  benn  at 
the  mouth  of  the  river  Cayahoga,  and  run  thence,  up  the  said  river,  to  the  portage  between  that  and  the  Tuscarawas 
branch  of  Muskingum;  then  down  the  said  brancli  to  the  forks  at  the  crossing  place  above  fort  Lawrence;  then  west- 
erly to  the  portage  of  the  Big  Miami,  which  runs  into  the  Ohio,  at  the  mouth  of  which  branch  the  fort  stood,  which 
was  taken  by  the  French  in  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-two;  then  along  the  said  portage  to  the  Great 
Miami  or  Omie  river,  and  down  the  southeast  side  of  the  same  to  its  mouth;  thence,  along  the  south  shore  of  lake 
Erie,  to  the  mouth  of  Cayahoga,  where  it  began. 

Art.  4.  The  United  States  allot  all  the  lands  contained  within  the  said  lines  to  the  Wyandot  and  Delaware 
nations,  to  live  and  to  hunt  on,  and  to  such  of  the  Ottawa  nation  as  now  live  thereon;  saving  and  reserving  for  the 
establishment  of  trading  posts,  six  miles  square  at  the  mouth  of  Miami  or  Omie  river,  and  the  same  at  the  portage  on 
that  branch  of  the  Big  Miami  which  runs  into  the  Ohio,  and  the  same  on  the  lake  of  Sandusky,  where  the  fort  for- 
merly stood,  and  also  two  miles  square  on  each  side  of  the  lower  rapids  of  Sandusky  river,  which  posts,  and  the  lands 
annexed  to  them,  shall  be  to  the  use  and  under  the  government  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  5.  If  any  citizen  of  the  United  States,  or  other  person,  not  being  an  Indian,  shall  attempt  to  settle  on  any 
of  the  lands  allotted  to  the  Wyandot  and  Delaware  nations  in  this  treaty,  except  on  the  lands  reserved  to  the  United 
States  in  the  preceding  article,  such  person  shall  forfeit  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Indians  may 
punish  him  as^  they  please. 

Art.  6.  '  " 
the  lands  eas 
the  same,  to  1 

Art.  7.  The  post  of  Detroit,  with  a  district,  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Rosine,  on  the  west  end  of  lake 
Erie,  and  running  west  six  miles  up  the  southern  bank  of  the  said  river,  thence  northerly  and  always  six  miles  west 
of  the  strait,  till  it  strikes  the  lake  St.  Clair,  shall  be  also  reserved  to  the  sole  use  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  8.  In  the  same  manner,  the  post  ofMichilimackinac,  \rith  its  dependencies,  and  tweh'e  miles  square  about 
the  same,  shall  be  reser\'ed  to  the  use  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  9.  If  anj^  Indian  or  Indians  shall  commit  a  robbery  or  murder  on  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  the  tribe 

to  which  such  offenders  may  belong,  shall  be  bound  to  deliver  them  up  at  the  nearest  post,  to  be  punished 'according- 

to  the  ordinances  of  the  United  States.  * 

Art.  10.  The  commissioners  of  the  Unitetl  States,  in  pursuanceof  the  humane  and  liberal  views  of  Congress  upon 

this  treaty's  being  signed,  will  direct  goods  to  be  distributed  among  the  different  tribes  for  their  use  and  comfort 

separate  article. 

It  is  agreed  that  the  Delaware  chiefs,  Kelelamand,  or  Colonel  Heniy,  Hengue  Pushees,  or  the  Big  Cat  Wico- 
calind,  or  Captain  White  Eyes,  who  took  up  the  hatchet  for  the  United  States,  and  their  families,  shall  be  received 
into  the  Delaware  nation,  in  the  same  situation  and  rank  as  before  the  war,  and  enjoy  their  due  portions  of  the  lands 
given  to  the  Wyandot  and  Delaware  nations  in  this  treaty,  as  fully  as  if  they  had  not  taken  part  with  America  or 
as  any  other  person  or  persons  in  the  said  nations.  ' 


[Signed  by  the  sachems  and  wairiorsof  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Chippewa,  and  Ottawa  nations  of  Indians.  ] 

Articles  of  a  Treaty  concluded  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami,  on  the  northivestern  bank  of  the  Ohio,  the  thirty- 
first  day  of  January,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-six,  betiveen  the  commissioners  pknipotentiam  of 
the  United  States  of  America,  of  the  one  part,  and  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Shawanee  nation,  of  the  other 

Article  1.  Three  hostages  shall  be  immediately  delivered  to  the  commissioners,  to  remain  in  the  possession  of 
the  United  States  until  all  the  prisoners,  white  and  black,  taken  in  the  late  war,  from  among  the  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  by  the  Shawanee  nation,  or  by  any  other  Indian  or  Indians  residing  in  their  towns,  shall  be  restored. 
Art.  2.  The  Shawanee  nation  do  acknowledge  the  United  States  to  be  the  sole  and  absolute  sovereigns  of  all 
the  territory  ceded  to  them,  by  a  treaty  of  peace,  made  between  them  and  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  the  fourteenth 
day  of  January,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-four. 

punished  according  to  the  ordinances  of  Congress:  and,  in  like  manner,  any  citizen  of  the  United  States,  who  shall 
do  an  injury  to  any  Indian  of  the  Shawanee  nation,  or  to  any  other  Indian  or  Indians  residing  in  their  towns  and 
under  their  protection,  shall  be  punished  according  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States.  ' 

Art.  4.  The  Shawanee  nation,  having  knowledge  of  the  intention  of  any  nation  or  body  of  Indians  to  make  war 
on  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  or  ot  their  counselling  together  for  that  purpose,  and  neglecting  to  give  infor- 
mation thereof  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  nearest  post  of  the  United  States,  shall  be  considered  as  parties  in 
such  war,  and  be  punished  accoiilingly;  and  the  United  .States  shall,  in  like  manner,  inform  the  Shawanees  of  any 
injury  designed  against  them. 

Art.  5.  The  United  States  do  grant  peace  to  the  Shawanee  nation,  and  do  receive  them  into  their  friendship 
and  protection.  ' 

Art.  6.  The  United  States  do  allot  to  the  Shawanee  nation,  lands  within  their  territory,  to  live  and  hunt  upon 
beginning  at  the  south  line  of  the  lands  allotted  to  the  Wyandots  and  Delaware  nations,  at  the  place  where  the  main 
branch  of  the  Great  Miami,  which  falls  into  the  Ohio,  intersects  said  line;  then,  down  the  river  Miami,  to  the  fork 
of  that  river,  next  below  the  old  tort  which  was  taken  by  the  French  in  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-two- 
thence  due  west  to  the  river  De  la  Pause;  then,  down  that  river,  to  the  river  Wabash;  beyond  which  lines  none  of 
the  citizens  of  the  United  States  shall  settle,  nor  disturb  the  Shawanees  in  their  settlement  and  possessions  And 
the  Shawanees  do  relinquish  to  the  United  States,  all  title,  or  pretence  of  title,  they  ever  had  to  the  lands  east 
west,  and  south,  of  the  east,  west,  and  south  lines  before  described. 

12  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789, 

Art.  7.  If  any  citizen  or  citizens  of  the  United  States  shall  presume  to  settle  upon  the  lands  allotted  to  the 
Shawanees,  by  this  treaty,  he  or  they  shall  be  put  out  of  the  protection  of  the  United  States. 

In  testimony  whereof,  the  parties  hereunto  have  affixed  their  hands  and  seals,  the  day  and  year  first  above 


[Signed  by  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Shawanee  nation.] 

Ist  Congress.]  No.  2.  [1st Session. 



Gentlemen  of  the  Senate: 

The  business  which  has  hitherto  been  under  the  consideration  of  Congress,  has  been  of  so  much  importance, 
that  I  was  unwilling  to  draw  their  attention  from  it  to  any  other  subject.  But  the  disjjutes  which  exist  between  some 
of  the  United  States,  and  several  powerful  tribes  of  Indians  within  the  limits  of  the  LFnion;  and  the  hostilities  which 
have,  in  several  instances,  been  committed  on  tlie  frontiers,  seem  to  require  the  immediate  interposition  of  the 
General  Government. 

I  have,  therefore,  directed  the  several  statements  and  papers,  which  have  been  submitted  to  me  on  this  subject 
by  General  Knox,  to  be  laid  before  you  for  your  information. 

While  the  measures  of  Government  ought  to  be  calculated  to  protect  its  citizens  from  all  injury  and  violence,  a 
due  regard  should  be  extended  to  those  Indian  tribes  whose  happiness,  in  the  course  of  events,  so  materially  depends 
on  the  national  justice  and  humanity  of  the  United  States. 

If  it  should  be  the  judgment  of  Congress  that  it  would  be  most  expedient  to  terminate  all  differences  in  the 
Southern  district,  and  to  lay  the  foundation  for  future  confidence,  by  an  amicable  treaty  with  the  Indian  tribes  in 
that  quarter,  I  think  proper  to  suggest  the  consideration  of  the  exnediency  of  instituting  a  temporary  commission 
for  that  purpose,  to  consist  of  three  persons,  whose  authority  should  expire  with  the  occasion. 

How  far  such  a  measure,  unassisted  by  posts,  would  be  competent  to  the  establishment  and  preservation  of  peace 
and  tranquillity  on  the  frontiers,  is,  also,  a  matter  which  merits  your  serious  consideration. 

Along  with  this  object,  I  am  induced  to  suggest  another,  with  the  national  importance  and  necessity  of  which,  I 
am  deeply  impressed;  I  mean,  some  uniform  and  effective  system  for  the  militia  of  the  United  States.  It  is  unne- 
cessary to  offer  arguments  in  recommendation  of  a  measure,  on  which  the  honor,  safety,  and  well-being  of  our 
country  so  evidently  and  so  essentially  depend.  But,  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  observe,  that  I  am  particularly 
anxious  it  should  receive  as  early  attention  as  circumstances  will  admit,  because,  it  is  now  in  our  power  to  avail 
ourselves  of  the  military  knowledge  disseminated  throughout  the  several  States,by  means  of  the  many  well  instruct- 
ed officers  and  soldiers  of  the  late  army;  a  resource  which  is  daily  diminishing  by  deaths,  and  other  causes.  To 
suffer  this  peculiar  advantage  to  pass  away,  unimproved,  would  be,  to  neglect  an  opportunity  which  will  never 
again  occur,  unless,  unfortunately,  we  should  again  be  involved  in  a  long  and  arduous  war. 


New  York,  August  7,  1789. 

Report  from  Henry  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  relating  to  the  several  Indian 


War  Office,  June  15,  1789. 

The  time  it  will  require  to  complete  a  full  statement  of  the  Department  of  War,  induces  me  to  submit  to  your 
view,  in  a  series  of  numbers,  such  parts  thereof  as  seem  to  claim  an  immediate  attention. 

As  most  of  the  nations  of  Indians  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States  are,  at  present,  discontented,  and  some 
of  them  turbulent,  I  have  conceived  it  proper  to  commence,  by  a  statement  of  the  Indian  Department.  In  the  per- 
formance of  this  business,  I  have  not  barely  confined  myself  to  facts,  but  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  suggesting  such 
measures  as  appear  to  my  mind  to  be  necessary  for  the  happiness  and  reputation  of  the  public. 

By  the  ordinance  of  Congress  of  the  7th  August,  1786,  for  the  regulation  of  Indian  affairs,  which  is  herewith 
submitted,  the  department  is  divided  into  the  Northern  and  Southern  districts. 

The  report  on  the  treaties  of  fort  Harmar,  submitted  the  23d  of  May  last,  will  shew  the  situation  of  those 
tribes  with  whom  the  United  States  have  formed  treaties,  since  the  conclusion  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain. 

I  have  now  the  honor  to  transmit  a  paper.  No.  1,  relative  to  the  Wabash  Indians.  Were  the  subsisting  disor- 
ders with  those  Indians  quieted,  and  they  attached  to  the  interests  of  the  United  States,  it  is  not  probable  that  any 
further  troubles  with  the  more  distant  Indians  would  soon  arise. 

Number  2,  which  will  be  submitted  shortly,  will  shew  the  situation  of  the  Southern  Indians,  and  contain  some 
observations  on  the  difficulties  subsisting  between  them  and  the  frontier  people  of  the  States  of  Georgia  and  North 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c. 

H.  KNOX. 

The  President  of  the  United  States. 

No.  1. 

Report  from  H.  Knox,  Secretary  of  fVar,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States, 


War  Office,  June  \5th,  1789. 

By  information  from  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  the  commanding  officer  ot  the  troops  on  the  frontiers,  it 
appears  that  several  murders  have  been  lately  committed  on  tlie  inhabitants,  by  small  parties  of  Indians,  probably 
from  the  Wabash  country. 

1789.]  WABASH,  CREEKS,   AND   OTHERS.  I3 

Some  of  the  said  murders  ha%ing  been  perpetrated  on  the  South  side  of  the  Ohio,  the  inhabitants  on  the  waters  of 
that  river  are  exxeedingly  alarmed,  for  the  extent  of  six  or  seven  hundred  miles  along  the  same. 

It  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  United  States  have  not  formed  anj^  treaties  with  the  Wabash  Indians;  on  the  con- 
trary, since  the  conclusion  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain,  hostilities  have  almost  constantly  existed  between  the 
people  of  Kentucky  and  the  said  Indians.  The  injuries  and  murders  have  been  so  reciprocal,  that  it  would  be  a 
point  of  critical  investigation  to  know  on  which  side  they  have  been  the  greatest. 

Some  of  the  inhabitants  of  Kentucky,  during  the  year  past,  roused  Dy  recent  injuries,  made  an  incursion  into 
the  Wabash  country,  and,  possessing  an  equal  aversion  to  all  bearing  the  name  of  Indians,  they  destroyed  a  num- 
ber of  peaceable  Piankeshaws,  who  prided  themselves  in  their  attachment  to  the  United  States. 

Things  bein^  thus  circumstanced,  it  is  gi-eatly  to  be  apprehended  that  hostilities  may  be  so  far  extended  as  to 
involve  the  Indian  tribes  with  whom  the  United  States  have  recently  made  treaties.  It  is  well  known  how  strong 
die  passion  for  war  exists  in  the  mind  ot  a  young  savage,  and  how  easily  it  may  be  inilamed,  so  as  to  disregard  every 
precept  of  the  older  and  wiser  part  of  the  tribes  M'ho  may  have  a  more  just  opinion  of  the  force  of  a  treaty. 

Hence  it  results,  that,  unless  some  decisive  measures  are  immediately  adopted  to  terminate  those  mutual  hostili- 
ties, they  will  pi  obabiy  become  general  among  all  the  Indian^  northwest  of  the  Ohio. 

In  examining  the  question  how  the  disturbances  on  the  frontiers  are  to  be  quieted,  two  modes  present  themselves, 
by  which  the  object  might  perhaps  be  eiFected:  the  first  of  which  is  by  raising  an  army,  and  extirpating  the  refrac- 
tory tribes  entirely,  or  2dly  by  fjrming  treaties  of  peace  with  them,  in  which  their  rights  and  limits  should  be  expli- 
citly defined,  and  the  tieaties  observed  on  the  part  of  the  United  States  with  the  most  rigid  justice,  by  punishing 
the  whites,  who  should  violate  the  same. 

In  considering  the  first  mode,  an  inquiry  would  arise,  wliether,  under  the  existing  circumstances  of  aftairs,  the 
United  States  have  a  clear  right,  consistently  with  the  principles  of  justice  and  the  laws  of  nature,  to  proceed  to  the 
destruction  or  expulsion  of  the  savages,  on  the  Wabash,  supposing  the  force  for  that  object  easily  attainable. 

It  is  presumable,  that  a  nation  solicitous  of  establishing  its  cliaracter  on  the  broad  basis  of  justice,  would  not  only 
hesitate  at,  but  reject  every  proposition  io  benefit  itself,  by  the  injury  of  any  neighboring  community,  however  con- 
temptible and  weak  it  might  be,  either  wi(h  respect  to  its  manners  or  power. 

When  it  shall  be  considered  that  the  Indians  derive  their  subsistence  chiefly  by  hunting,  and  that,  according  to 
fixed  principles,  their  population  is  in  proportion  to  the  facility  with  which  they  procure  their  iood,  it  would  most 
probably  be  found  fliat  the  expulsion  or  destruction  of  the  Indian  tribes  have  nearly  the  same  effect:  for  if  they  are 
removed  from  their  usual  hunting  grounds,  they  must  necessarily  encroach  on  the  hunting  grounds  of  another  tribe, 
who  will  not  suffer  the  encroachment  with  impunity — hence  they  destroy  each  other. 

'     The  Indians  being  the  prior  occupants,  possess  the  right  of  tlie  soil.  It  cannot  be  taken  from  them  unless  by  their 
jfrce  consent,  or  by  the  right  of  conquest  in  case  of  a  just  war.     To  dispossess  them  on  any  other  principle,  would  be 
a  gross  violation  of  the  fundamental  laws  of  nature,  anil  of  that  distributive  justice  whicii  is  the  glory  of  a  nation. 

Butif  itshould  be  decided,  on  an  abstract  view  of  (he  question,  to  be  just,  to  remove  by  f(n-cefhe  Wabasji  Indians 
from  the  territory  they  occupy,  the  finances  of  the  United  States  would  not  at  present  admit  of  the  operation. 

By  the  best  and  latest  inlorination,  it  appeals  that,  on  the  AVabasli  and  its  communications,  there  are  from  1500 
to  2000  warriors.  An  expedition  against  them,  with  the  view  of  extirpating  them,  or  destroying  their  towns,  could  not 
be  undertaken  with  a  probability  ol'  success,  \\  ith  less  tiuin  an  army  of  2,500  men.  The  regular  troops  of  the  United 
States  on  the  fnuitiers,  are  less  than  six  hundred;  of  tint  iiumber.  not  more  than  four  hundred  could  be  collected 
from  the  posts  for  the  purpose  of  the  expedition.  To  raise,  pay,  feed,  arm,  and  equip  19(10  additional  men,  with 
their  necessary  ofticers  for  six  months,  and  to  provide  every  llung  in  the  hospital  and  quartermaster's  line,  would 
require  the  sum  of  200,000  doilajs;  a  sum  far  exceeding  the  ability  of  (he  fruited  States  to  advance,  c(»nsistentlv 
with  a  due  regard  to  otiier  indispensable  objects. 

Were  the  representations  of  the  people  of  the  frontiers  (wlm  iia>e  iinuibeil  the  strongest  prejudices  against  the 
Indians,  perhaps  in  consequence  of  the  murders  of  their  dearest  friends  and  connexions)  only  to  l)e  regarded,  tlie 
circumstances  before  stated,  would  not  a]ii)ear  conclusive — an  expedition,  however  inadequate,  must  be  lindertaken. 
But  when  (he  impartial  mind  of  (he  great  public  sits  in  judgment,  it  is  necessary  that  the  cause  of  the  ignorant 
Indians  should  be  heard  as  well  as  those  \vi»o  are  more  fortunately  circumstanced.  It  well  becomes  the  public  to 
inquire  before  it  punishes;  to  be  influenced  by  reason,  and  (he  nature  of  things,  and  not  by  its  resentments. 

It  would  be  tbund,  on  exainination,  (hat  both  pt)lic>  and  justice  unite  in  dictating  the  attempt  of  treating  with  the 
Wabash  Indians:  for  it  would  be  unjust,  in  the  present  confused  state  of  injuries,  to  make  war  on  those  tribes  without 
having  previously  invited  them  to  a  treaty,  in  order  amicably  (o  adjust  all  differences.  If  they  should  afterwards 
persist  in  their  depreilations,  the  United  States  may  with  propriety  inflict  such  punishment  as  they  shall  think  proper. 
But  at  present,  were  the  measure  just,  the  Union  could  not  command  an  army  for  coercion,  but  at  the  expense 
of  some  great  national  object. 

In  case  no  treaty  shoukl  be  held,  theevcnts  whicli  are  rising  in  rapid  succession  on  the  frontiers,  mu<st  be  suffered 
to  take  their  own  course.  Their  progress  and  issue  will  deeply  injure,  if  not  utterly  destroy,  the  interests  and 
government  of  the  United  States  in  the  Western  territory. 

The  estimates  of  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory  herewith  submitted,  will  shew,  that,  in  addition  to  the 
property  already  in  his.  possession,  a  treaty  with  the  Wjibasli  Indians  may  be  effected  for  the  sum  of  16,150  dollars. 

If  additional  territory  should  be  tlie  object,  it  would  require  t!ie  liirther  sum  of —.dollars. 

It  is,  hovi  ever,  to  be  remarked,  that  it  is  very  possible  that  this  sum  may  not  effect  the  object  intended.  It  can  be 
considered  only  as  an  experiment  dictated  by  a  regard  to  public  justice,  whicii  ought  in  all  cases  to  govern  the  con- 
duct of  a  nation. 

The  United  States  having  come  into  the  possession  of  sovereignty,  and  an  extensive  territory,  must  unavoidably 
be  subject  to  the  expenses  of  such  a  condition. 

The  time  has  arrived,  when  it  is  highly  expedient  that  a  liberal  system  of  justice  should  be  adopted  for  the  \-ari- 
ous  Indian  tribes  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States. 

By  having  recourse  to  the  several  Indian  treaties,  made  by  the  authority  of  Congress,  since  the  conclusion  of  the 
war  with  Great  Britain,  excepting  those  made  January  1789,  at  fort  Harniar,  it  would  appear,  that  Congress  were 
of  opinion,  that  the  Treaty  of  Peace,  of  1783,  absolutely  invested  them  with  the  fee  of  all  the  !,ndian  laiids  within 
the  limits  of  the  United  States;  that  they  had  the  right  to  assign,  or  retain  such  portions  as  they  should  jud^e 

But  it  is  manifest,  from  the  representations  of  the  confederated  Indians  at  the  Huron  village,  in  December  1786 
that  they  entertained  a  different  opinion,  and  that  they  were  the  only  rightful  proprietors  of  (he  soil;  and  it  appears 
Ijy  the  resolve  of  the  Sd  of  July,  1788,  that  Congress  so  far  conformed  to  the  idea,  as  to  appropriate  a  sum  of  money 
solely  to  the  purpose  (jf  extinguishing  the  Indian  claims  to  lands  they  had  cetled  to  the  United  States,  and  for  obtain- 
ing regular  conveyances  of  the  same.  This  object  was  accordingly  accomplished  at  the  treaty  of  fort  Harmar  in 
January,  1789. 

The  principle  of  the  Indian  right  to  the  lands  they  possess  being  thus  conceded^    the  dignity  and  interest  of  the 
nation  will  be  advanced  by  making  it  the  basis  of  the  future  administration  of  justice  towards  the  Indian  tribes. 
The  whole  number  of  Indian  warriors  south  of  the  Ohio,  and  east  of  the  Mississippi,  may  be  estimated  at  14  000. 
Those  to  the  northward  of  the  Ohio,  and  to  the  southward  of  the  lakes,  at  about  5,000.     In  addition  to  these  the 
old  men,  women,  and  children,  may  be  estimated  at  three  for  one  warrior,  the  whole  amounting  (o  76,000  souls.' 

It  is  highly  probable,  that,  by  a  conciliatory  system,  the  expense  of  managing  the  said  Indians,  and  attaching  them 
to  the  United  States  for  the  next  ensuing  period  of  fifty  years,  may,  on  an  average,  cost  15,000  dollars  annually. 

A  system  of  coercion  and  oppression,  pursued  from  time  to  time,  for  the  same  period,  as  (he  convenience  of  "the 
United  States  might  dictate,  would  probably  amount  to  a  much  greater  sum  of  money;  but  the  blood  and  injustice 
which  would  stain  (he  character  of  the  nation,  would  be  beyond  all  pecuniary  calculation. 

As  the  settlements  of  the  whites  shall  approach  near  to  the  Indian  boundaries  established  by  treaties   the  "ame 
will  be  diminished,  and  the  lands  being  valuable  to  the  Indians  only  as  hunting  grounds,  they  will  be  wilfin"  to  sell 
3  •  ** 

14  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

further  tracts  for  small  considerations.  By  the  expiration,  therefore,  of  the  above  period,  it  is  most  probable  that  the 
Indians  will,  by  the  invariable  operation  of  the  causes  which  have  hitherto  existed  in  their  intercourse  with  the 
whites,  be  reduced  to  a  very  small  number. 

These  general  reflections  have  arisen  on  considering  the  particular  case  of  the  Wabash  Indians,  respecting  whom 
one  observation  more  may  be  added. 

The  United  States  must  soon  possess  the  posts  within  their  limits  on  the  lakes.  .This  circumstanse  will  either 
awe  the  Wabash  Indians,  or,  in  case  of  their  continuing  refractory,  enable  the  Union  to  operate  against  them  with 
a  much  greater  prospect  of  success  than  at  present. 

All  which  is  numbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

H.  KNOX. 

By  the  United  States,  in  Congress  Assembled. — August7,  1786- 

An  Ordinance  for  the  regtdation  of  Indian  Affairs. 

Whereas  the  safety  and  tranquillity  of  the  frontiers  of  the  United  States  do,  in  some  measure,  depend  on  the 
maintaining  a  good  correspondence  between  their  citizens  and  the  several  nations  of  Indians  in  amity  with  them: 
And  whereas  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  under  the  ninth  of  the  articles  of  confederation  and  perpetual 
union,  have  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  and  power  of  regulating  the  trade,  and  managing  all  affairs  with  the  Indians 
not  members  of  any  of  the  States;  provided  that  the  legislative  right  of  any  State  within  its  own  limits  be  not 
infringed  or  violated:  . 

Be  it  ordained  by  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled.  That,  from  and  after  the  passing  of  this  oramance, 
the  Indian  department  be  divided  into  two  districts,  viz.  The  southern,  which  shall  comprehend  within  its  limits 
all  the  nations  in  the  territory  of  the  United  States  who  reside  southward  of  the  river  Ohio;  and  the  northern, 
which  shall  comprehend  all  the  other  Indian  nations  within  the  said  territory,  and  westward  of  Hudson  river: 
Provided,  That  all  councils,  treaties,  communications,  and  ofiicial  transactions,  between  the  superintendent  hereafter 
mentioned  for  the  northern  district  and  the  Indian  nations,  be  held,  transacted,  and  done,  at  the  outpost  occupied  by 
the  troops  of  the  United  States  in  the  said  district.  That  a  superintendent  be  appointed  for  each  of  the  said  districts, 
who  shall  continue  in  oflice  for  two  years,  unless  sooner  removed  by  Congress,  and  shall  reside  within,  or  as  near 
the  district  for  which  he  shall  be  so  appointed,  as  may  be  convenient  for  the  management  of  its  concerns.  The  said 
superintendents  shall  attend  to  the  execution  of  such  regulations  as  Congress  shall  from  time  to  time  establish, 
respecting  Indian  affairs.  The  superintendent  for  the  northern  district  shall  have  authority  to  appoint  two  deputies, 
to  reside  in  such  places  as  shall  best  facilitate  the  regulations  of  the  Indian  trade,  and  to  remove  them  for  misbe- 
havior. There  shall  be  a  communication  of  all  matters  relative  to  the  business  ot  the  Indian  department,  kept  up 
between  the  said  superintendents,  who  shall  regularly  correspond  with  the  Secretary  of  War,  through  whom  all  com- 
munications, respecting  the  Indian  department,  shall  be  made  to  Congress;  and  the  superintendents  are  hereby 
directed  to  obey  all  instructions  which  they  shall  from  time  to  time  receive  from  the  said  Secretary  of  War.  And 
whenever  they  shall  have  reason  to  suspect  any  tribe  or  tribes  of  Indians  of  hostile  intentions,  they  shall  communi- 
cate the  same  to  the  Executive  of  the  State  or  States  whose  territories  are  subject  to  the  effect  of  such  hostilities. 
All  stores,  provisions,  or  other  property,  which  Congress  may  think  necessary  for  presents  to  the  Indians,  shall  be 
in  the  custody  and  under  the  care  of  the  said  superintendents,  who  shall  render  an  annual  account  of  the  expendi- 
tures of  the  same  to  the  board  of  treasury. 

And  be  it  further  ordained,  Tliat  none  but  citizens  of  the  United  States  shall  be  suffered  to  reside  amon^  the 
Indian  nations,  or  be  allowed  to  trade  with  any  nation  of  Indians  within  the  territory  of  tlie  United  States.  That 
no  person,  citizen  or  other,  under  the  penalty  of  five  hundred  dollars,  shall  reside  among,  or  trade  with  any  Indian, 
or  Indian  nation,  within  the  territory  of  the  United  States,  without  a  licence  for  that  purpose  first  obtained  from  the 
superintendent  of  the  district,  or  one  of  the  deputies,  who  are  hereby  directed  to  give  such  licence  to  every  person 
who  shall  produce  from  the  supreme  Executive  of  any  State,  a  certificate,  under  the  seal  of  the  State,  that  he  is  of 
"ood  character,  and  suitably  qualified  and  provided  tor  that  employment,  for  which  licence  he  shall  pay  the  sum  of 
Ifty  dollars  to  the  said  superintendent,  for  the  use  of  the  United  States.  That  no  licence  to  trade  with  the  Indians 
shall  be  in  force  for  a  longer  term  than  one  year;  nor  shall  permits  or  passports  be  granted  to  any  other  persons  than 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  to  travel  through  the  Indian  nations,  without  their  having  previously  made  tlieir  business 
known  to  the  superintendent  of  the  district,  and  received  his  special  approbation.  That,  previous  to  any  person  or 
persons  obtaining  a  licenc*;  to  tiade  as  aforesaid,  he,  or  they,  shall  give  bond  in  three  thousand  dollars  to  the  superin- 
tendent of  the  district,  for  tke  use  of  the  United  States,  for  his  or  their  strict  adherence  to,  and  observance  of,  such 
rules  and  regulations  as  Congi^ss  may  from  time  to  time  establish  for  the  government  of  the  Indian  trade.  All  sums 
to  be  received  by  the  said  superintendents,  either  for  licences  or  fines,  shall  be  annually  accounted  for  by  them  witli 
the  board  of  treasury. 

or : 

and  fmthfuiiy  serv'e'^the  United  States  in  tTie  office  of  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  lor  the district;  that  I 

will  carefully  attend  to  all  such  orders  and  instructions  as  I  shall  from  time  to  time  receive  from  the  United  States, 
in  Congress  assembled,  or  tlie  Secretary  of  War;  that  I  will  not  be  concerned,  either  directly  or  indirectly,  in 
trade  with  the  Indians;  and  that,  in  all  things  belonging  to  my  said  oflice,  during  my  continuance  therein,  I  will 
faithfully,  justly,  and  truly,  according  to  the  best  of  my  skill  and  judgment,  do  equal  and  impartial  justice,  without 
fraud,  favor,  or  affection."    And  the  superintendent  for  the  northern  district  shall  administer  to  his  deputies,  the 
following  oath,  before  they  proceed  on  the  duties  of  their  oflice:   '"  I,  A  B,  do  swear,  that  I  will  well  and  faithfully 
serve  the  United  States,  in  the  office  of  deputy  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  in  the  northern  district;  that  I  will 
carefully  attend  to  all  such  orders  and  instructions  as  I  shall  from  time  to  time  receive  from  the  United  States,  in 
Congress  assembled,  the  Secretary  of  War,  or  the  superintendent  of  the  district  aforesaid;  and  that  in  all  things 
belonging  to  my  said  oflice,  during  my  continuance  therein,  I  \rill  faithfully,  justly,  and  truly,  according  to  the  best 
of  my  skdl  and  judgment,  do  equal  and  impartial  justice,  without  fraud,  favor,  or  affection."    A.nd  the  said  superin- 
tendents, and  deputy  superintendents,  shall,  each  of  them,  give  bond,  with  surety,  to  the  board  of  treasury,  in  trust 
for  the  tf nited  States;  the  superintendents,  each,  in  the  sum  of  six  thousand  dollars,  and  the  deputy  superintendents, 
each,  in  the  sum  of  three  thousand  dollars,  for  the  faithful  discharge  of  the  duties  of  their  office. 

And  it  is  further  ordained.  That  all  fines  and  forfeitures,  which  may  be  incurred  by  contravening  this  ordinance, 
shall  be  sued  for,  and  recovered  before  any  court  of  record  within  the  United  States,  the  one  moiety  thereof  to  the 
use  of  him  or  them,  who  may  prosecute  therefor,  and  the  other  moiety  to  the  use  of  the  United  States.  And  the 
said  superintendents  shall  have  power,  and  hereby  are  authorized,  by  force,  to  restrain  therefrom,  all  persons  who 
shall  attempt  an  intercourse  with  the  said  Indians,  without  a  licence  therefor,  obtained  as  aforesaid. 

And  be  it  further  ordained,  That  in  all  cases  where  transactions  with  any  nation  or  tribe  of  Indians  shall  become 
necessary  to  the  purposes  of  this  ordinance,  which  cannot  be  done  without  interfering  with  the  legislative  rights  of 
a  State,  the  superintendent  in  whose  district  the  same  shall  happen,  shall  act  in  conjunction  with  the  authority 
of  such  State. 

Done,  &c. 

CHAS.  THOMSON,  Secretary. 

1789.]  THE  CREEKS  AND  OTHERS.  I5 

New  York,  June  14,  1789. 

I  have  been  honored  with  your  letter  of  the  12th,  and,  in  reply,  have  to  observe,  that,  by  the  resolution  of 
Congress,  of  the  29th  of  August,  1788,  I  was  directed  to  repair  to  the  Mississippi,  in  order  to  hold  a  treaty  with 
the  Indians,  who  inhabit  the  country  upon  that  river,  for  the  extinguishing  their  claims  to  lands,  within  certain 
limits,  if  any  such  claims  existed,  and  to  lay  out  certain  donations  of  land  to  the  ancient  inhabitants.  From  thence, 
1  was  to  proceed  to  Post  St.  Vincennes,  upon  the  Wabash,  and  lay  out  like  donations  for  the  inhabitants  there;  but 
the  instructions  contained  no  directions  to  make  any  purchase  about  the  post,  from  a  presumption,  I  suppose,  that 
a  cession  had  been  made  there  to  tlie  crown  of  France.  With  the  remainder  of  the  goods  from  former  treaties,  and 
the  warrants  I  have  received  from  the  board  of  treasury,  there  is  sufficient,  I  suppose,  in  my  hands,  to  defray  the 
expense  of  the  treaty  with  the  Mississippi  Indians,  exclusivt  of  the  provisions.  What  they  may  amount  to,  1  cannot 
ascertain,  as  I  am  ignorant  of  the  Indian  numbers.  They  are  inconsiderable;  but  an  immediate  provision  for  the 
payment  of  the  provisions,  either  for  that,  or  any  other  treaty,  is  not  necessary,  the  contractors  being  obliged  to 
furnish  all  rations  tliat  may  be  required  by  the  United  States. 

Should  it  be  thought  proper  to  treat  with  the  Indians  of  the  Wabash  and  Miami,  a  further  sum  will  be  necessary, 
and  I  have  enclosed  an  estimate  ot  what  the  expense  would  probably  amount  to.  It  appears,  indeed,  of  absolute 
necessity,  that  the  savages  should  be  brought  to  peace,  eithei  by  treaty,  or  by  force. 

It  is  impossible  for  me  to  judge  what  sum  would  induce  them  to  extend  the  nordiern  boundary  of  the  last 
cession  to  the  Mississippi,  neither  is  it  very  well  known,  what  nations  are  the  proprietors  of  the  country  that  would 
be  obtained  by  tliat  extension.  Perhaps  a  provisional  power  to  make  such  agreements,  and  limiting  tlie  sum,  might 
not  be  improper,  as  the  expense  of  another  meeting  for  that  purpose  might  be  avoided,  if  tJie  proprietors  attended  at 
the  treaty  in  contemplation.     The  stipulations  could  be  made  then,  and  the  payment  at  an  alter  period. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 
Major  General  Knox.  AR.  ST.  CLAIR, 

No.  2. 

Report  from  K  Knox,  Secretary  of  TVer,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  dated  IVar  Office,  July  6th,  1789, 


The  Creeks. — This  nation  of  Indians  is  divided  into  two  districts,  the  Upper  and  the  Lower  Creeks. 
The  former  reside  chiefly  on  the  waters  of  the  Alaoama  river,  in  about  sixty  towns  or  villages.  The  latter  on 
the  waters  of  the  Apalachicola  river,  in  about  forty  tcwns.  The  Creeks  are  principally  within  the  limits  of  the 
United  States,  but  some  of  the  most  southern  towns  of  tlie  Lower  Creeks,  or  Seminofes,  are  within  the  territory  of 
Spain,  stretching  towards  the  point  of  Florida.  The  gun-men,  or  warriors  of  the  whole  nation,  are  estimated  at 
six  thousand. 

Besides  the  chiefs  of  the  respective  towns,  the  Creeks  appear,  at  present,  to  be  much  under  the  influence  and 
direction  of  Alexander  McGillivray. 

The  father  of  this  person  \vas  an  inhabitant  of  Geo-gia,  and  adhering  to  Great  Britain  in  the  late  war,  his  property 
was  confiscated  by  tJiat  State.     His  mother  was  a  piiicipal  woman  of  the  Upper  Creeks. 

He  had  an  English  education;  his  abilities  and  ambition  appear  to  be  great;  his  resentments  are  probably 
unbounded  against  the  State  of  Georgia,  for  confisciting  his  father's  estate,  and  the  estates  of  his  other  friends, 
retugees  iroin  Georgia,  several  ol  whom  reside  with  lim  among  the  Creeks.  He  is  said  to  be  a  partner  of  a  trading 
house  which  has  the  monopoly  of  the  trade  of  the  Cieeks.  The  communications  to  the  Indian  country  are  through 
the  Floridas,  under  the  protection  of  the  Spanish  olonies.  The  profits  of  this  commerce  centre  in  Great  Britain, 
and  one  of  the  Bahama  islands  is  the  intermediate  p'ace  of  deposite. 

The  State  of  Georgia  is  engaged  in  a  serious  wir  with  the  Creeks;  and  as  the  same  may  be  so  extended  and 
combined,  as  to  require  the  interlerence  of  the  Uni(ed  States,  it  will  be  highly  proper  that  the  causes  thereof  should 
be  stated  and  examined. 

The  first  treaty  between  the  State  of  Georgia  and  the  Creeks,  after  the  conclusion  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain, 
was  held  at  Augusta,  in  November.  1783.  At  this  treaty,  certain  lands  on  the  Oconee  were  ceded  by  the  Creeks  to 
the  State  of  Georgia.  A  copy  of  this  treaty  is  not  among  the  papers  of  Congress;  but  the  purport,  as  it  respects  the 
boundaries  then  established,  is  recited  by  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  in  their  report  on  Indian  aftairs, 
hereunto  annexed. 

The  second  treaty  was  held  at  Galpiiinton,  on  [he  12th  of  November,  1785;  by  which  the  boundary  lines  defined 
by  the  treaty  ot  Augusta,  in  November,  1783,  were  confirmed,  and  a  new  boundary  line  obtained,  to  extend  from 
the  lorks  ot  the  Oconee  and  Oakmulgee,  to  the  soiree  of  the  St.  Mary's.  A  copy  of  this  treaty  is  hereunto  annexed, 
in  the  papers  marked  A.;  also,  a  letter  Irom  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States,  and  a  report  of  a  committee 
accepted  by  the  Legislature  of  Georgia,  on  the  11th  of  February,  1786. 

A  third  treaty  was  held  by  the  commissioners  jf  Georgia  and  tiie  Creeks  at  Shoulderbone,  on  the  3d  of  Novem- 
ber, 1786.  At  this  treaty,  it  would  appear  that  the  Creeks  acknowledged  the  violation  of  the  two  former  treaties 
recognised,  and  ratified  tlie  former  boundaries,  and  gave  six  hostages  for  the  faithful  execution  of  the  conditions. 

On  the  one  side,  the  Creeks  object  entirely  to  the  validity  of  the  said  treaties,  stating  that  the  cessions  to  the 
State  of  Georgia  were  made  by  the  chiefs  of  two  towns  only;  whereas,  the  lands  ceded  were  the  property  of  the 
whole  nation,  as  will  more  fully  appear  by  the  letters  of  Alexander  McGillivray,  marked  B,  and  numbered  1,  2, 
3,  and  4. 

The  letter  of  Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Lack  Mcintosh,  Esquires,  commission- 
ers of  the  United  States,  dated  at  the  Keowee,  the  17th  of  November,  1785,  marked  A,  states,  that,  as  there 
were  only  two  towns  properly  represented  at  Galphinton,  instead  of  about  one  hundred,  the  number  in  the  whole 
nation,  they  could  not  treat  with  tnem  on  behalf  of  the  United  States,  But  that,  "  the  day  after  they  left  Galphin- 
ton, the  agents  of  Georgia  held  a  treaty  witli  the  few  Indians  then  present,  and  obtained  a  cession  of  all  the  lands 
south  of  the  Altamaha,  and  eastward  of  the  line  to  be  run  southwest,  from  the  junction  of  the  Oakmulgee  and  Oconee 
rivers,  till  it  shall  strike  St.  Marr's,  with  a  confirmation  of  the  lands  ceded  to  the  State  by  the  same  towns  north- 
east of  the  Oconee  river,  in  1783." 

The  letter  of  James  White,  Esq.  superintendent  of  the  United  States  for  the  southern  district,  and  tiie  proceed- 
ings held  by  him  with  the  Lower  Creeks  at  Cussetahs,  will  further  show  the  sentiments  of  the  said  Lower  Creeks,  of 
the  said  treaties,  marked  C. 

On  the  other  side,  the  Legislature  of  Georgia,  by  their  committee,  23d  October,  1787,  marked  D,  states  that  the 
Cherokees,  by  a  treaty  made  at  Augusta,  on  the  3d  of  May,  1783,  and  the  Creeks,  by  the  treaty  of  Augusta,  in  the 
succeeding  November,  both  nations  made  the  same  relinquishment  of  the  lands  on  the  Oconee,  on  account  of  mutual 
claims  which  had  not  before  been  settled  between  them. 

That  it  was  not  until  a  few  months  after  the  treaty  of  Galphinton,  that  uneasinesses  began  to  be  fomented  in  the 
nation,  and  some  murders  were  committed. 

That  this  conduct  of  the  Creeks  was  considered  by  the  government  of  Georgia  as  an  infraction  of  the  treaties,  and 
tliey  demanded  reparation  accordingly.  That  commissioners  were  appointed,  with  full  powers  to  inquire  into  the 
causes,  and  restoie  peace,  but  with  powers,  also,  if  unavoidable,  to  talce  eventual  measures  of  defence. 

That  this  proceeding  of  Georgia  produced  the  treaty  al  Shoulderbone,  whereby  tlie  violence  was  acknowledged,, 
the  boundaries  confirmed,  and  hostages  given. 

IQ  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789.. 

"  That  the  committee  cannot  forbear  to  observe,  that,  during  the  course  of  all  these  transactions,  the  communi- 
cations were  made  in  solemn,  open,  and  ancient  form,  and  tlie  articles  ot  the  treaties  were  mutually  respected,  until 
the  aggression  posterior  to  that  of  Galphinton.  ....  .        ^  ,  .  , 

"  And  that,  whilst  it  is  admitted  on  the  one  hand,  that  there  was  no  pnnciple  of  representation  of  the  parts  of  the 
nations  known  in  civilized  governments,  it  cannot  be  deliied  on  the  other,  that  it  was  such  as  had  been  common,, 
and  the  Indians  acknowledged  without  doubt,  and  regret  their  forming  a  part,  and  being  members  of  the  State." 

Tlie  committee  after  stating  some  circumstances  lelatRe  to  the  proceedings  of  James  White,  Esq.  the  supenn- 
tcndent,  "  report  it  as  their  opinion,  that  the  ultimate  causes  of  the  war,  was  the  too  sudden  interference  with  the 
treaties  of  the  State,  by  which  the  minds  of  the  Indians  w^re  perplexed;  and  the  impression  induced,  that,  in  a  war, 
they  should  not  have  the  strength  of  the  Union  to  fear,  anH  that  another  disposition  would  be  made  ot  the  territory, 
than  tliat  which  considers  it  as  part  of  the  State.  That  representations  to  this  effect  should  be  immediately  trans- 
mitted to  Congress,  and  the  support  of  the  Union  demanded." 

That  the  papers  whereon  this  statement  is  i'ounded,  and  the  general  subject  of  the  said  dispute  between  the  State 
of  Georgia  and  the  Creeks,  have  several  times  been  disciissed  and  considered  in  the  late  Congress. 

That  the  report  of  the  committee  of  Congress,  as  stated  on  the  journals  of  the  3d  of  August,  1787,  will  show 
the  perplexities  of  this  case.  j  i  i    -i  j       t  i 

That  the  subject  was  further  debated  in  Congress  on'June  27th,  and  decided  on  July  15th,  1788,  will  appear  by 

their  journals.  ,     ^  x  ■  ■      c  r  -,xr  .      i 

Tiiat,  in  obedience  to  the  order  of  Congress  of  the  15th  of  July  1788,  the  Secretary  ot  War  made  the  report 

marked  E.  ,     m      ,  •    ■  •       , 

That,  in  consequence  of  the  resolve  of  Congress  of  the  26th  of  October  1787,  commissioners  were  appointed  by 
the  States  of  South  Carolina  and  Georgia.    That  the  titne  for  which  the  superintendent  was  elected,  expired  on  the' 

29th  of  November,  1788.  '  '  .         ,  •        ,,      ,    , 

That,  the  proceedings  of  the  said  commissioners  and  superintendent,  as  communicated  by  the  latter,  are  hereunto 

attached,  marked  F.  .  /•,,!•  .     ,  /-,     ■ 

That  in  addition  to  the  information  of  the  superintendent,  it  appears  from  the  public  newspaper,  marked  G,  that 
the  two  commissioners  from  Georgia  and  South  Ca-olina  have  given  a  further  invitation  to  a  treaty,  to  be  held 
at  Oconee  during  the  present  month. 

But  it  also  appears  from  the  public  newspapers,  that,  instead  of  the  proposed  treaty,  parties  of  Indians  have 
been  making  inroads  into  Georgia,  and  that  the  outrages  committed  by  them  have  excited  an  alarm,  which  has  ex- 
tended itself  to  Savannah,  the  capital  of  the  State. 

Hence  it  -snll  appear,  from  this  general  statement  of  facts, 

1st.  That,  hostilities  still  rage  between  the  State  of  Georgia,  and  the  Creek  Indians. 

2d.  That  the  cause  of  the  war  is  an  utter  denial,  en  the  part  ol  the  Creeks,  ot  the  validity  of  the  three  trea- 
ties, stated  to  have  been  made  by  them  with  the  State  cf  Georgia. 

Sd.  That  tlie  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  by  their  resolve  of  the  15th  of  July,  1788,  have  caused  it 
to  be  notified  to  the  Creeks,  "  that,  should  they  persist  in  refusing  to  enter  into  a  ti-eaty  upon  reasonable  terms,  the 
arms  of  the  United  States  shall  be  called  forth  for  the  protection  of  that  frontier." 

From  this  result,  the  following  questions  arise:  , 

1st.  Whether  the  circumstance  of  the  commissioners  not!  having  received  an  answer  from  Alexander  M^Gil- 
livray  to  their  letter  of  November  28th,  1788,  and  his  letter  t»  Andrew  Moor,  Esq.  of  the  4th  of  January,  and  to 
liis  Excellency  the  Governor  of  South  Carolina  the  26th  of  February,  1789,  (letter  B)  together  with  the  recent  - 
irruption  of  parties  of  Creeks  into  the  State  of  Georgia,  anomt  to  a  refusal  to  treat  on  reasonable  terms,  and  of 
consequence  form  that  crisis  of  affairs  in  which  the  arms  of  the  Union  are  to  be  called  forth,  agreeably  to  the  resolve 
of  Congress  of  the  loth  of  July,  1788?  ,  ...... 

2d.  Whether  the  final  report  of  the  commissioners  is  necess^y  to  be  received  before  decision  can  be  made  on  the 

C3SC   or 

3d.  Whether,  in  the  present  state  of  public  affairs,  any  prorer  expedients  could  be  devised  for  effectually  qui- 
eting the  existing  hostilities  between  the  State  of  Georgia  and  th^  Creek  nation,  other  than  by  raising  an  ai-my.=' 

\11  which  is  liumbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  Unitei  States. 

H.  KNOX. 

A.  No.  1. 

Keg  WEE,  the  17  th  A'ovember,  1785. 


Agreeable  to  our  appointment,  we  arrived  at  Galphintoii  on  the  24th  and  28th  of  October,  to  meet  and  treat 
with  the  Creeks,  havins;  previousl  v  procured  every  thing  neccessai?  for  this  purpose.  By  the  29tii,  the  chiefs  of  two 
towns,  with  sixty  men,  arrived,  and  from  them,  as  well  as  those  we  sent  to  invite  the  Indians  to  meet  and  treat 
with  us,  we  received  assurances  that  the  chiefs  of  all  the  towns  vould  certainly  come;  that  they  were  very  much 
pleased  with  the  intention  of  Congress,  and  very  desirous  of  establishing  with  them  a  permanent  peace. 

On  the  7th  of  November,  we  were  Informed  that  some  false  reports  had  been  circulated  through  the  nation, 
which  had  created  jealousies  among  them,  and  discouraged  them  from  coming  to  meet  us,;  and  that  we  had  only  to 
expect  the  Tallassee  king,  with  twenty  young  men,  in  addition  to  those  alreadv  arnved.  On  the  next  day,  we  agreed 
to  meet  the  Indians,  and  explain  to  them  the  object  of  our  commission,  at  the  same  time  remarking,  we  could  not 
treat  with  so  few  of  their  nation,  there  being  but  two  towns  propeHy  represented,  instead  of  about  one  hundred— 
the  number  in  the  wiiole  nation.     As  those  towns  had  been  always  friendly  to  the  United  States,  we  gave  them 

some  presents  and  left  them.  .  -.,  .i    t  j-  j  i  ,•        j       .■ 

The  commissioners  of  Georgia  visited  us.  previous  to  our  conference  with  the  Indians,  and  delivered  us  the  pro- 
test marked  A,  to  which  we  returned  the  answer  marked  B.  The  day  after  we  left  Galphinton,  the  agents  of 
Georgia  held  a  treaty  with  the  few  Indians  then  present,  and  obtained  a  cession  of  all  the  lands  south  of  the  Alta- 
maha  and  eastward  of  a  line  to  be  run  southwest  from  the  junction  of  the  Oakmulgee  and  Oconee  rivers,  till  it 
shall  strike  St.  Maiy's,  witli  a  confirmation  of  the  lands  ceded  to  tlie  State  by  the  same  towns,  northeast  of  the 
Oconee  river,  in  1783.  j 

By  various  informations  we  have  had  from  the  Creek  nation,  the  accounts  Colonel  Martin  brought  us  fiom  the 
Cherokees,  and  a  letter  wrote  by  McGIIIIvray,  a  half  breed,  to  General  Pickens,  marked  C,  (which  we  enclose  to 
shew  Congress  the  ability  of  this  man,  who  has  great  influence  among  his  countrymein,)  it  appears  that  he  is  forming 
a  dangerous  confederacy  between  the  several  Indian  nations,  the  Spaniards,  and  British  agents,  with  whom  he  is 
connected.  His  resentment  is  chiefly  against  the  citizens  of  Georgia,  who  banished  his  father,  and  confiscated  a 
capital  property  which  he  had  in  that  State.  ,  r        ■ 

There  Is  a  capital  Britlsli  company  of  merchants,  engaged,  by  licence  from  the  court  of  Spain,  to  supply  all  the 
Indian  nations  to  the  southward,  witli  goods,  through  East  Florida,  in  which  company,  it  is  said,  McGiIlIvray  is  a 
partner,  and  tliey  have  their  agents  in  all  the  towns  from  Tennessee,  southwardly. 

We  are,  with  due  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  and  humble  servants. 


The  Honorable  Charles  Thomson,  Esquire, 

Secretary  to  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled. 

[Note.— The  protest,  marked  A,  and  the  answer  marked  B,  have  been  taken  off  the  files  of  Congress  by  some 
committee,  and  never  returned.] 

1-89.]  THE    CREEKS    AND    OTHERS.  17 

A.  No.  2. 

Jirticles  of  a  treaty  cmcluded  at  Galphinton,  on  the  \'2lh  day  of  November,  1785,  between  the  underwritten  com- 
missioners, in  behalf  of  the  Stale  of  Georgia,  of  the  one'part,  and  the  kings''  headmen  and  warriors  in  behalf 
of  themselves  and  all  the  Indians  in  the  Creek  nation,  of  the  other,  on  the  following  conditions: 
Article  1.  The  said  Indians,  for  themselves  and  all  the  tribes  or  towns  within  their  respective  nations,  within 
the  limits  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  have  been,  and  now  are.  members  of  the  same,  (since  the  day  and  date  of  the  con- 
stitution of  the  State  of  Georgia.) 

Art.  2.  If  any  citizen  of  this  State,  or  other  person  or  persons,  shall  attenipt  to  settle  any  of  the  lands  reserved 
to  the  Indians  for  their  hunting  grounds,  such  person  or  persons  may  be  detained  untill  the  Governor  shall  demand 
him  or  them:  and  then  it  shallbe  lawful  for  any  of  the  tribes  near  such  offenders,  to  cotne  and  seethe  punishment 
according  to  such  laws  as  now  are,  or  hereafter  shall  be,  enacted  by  the  said  State  I'or  trying  such  offenders 

Art.  3.  It  shall  in  no  case  be  understood  that  the  punishment  of  the  innocent,  under  the  ideaof  retaliation,  shall 
be  practised  on  either  side. 

Art.  4.  If  any  citizen  of  this  Sfate,  or  other  white  person  or  persons,  shall  commit  a  robbery,  or  murder,  or 
other  capital  crime,  on  any  Indian,  such  offendei-s  shall  be  delivered  up  to  justice,  and  shall  be  tried  according  to 
the  laws  of  the  State,  ami  due  notice  of  such  intended  punishment  shall  be  sent  to  some  one  of  the  tribes. 

Art.  5.  If  any  Indian  shall  commit  a  robbery,  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  on  any  white  person,  such 
offendei-s  shall  receive  punishment  adequate  to  such  offence;  and  due  notice  of  such  intended  punishment  shall  be 
given  to  his  honor  the  Governor. 

Art.  6.  In  case  of  any  design  being  formed  in  any  neighboring  tribe  against  the  peace  or  safety  of  the  State, 
which  they  shall  know  or  suspect,  they  shall  make  known  the  same  to  his  honor  the  Governor. 

Art.  7.  All  white  person  or  persons  shall  be  at  liberty,  and  conducted  in  safety  into  the  settled  parts  of  the 
State,  when  they  shall  require  it,  except  such  persons  as  shall  come  under  the  restrictions  pointed  out  in  the  second 

Art.  8.  The  Indians  shall  restore  all  the  negroes,  horses,  and  other  property,  that  are  or  may  be  among  them, 
belonging  to  any  citizen  of  this  State,  or  any  other  person  or  persons  whatsoever,  to  such  person  as  the  Governor 

Art.  9.  That  tJie  trade  with  the  said  Indians  shall  be  carried  on  as  heretofore. 

Art.  10.  All  horses  iielonglng  to  any  Indian,  that  shall  be  found  in  the  said  Slate,  such  horses  shall  be  restored 
to  such  person,  as  the  head  of  the  tribe,  "where  such  Indian  may  reside,  shall  direct. 

Art.  11.  The  present  temporary  line,  rsserved  to  the  Indians  for  their  hunting  grounds,  shall  be  agreeable  to 
a  treaty  held  at  Augusta,  in  the  year  1783:  and  that  a  new  temporary  line  shall  begm  at  tiie  forks  of  tTie  Oconee 
and  Oakmulgee  rivers;  thence,  in  a  southwest  direction,  until  it  shall  intersect  the  most  southern  part  of  the  stream 
called  St,  Maiy's  river,  including  all  the  islands  and  waters  of  the  said  stream;  thence,  dovvn  the  said  stream,  to 
the  old  line;  and  all  the  ground  witliout  the  said  new  temporary  line,  when  run  and  completed,  shall  be  reserved  to 
the  said  Indians  for  their  hunting  grounds  as  aforesaid. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  parties  have  hereunto  affixed  their  hands  and  seals,  tlic  day  and  year  before  written. 

While  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States  were  at  Galphinton,  the  commissioners  of  Georgia  copied  their 
draught  of  the  aiticles  intended  to  be  proposed  to  the  Creeks,  and  which  were  afterwards  the  basis  of  the  treaty  with 
the  Cherokees. 

B.  H. 

A.  No.  3. 

Georgia:  /n  General  Assembly,  Saturday,  February  11,  1786. 

The  committee  to  whom  was  referred  the  proceedings  of  the  State  commissioners,  appointed  to  attend  the  conti- 
nental commissioners  to  a  meeting  with  the  (^iierokees  and  other  Indians  to  the  southward,  report: 

That  itappears  to  yourcommittee,  certain  commissioners  of  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  at  Galphin- 
ton, did  attempt  a  treaty  with  the  Creek  Indians,  and  did  also,  at  Hopewell,  in  the  State  ot  South  Carolina,  enter  into  a 
pretended  treaty  with  some  oithe  Ch^-rokees,  and  some  parts  of  other  tribes  therein  named,  which  said  pretended  treaty, 
and  all  other  proceedings  that  have  yet  transpired,  area  manifest  and  direct  attempt  to  violate  the  retained  sovereignty 
and  legislative  right  of  this  State,  and  repugnant  to  the  principles  and  harmony  of  the  Federal  Union;  inasmucli  a** 
the  aforesaid  commissioners  did  attempt  to  exercise  powers  that  are  not  delegated  by  the  respective  States  to  the 
United  States,  in  Congress  assembled:  Wherefore  your  committee  recommend  the  following  resolutions: 

1st.  That  the  delegates  of  this  State  be  directed  to  make  a  represent;ition  of  the  conduct  ot  the  said  commissioners 
to  the  United  States,  in  ('ongress  assembled,  anti  to  move  and  contend  for  an  immediateabolition  of  their  powers,  an 
the  continuation  of  such  appointment  would  tend  to  weaken  and  destroy  tiiat  entire  confidence  in  the  wisdom  and 
justice  of  Congress,  which  this  State  wishes  ever  to  preserve. 

2d.  That  the  delegates  be  requested  to  apply  for,  and  immediately  send  to  the  Governor,  authenticated  copies  of 
the  commissioners'  instructions,  and  all  proceedings  thereon  of  the  said  commissioners,  in  order  that  such  measures 
may  be  taken  as  will  most  effectually  preserve  the  sovereign,  territorial,  and  legislative  rights  of  this  State,  as  well 
as  the  rights  and  privileges  to  which  each  citizen  is  entitled,  by  the  confederation  and  by  the  laws  of  the  land. 

3d.  That  all  and  every  act  and  thing  done,  or  intended  to  be  done,  within  the  limits  and  jurisdiction  of  this  State, 
by  the  said  commissioners,  inconsistent  of  the  beforementioned  rights  and  privileges,  shall  be,  and  the  same  are 
hereby  declared  to  be,  null  and  void. 

4tli.  That  the  thanks  of  this  House  be  given  to  the  Hon.  Edward  Telfair,  and  to  John  King,  and  Thomas  Glasscock, 
Esqrs.  commissioners  on  the  part  oi  this  State,  for  their  patriotism  and  vigilance  in  discharging  the  duties  required 
of  them  at  tiie  aforesaid  meetings;  that  each  of  them  be  allowed  three  dollars  per  day,  during  their  actual  attendance 
on  the  said  business;  and  that  the  Governor  and  Council  take  order  accordingly. 

Which  was  agreed  to. 

Extract  from  the  minutes.  JAS.  M.  SIMMONS,  Clk.  G.  A. 

B.  No.  1. 

Little  Tallassie,  September  5,  1785. 

I  am  favored  with  your  letter  by  Brandon,  who,  after  detaining  it  near  a  month,  sent  it  by  an  Indian  a  few 
days  ago.  He  perhaps  has  some  reasons  for  keeping  himself  at  a  distance  from  this.  He  caused  old  Mr.  McQueen 
to  take  charge  of  this  letter  in  answer  to  yours,  he  being  shortly  to  set  out  for  Augusta. 

The  notihcation  you  have  sent  us  is  agreeable  to  our  wishes,  especially  as  the  meeting  is  intended  for  the  desira- 
ble purpose  of  adjusting  and  settling  matters  on  an  equitable  footing  between  the  United  States  and  the  Indian  nations. 
At  the  same  time,  I  cannot  avoid  expressing  my  surprise  that  a  measure  of  this  nature  should  have  been  so  long 
delayed  on  your  parts.  When  we  found  that  the  American  independency  was  confirmed  by  the  peace,  we  expectea 
that  the  new  Government  would  soon  have  taken  some  steps  to  make  up  the  differences  that  subsisted  between  them 
and  the  Indians  during  the  war,  and  to  have  taken  them  into  protection,  and  confirm  to  them  their  hunting  grounds. 
Such  aconduct  would  have  reconciled  the  minds  of  the  Indians,  and  secured  to  the  States  their  attachment  and  friend- 
ship, and  considered  them  as  their  natural  guardians  and  allies.  Georgia,  whose  particular  interest  it  was  to  have 
endeavored  to  conciliate  the  friendship  of  this  nation,  but,  instead  of  which,  I  am  sorry  to  observe  that  violence  and 

18  .J-  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

prejudice  had  taken  place  of  good  policy  and  reason  in  all  their  proceedings  with  us.  They  attempted  to  avail  them- 
selves of  our  supposed  distressed  situation.  Their  talks  to  us  breathed  nothing  but  vengeance;  and,  being  entirely 
possessed  with  the  idea  that  we  were  wholly  at  their  mercy,  they  never  once  retiected  that  the  colonies  of  a  powerful 
monarch  were  nearly  surrounding  us,  and  to  whom,  in  any  extremity,  we  might  apply  for  succor  and  protection ;  and  who, 
to  answer  some  end  of  their  policy,  might  grant  it  to  us.  However,  we  yet  deferred  any  such  proceeding,  still 
expecting  we  could  bring  them  to  a  sense  of  meir  true  interest;  but,  still  finding  no  alteration  in  their  conduct  towards 
us,  we  sought  the  protection  of  Spain,  and  treaties  of  friendship  and  alliance  were  mutually  entered  into :  they  to  gua- 
ranty our  hunting  grounds  and  territory,  and  to  grant  us  a  free  trade  in  the  ports  of  the  Floridas. 

How  the  boundary  or  limits  between  the  Spaniards  and  the  States  will  be  determined,  a  little  time  will  show,  as 
I  believe  that  matter  is  now  on  foot.  However,  we  know  our  own  limits,  and  the  extent  of  our  hunting  grounds; 
and,  as  a  free  nation,  we  have  applied,  as  we  have  a  right,  and  have  obtained  protection  for,  so  that  we  shall 
pay  no  regard  to  any  limits  that  may  prejudice  our  claims,  that  were  drawn  by  an  American,  and  confirmed  by  a 
British,  negotiator.  Yet,  notwithstanding  we  have  been  obliged  to  adopt  these  measures  for  our  preservation,  and 
from  real  necessity,  we  sincerely  wish  to  have  it  in  our  power  to  be  on  the  same  footing  with  the  States  as  before 
the  late  unhappy  war;  to  eft'ect  which  is  entirely  in  your  power.  We  want  nothing  from  you  but  justice.  We  want 
our  hunting  grounds  preserved  from  encroachments.  They  have  been  ours  from  the  beginning  of  time,  and  I  trust 
that,  with  the  assistance  of  our  friends,  we  shall  be  able  to  maintain  them  against  every  attempt  that  may  be  made  to 
take  them  from  us. 

Finding  our  representations  to  the  State  of  Georgia  of  no  effect,  in  restraining  their  encroachments,  we  tliought 
it  proper  to  call  a  meeting  of  the  nation  on  the  matter;  we  then  came  to  a  resolution,  to  send  out  parties  to  re- 
move the  people  and  effects  from  off  the  lands  in  question,  in  die  most  peaceable  manner  possible. 

Agreeable  to  your  requisition,  and  to  convince  you  of  my  sincere  desire  to  restore  a  good  understanding  between 
us,  I  have  taken  the  necessary  steps  to  prevent  any  future  predatory  excursions  of  my  people,  against  any  of  your 
settlements.  I  could  wish  that  the  people  of  Cumberland  shewed  an  equal  good  disposition  to  do  what  is  right. 
They  were  certainly  the  first  aggressors  since  the  peace,  and  acknowledged  it  in  a  written  certificate,  left  at  the 
Indian  camp  they  had  plundered. 

I  have  only  to  add  that  we  shall  prepare  ourselves  to  meet  the  commissioners  of  Congi-ess,  whenever  we  shall 
receive  notice,  in  expectation  that  every  matter  of  difference  will  be  made  up  and  settled,  with  that  liberality  and 
justice,  worthy  the  men  who  have  so  gloriously  asserted  the  cause  of  liberty  and  independency,  and  that  we  shall 
in  future  consider  them  as  brethren  and  defenders  of  the  land. 

I  am,  with  much  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

Hon.  Andrew  Pickens,  Esq.  ALEX.  McGlLLIVRAY. 

I  should  be  sony  that  your  interest  should  suffer  in  the  hands  of  Brandon,  but  he  has  committed  so  many  thefts 
in  horses,  and  to  satisfy  the  people  we  have  given  him  up  to  be  made  an  example  of,  and  I  imagine  liis  goods  are 
gone  for  satisfaction.  He  is  a  very  unfit  person  for  a  trader;  as  I  have  pretty  well  cleared  the  nation  of  such  kind 
of  people,  he  must  not  look  for  indulgence  in  these  parts. 

A.  McG. 

B.  No.  2. 

Little  Tallassie,  8th  ^pril,  \7^7. 

I  had  the  pleasure  to  receive  tiie  letter  that  you  favored  me  with  by  Mr.  Miller,  on  your  arrival  at  the 

It  is  with  real  satisfaction  that  I  learn  of  your  being  appointed  by  Congress,  for  the  laudable  purpose  of  inquiring 
into,  and  settling  the  differences  that  at  present  subsist  between  our  nation  and  the  Georgians.  It  may  be  neces- 
sary for  you  to  know  the  cause  of  those  differences,  and  of  our  discontents,  which,  perhaps,  have  never  come  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  honorable  body  that  has  sent  you  to  our  country. 

There  are  chiefs  of  two  towns  in  this  nation,  who,  during  the  late  war,  were  friendly  to  the  State  of  Georgia, 
and  had  gone  at  different  times  to  that  State,  and,  once,  after  the  general  peace,  when  the  people  of  Augusta 
demanded  a  cession  or  grant  of  lands  belonging  to,  and  enjoyed  as  hunting  ground  by  the  Indians  of  this  nation,  in 
common,  on  the  East  of  the  Oconee  river,  whicli  demand  was  rejected  by  those  chiefs,  on  the  plea  that  those  grounds 
were  hunting  lands  of  the  nation,  and  could  not  be  granted  by  two  individuals;  but,  alter  a  few  days,  a  promise 
was  extorted  from  them,  that,  on  their  return  to  their  own  country,  they  would  use  their  influence  to  get  a  grant 
confirmed.  Upon  these  men  reporting  this  affair,  on  coming  home,  a  general  convention  was  held  at  the  Teicki- 
batiks  town,  wnen  those  two  chiefs  were  severally  censured  ibr  their  conduct,  and  the  chiefs  of  ninety-eight  towns 
agreed  upon  a  talk  to  be  sent  to  Savannah,  disapproving,  in  the  strongest  manner,  ot  the  demand  made  upon  their 
nation,  and  denied  the  right  of  any  two  of  their  country,  to  making  any  cession  of  land,  which  could  only  be  valid 
by  the  unanimous  voice  ot  the  whole,  as  joint  proprietors,  in  common.  Yet,  these  two,  regardless  of  the  voice  of 
the  nation,  continued  to  go  to  Augusta,  and  other  places  within  that  State,  continuing  to  make  such  promises,  to 
obtain  presents,  our  customs  not  permitting  us  to  punish  them  for  the  crime;  we  warned  tlie  Georgians  ot  the  dan- 
gerous consequences  that  would  certainly  attend  the  settling  of  the  lands  in  question.  Our  just  remonstrances  were 
treated  with  contempt,  and  those  lands  were  soon  filled  with  settlers.  The  nation,  justly  alarmed  at  the  encroach- 
ments, resolved  to  use  force  to  maintain  their  riglits;  yet,  being  averse  to  shedding  the  blood  of  a  people  whom  we 
would  rather  consider  as  friends,  we  made  another  effort  to  awaken  in  them  a  sense  of  justice  and  equity;  but,  we 
found  from  experience,  that  entreaty  could  not  prevail,  and  parties  of  warriors  were  sent  out  to  drive  off  all  intru- 
dei-s,  but  to  shed  no  blood,  only  where  self  preservation  made  it  necessary. 

This  was  in  May,  1786.  In  October  following,  we  were  invited,  by  commissioners  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  to 
J  meet  them,  in  conference,  at  the  Oconee,  professing  a  sincere  desire  for  an  amicable  adjustment  of  our  disputes,  and 
t  pledging  their  sacred  honors  for  the  safety  and  good  treatment  of  all  those  that  should  attend  and  meet  them.  It  not 
being  convenient  for  many  of  us  to  go  to  the  proposed  conference,  a  few  towns,  say  their  chiefs,  attended,  most  of 
whom,  merely  from  motives  of  curiosity,  and  were  surprised  to  nnd  an  armed  body  of  men,  prepared  for,  and  pro- 
fessing hostile  intentions,  than  peaceable  commissioners.  Apprehensions  for  personal  safety,  induced  those  chiefs 
to  subscribe  to  every  demand  that  was  asked  by  the  army  and  its  commissioners;  lands  were  again  demanded,  and 
the  lives  of  some  of  our  chiefs  were  required,  as  well  as  some  innocent  traders,  as  a  sacrifice  to  appease  their  anger. 
Assassins  have  been  employed  to  eft'ect  some  part  of  their  atrocious  purposes.  If  I  fall  by  the  hand  of  such,  I  shall 
fall  a  victim  in  the  noblest  of  causes — that  of  falling  in  maintaining  the  just  rights  of  my  country.  I  aspire  to  the 
honest  ambition  of  meriting  the  appellation  of  the  preserver  of  my  country,  equally  with  those  chiefs  among  you, 
whom,  from  acting  on  such  principles,  you  have  exalted  to  the  highest  pitch  of  glory;  and,  if,  after  every  peaceable 
mode  of  obtalnmg  a  redress  of  grievances  having  proved  fruitless,  the  having  recourse  to  arms  to  obtain  it,  be  marks 
of  the  savage,  and  not  of  the  soldier,  what  savages  must  the  Americans  be,  and  how  much  undeserved  applause 
have  your  Cincinnatus,  your  Fabius,  obtained.  If  war  names  had  been  necessary  to  distinguish  those  chiefs  in  such 
a  case,  the  man-killer,  tlie  great  destroyer,  &c.  would  have  been  the  proper  appellations. 

I  had  appointed  the  Cussetahs,  for  all  the  chiefs  of  the  lower  Creeks,  to  meet  in  convention.  I  shall  be  down 
in  a  few  days,  when,  from  your  timely  arrival,  you  will  meet  the  chiefs,  and  will  learn  their  sentiments,  and  I 
sincerely  hope  tliat  the  propositions  that  you  shall  offer  us  will  be  of  such  a  nature  that  we  can  safe  accede  to.  The 
talks  of  the  former  commissioners  of  Congress,  at  Galphinton.  were  much  approved  of,  and  your  coming  from  the 
white  town  (seat  of  Congress)  has  raised  great  expectations  that  you  will  remove  the  principal,  and  almost  only 


1:89.]  THE  CREEKS  AND  OTHERS.  I9 

cause  of  our  disputes,  that  is,  securing  to  us  all  our  possessions  and  hunting  grounds  entire,  and  clear  tliem  of 
encroachments.     When  we  meet,  we  shall  talk  these  matters  over.     Meantime, 

1  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  regard,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 


The  Indians  that  were  detained  as  hostages  in  Augusta,  must  speedily  be  liberated,  or  hostilities  will  soon  com- 
mence, as  their  relations  are  uneasy  on  their  accounts. 

Hon.  James  White.  Esq. 

Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs  for  the  United  States. 

B.  No.  3. 

Little  Tallassie,  Upper  Creeks,  January  4th.  )  789. 

I  take  this  opportunity  to  write  to  you,  in  answer  to  a  letter  which  you  did  me  the  favor  to  write  me  in  Sep- 
tember last,  from  Seneca,  in  which  was  enclosed  a  proclamation  issued  by  Congress,  requiring  all  the  whites  that 
are  settled  on  the  lands  of  the  Cherokee*,  to  remove  from  oft'  them  immediately.  This  measure,  together  with  the 
talk  from  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  appears  to  have  given  much  satisfaction  to  the  Cherokees.  The  Little  Turkey! 
or  Coweta  King,  with  some  warriors,  relations  to  the  Dragging  Canoe,  have  been  to  consult  me  on  these  subjects, 
bringing  with  them  all  the  talks  that  they  had  received  for  some  time  past.  I  gave  it  as  my  opinion  to  them,  that 
the  talks  in  question  might  be  safe.v  relied  on;  that  the  talk  of  Congress  was  a  strong  one,  to  their  people,  who 
would  obey  it,  and  the  Governor  bpng  a  principal  chief  and  ruler,  he  would  not  speak  with  a  forked  tongue;  and 
that,  in  the  ensuing  spring,  there  w\)  ;ltl  be  a  great  meeting,  for  the  purpose  of  concluding  a  general  peace,  the 
tenns  of  which  would  be  very  favorab  e  to  them;  in  the  meantime,  the  cliiefs  should  advise  all  the  young  Avairiors 
to  attend  closely  to  hunting  duiing  tlie  winter,  instead  of  risking  their  lives  for  a  scalp,  which,  when  obtained, 
would  not  purchase  clothing  for  their  families;  and  that,  considering  them  as  an  oppressed  people,  I  had  agreed  to 
give  them  assistance,  to  enable  them  to  obtain  a  good  peace;  but  they  were  not  to  consider  me  as  engaged  to  sup- 
port them  in  an  unjust  and  an  unnecessary  war. 

The  people  of  your  State,  who  complain  of  our  people  molesting  them,  are  not  rightly  informed :  for,  besides  that 
I  always  have  endeavored  to  confine  the  excursions  of  our  warriors  to  the  people  with  wiiom  we  have  ground  of 
quarrel,  the  State  of  Virginia  and  its  dependencies  are  very  far  distant,  and  I  never  knew  that  a  Creek  had  ever 
been  near  Kentucky,  at  least  from  the  nation;  there  are  several  who  have  wives  and  families  among  the  Cherokees, 
and  constantly  reside  there;  those  1  cannot  answer  for,  being  to  be  reckoned  as  Cherokees.  It  is  the  custom  of  a 
("reek  to  disregard  all  connexions  and  country,  and  cleave  to  his  wife:  those  that  have  wives  abroad,  never  return 
to  their  native  land. 

The  gentlemen,  my  friends,  do  me  justice  when  they  inform  you  that  I  am  desirous  of  peace.  I  have  been  now 
five  years  in  laboring  to  bring  about  one  with  the  State  of  Georgia,  but  in  vain;  more  than  a  twelvemonth  after  the 
general  peace  was  spent  by  us  in  representing  to  them,  in  friendly  terms,  the  cruelty  and  injustice  of  their  pro- 
ceedings, of  wresting  forcibly  from  us  a  large  portion  of  our  hunting  lands,  and  which  were  in  a  great  measure 
necessary  for  our  support;  that  we  were  not  situated  as  several  other  Indian  nations  were,  with  immense  wilder- 
nesses behind  us.  On  the  contrary,  we  were  surrounded  from  west  to  north,  bv  the  Choctaws,  Chickasaws,  Cum- 
berland, and  Cherokees,  and  on  every  other  siile  by  the  whites,  so  that  our  liunting  grounds  were  already  very 
insufficient  for  our  purposes;  to  all  \yhich  we  were  always  answered  in  hauglity  and  contemptuous  language,  with 
threats  to  drive  us  over  the  Mississippi;  so  that,  having  nothing  to  hope  from  their  justice  or  humanity,  it  was 
resolved  to  raise  up  the  red  hatchet  for  self  preservation.  As  our  cause  was  just,  so  Ibrtune  has  i'avored  our  exer- 
tions in  (lri\-ing  them  from  the  contested  ground.  Though  the  war  has  reduced  them  to  an  extremity  of  distress,  yet 
their  stubbormuss  of  pride  is  such,  they  take  no  measures  to  retract  the  cqnduct  which  has  brought  them  to  it;  they 
have  spurned  everj'  attempt  that  Congress  has  ottered  at,  to  accommodate,  by  its  interference,  tlie  disputes  between 
us.  The  new  Congress  will  equally  find  them  obstinate  and  intractable;  the  only  method  they  can  adopt,  will  be  to 
leave  the  Georgians  to  their  fate;  and  in  another  season  'tis  probable  that  they  will  be  brought  to  reason. 

I  shall  be  glad  to  be  favored  with  an  account,  when  convenient,  soon  after  the  meeting  of  the  new  Congress,  and 
in  what  manner  tlie  new  constitutirm  is  finally  settle»l.    Any  tiling  that  I  can  serve  you  in,  pray  freely  command. 

I  remain  with  regarcl,  your  most  obedient  servant, 


Hon.  Andrew  MooRj  Esquire, 

Commissioner  for  treating  with  the  Cherokees  for  State  of  f'irginia. 

B.  No.  4. 

Little  Tallassie,  Upper  Creek  Nation,  26//i  February,  1789. 

Your  Excellency's  letter  of  6tli  November,  is  just  come  to  hand,  enclosed  in  one  from  the  superintendent 
and  commissioners,  by  which  I  find  that  the  respectable  State  of  South  Carolina,  viewing  with  concern  the  conti- 
nuance of  the  destructive  contest  carrj'ing  on  between  our  nation,  the  Creeks,  and  their  sister  State  of  Georgia,  have 
been  induced,  from  their  good  intentions  to  both,  to  offer  their  interference  to  bring  about  an  amicable  adjustment 
of  the  disputes  subsisting  between  us,  which  ofter  we  can  have  no  gowl  reason  for  objecting  to;  and  as  your  Excel- 
lency, as  chief  of  the  State,  has  stept  fiirward  as  the  mediator,  it  is  very  necessary  that  you.  in  that  capacity,  should 
be  informed  of  the  real  grounds  of  such  dispute,  and  from  the  account  which  I  shall  give  you  of  it,  you  will  readily 
admit,  that  we  had  the  best  reasons  for  opposition.  Directly  after  the  conclusion  of  a  general  peace  was  announced 
to  us  all,  the  Georgians  sent  up  an  invitation  to  our  chiefs  to  meet  them  in  treaty  at  Augusta,  professing  it  was  with 
an  intention  of  burying  the  hatchet,  and  with  it  the  remembrance  of  everj'  injury  which  they  had  sustained  from  us 
in  the  war  of  Britain.  The  call  bein"  at  an  inconvenient  season,  the  proper  chiefs  not  being  in  the  way,  a  few- 
people  who,  during  the  war,  pretended  to  neutrality,  attended  the  call  at  Augusta,  and  on  conferences  then  held,  the 
leading  people  of  the  upper  parts  of  that  State  maue  a  demand  of  a  large  cession  of  lands,  comprehending  our  best 
hunting  grounds,  as  a  compensation  for  the  injuries  sustained  by  them  in  the  war,  and  which  was  enforced  by  bands 
of  armea  men,  who  at  the  same  time  surrounded  them,  threatening  them  with  instant  deadi  if  it  was  refused.  The 
two  chiefs  then  present  being  of  the  second  rank,  truly  told  them  that  the  demand  was  unexpected,  and  were  unpre- 
pared to  answer  it,  and  being  only  two  men,  could  not  promise  that  any  grant  that  they  should  be  forced  to  consent 
to  make,  would  be  confirmed  by  the  chiefs  of  the  nation,  as  it  was  not  unknown  to  the  white  people  that  it  was 
necessary  that  the  joint  voice  of  the  whole  nation  should  make  and  confirm  such  grants.  This  reply  not  satisfying  the 
Georgians,  they  persisted  and  renewed  their  threats;  then  these  men,  to  escape  the  threatened  danger,  consented 
as  far  as  what  concerned  them,  but  could  not  engage  to  bind  the  whole  to  their  act.  When  these  men  arrived  in  the 
nation,  a  general  convention  was  immediately  called  to  deliberate  on  this  affair;  the  chiefs  of  more  than  forty  towns 
assembleol  when  they  reprobated  the  transactions  of  the  two  inferior  chiefs  in  strong  terms,  and  refused  to  consent 
to  any  such  cession,  and  desired  me  to  inform  the  Georgians  of  the  same,  and  to  warn  them  that,  if  the  threatened 
encroachments  were  made,  a  war  would  immediately  eiisue,  which  I  did  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Houston,  the  Governor. 

20  ■''     INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789, 

This  is  a  true  account  of  the  transactions  of  the  first  of  three  pretended  treaties  which  the  commissioners  mention 
in  their  letter  to  me;  the  second  invitation  which  we  received  to  treat,  was  made  hy  Colonel  Hawkins  and  General 
Pickens,  under  tiie  appointment  of  Congress,  as  they  informed  me,  and  mentioned  that  they  liad  not,  at  ihat  lime, 
fixed  upon  any  place  to  meet  us;  but,  when  that  point  was  settled,  they  would  give  a  second  notification,  and  wliich 
1  never  received.  Soon  after  1  learned  that  the  Georgians  took  up  the  matter,  and  smuggled  atrealy  at  Galphinton, 
on  Ogeechee,  to  which  place  they  secretly  invited  a  few  of  our  people,  whom  they  had  bribed  and  secured  to  their 
interests,  and  who  they  were  sure  would  agrree  to  any  thing  that  was  asked  of  them,  and  (here  of  course  a  cession 
was  again  asked  of  them,  with  a  large  addition.  Sometime  after,  I  received  a  letter  from  Col.  Hawkins,  desiring  to 
know  my  reasons  for  not  meeting  at  Ogeechee,  at  the  same  time  remarking,  that  he  did  not  consider  the  few  that 
attended,  a  proper  representation  of  the  Cicek  nation;  he  said  nothing  to  them;  the  authority  of  the  commissioner 
of  Congress,  I  expect,  will  be  sufficient  evidence  to  overset  any  claim  that  is  founded  on  a  giant  of  this  treaty. 

Another  convention  protested,  through  me,  in  warm  terms,  to  the  Georgians,  respecting  their  conduct  in  ottering 
to  make  pretensions  to  cessions  of  land  obtained  from  aJ£w_beggars,  who  only  want  to  obtain  presents.     The  third 
invitation  which  was  sent  to  us  to  treat,  was  from  the  Georgians  only,  through  their  commissioners,  at  the  head  of 
whom  was  Mr.  M.  Habersham,  President  of  the  Executive  Council,  and  he  proposes  the  Oconee  river  foi'  the  place 
of  meeting.     In  the  letter,  they  "pledged  their  sacred  honor"  for  the  safety  and  welfare  of  every  one  that  would 
attend  their  conferences;  but  I  being  so  often  threatened,  and  having  the  worst  opinion  ol"  the  back  people,  as  they 
are  called,  did  not  go,  but  sent  a  kw  Coweta  warriors,  to  report  to  me  on  their  return.     During  (he  conferences  of 
Oconee,  an  additional  cession  was  demanded,  which  was  strongly  opposed  by  the  Cov/etas,  and  odiers,  for  which 
they  were  violently  insulted  by  a  Colonel  Clark,  in  the  presence  of  the  commissioners,  who  could  not  prevent  it; 
and,  though  Iheir  sacred  honors  were  pledged  for  maintaining  good  order,  yet  several  warriors,  of  different  towns, 
were  forcibly  seized  upon  by  armed  men,  and  conveyed  to  Augusta,  more  as  prisoners  than  hostages,  to  be  kept  as 
a  pledge  that  my  life  and  six  more  of  leading  men,  should  be  taken.    Such  a  conduct  convinced  the  whole  nation 
that  it  was  full  time  to  adopt  measures  for  the  general  safety.     A  general  convention  was  appointed,  to  be  held  in 
May  for  that  purpose,  and  a  few  days  before  it  was  opened,  a  Doctor  White  arrived  in  the  nation,  with  an  appoint- 
ment of  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  from  Congress;  the  chiefs  assembled,  shewed  him  every  attention,  and,  on 
account  of  his  arrival,  the  two  men  who  had  given  the  grants,  as  before  related,  were  called  upon  to  attend,  (for 
they  had  not  mingled  themselves  with  the  others  for  shame)  that  Doctor  White  should  know  the  truth.     He  very 
minutely  interrogated  those  men  concerning  the  foregoing  matters,  and  they  gave  him  (he  same  account  of  (he  first 
treaty,  as  it  is  called,  and  of  the  rest,  as  1  have  done,     l^he  Doctor  used  his  best  ability  to  get  the  chiefs  in  conven- '' 
tion  to  consent  to  the  disputed  cession,  but  in  vain;  on  the  contrary,  the  chiefs,  by  their  speaker,  the  king  of  the 
Cowetas,  told  Doctor  White,  that,  before  the^  would  give  more  lands,  they  would  rather  risk  an  attempt  to  resume 
what  the  nation  had  formerly  been  deprived  of.    The  Doctor,  on  his  going  away,  required  of  me  a  written  represen- 
tation of  the  causes  of  our  discontents,  to  be  shewn  to  Ccmgress,  which  I  gave  him,  and  am  certain  that  it  is  in  tlie 
possession  of  that  honorable  body;  the  subject  of  which  made  part  of  the  deliberations  of  a  committee  ordered  to  sit 
upon  Indian  aftiiirs,  and  to  report  the  same.      A  printed  report  of  that  committee  I  have  now  in  the  house,  and, 
from  sentiments  contained  in  it,  I  had  great  hopes  that  it  would  form  the  basis  tor  accommodating  matters  between 
us  and  the  Georgians,  and  which  would  be  very  satisliictory  to  us.     I  beg  leave  next  to  remark  to  you,  that,  if  the 
Georgians,  after  (lie  peace,  had  conducted  themselves  to  us  with  moderation  and  humanity,  we  should  not  have  fallen 
out  with  them  for  trifles;  and  they  have  brought  the  war  on  themselves,  by  manifesting,  at  the  outset,  an  unaccom- 
modating and  persecuting  spirit  towards  us.     Our  situation  does  by  no  means  admit  of  our  giving  away  our  lands; 
we  are  already  closely  surrounded,  and  our  hunting  grounds  much  circumscribed.      There  is  the  State  of  Georgia 
on  the  east,  southeast  and  southwest  by  (he  Spanish  Floridas,  west  by  the  nations  of  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws, 
<)n  the  north  by  the  Cherokees  and  Cumberland.     We  are  not  situated  as  the  western  and  northern  nations,  with 
immense  deserts  at  our  back;  all  this  tells  us  that  we  must  struggle  hard  to  preserve  our  hunting  grounds,  and 
perish  to  a  man  in  its  defence:  for  where  can  we  go  to  possess  ourselves  of  new  ones.''    Such  forcible  considerations 
with  us,  may  weigh  nothing  in  the  minds  of  those  who  think  that  Indians  are  only  animals  fit  to  be  exterminated: 
and  this  is  a  language  which  I  know  is  held  in  many  places  in  your  country;  but  let  us  be  what  we  may,  let  it  be 
attempted  when  it  will,  it  will  be  found  no  very  easy  enterprise.     I  have  given  your  Excellency  a  very  circum- 
stantial account  of  the  origin  of  the  contest  between  us  and  the  Georgians,  from  which  you  will  find,  that  the 
Georgians  have  no  \vell  founded  cause  of  quarrel  with  us,  and  that  they  can  have  no  just  claim  to  your  assistance; 
for,  to  support  them  in  this  contest,  is  to  side  with  injustice  and  oppression;  a  reproach  which  I  firmly  believe  that 
the  respectable  State  over  which  you  preside  will  not  subject  its  magnanimity  and  honor  to.      "  Very  far  am  I,  sir, 
from  spurning  at  your  offered  mediation;  but  the  letter  of  the  commissioners  puts  it  out  of  my  power,  or  rather 
makes  it  of  no  efl'ect,  as  they  declare  that  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  comply  with  our  requisition,  to  restore  to  us 
the  territory  usurped  from  us  by  the  Georgians,"  wishing  us  to  ''I'econsider  the  matter,  as  the  Georgians'  claims  are 
founded  on  three  treaties  signed  by  our  headmen  and  warriors." 

The  treaties  alluded  to  have  been  faithfully  reported  to  you.  One  of  the  new  commissioners.  General  Pickens, 
formerly  by  letter  acknowledged  to  me,  that  he  was  in  Augusta  at  the  time  the  first  treaty,  as  it  is  called,  was  held, 
and  the  manner  in  which  a  consent  to  a  cession  was  extorted  was  very  unfair.  The  General,  as  a  gentleman,  will  not 
deny  his  assertion.  I  cannot  take  upon  myself  to  engage  to  meet  the  commissioners  to  enter  into  an  investigation  of 
this  subject;  it  will  be  attended  with  no  good  el!ect:  the  claims  will  be  endeavored  to  be  maintained,  and  we  shall 
be  as  firm  in  attempting  to  overthrow  it,  and  disagreeable,  if  not  bloody  consequences  would  be  the  result  of  such 
conferences.  I  understand  your  Excellency  very  well  when  vou  say,  that  you  are  not  unprepared  for  a  change  of 
circumstances;  that  is,  we  shall,  or  must,  purchase  peace  of  the  Georgians,  at  the  expense  of  sacrificing  our  rights, 
properties,  and  life  itself,  or  you  are  resolved  to  join  that  State  in  hostility  against  us.  The  conjmissioners  also  say 
that  Congress  is  resolved  to  do  justice  to  Georgia.  All  this  has  the  most  formidable  appearance.  I  by  no  means 
make  light  of  the  great  power  which  thus  menaces:  if  'tis  determinejl.  as  I  suspect  it  is  the  case,  to  attempt  at  a  con- 
quest of  our  country,  we  will  be  found  as  determined  to  oppose  it.  6pain  is  bound  by  treatyto  protect  and  support 
us  in  our  claims  and  properties;  we  shan't  want  for  means  ot^  defiance,  but  still  I  hope,  for  I  earnestly  desire,  that 
your  influence  and  power  will  be  used  to  set  every  matter  to  rights  in  a  peaceable  manner,  rather  than  to  exercise 
the  calamities  of  war. 

I  am  returned,  a  month  or  two  since,  from  a  tour  through  the  principal  of  the  Lower  towns  and  Seminoles,  which  I 
made  for  the  purpose  of  urging  them  to  a  strict  observance  of  the  truce;  and  I  believe  I  can  venture  to  assure  your   • 
Excellency,  that  no  complaints  will  be  made  for  any  breaches  of  it  duou^hout  the  winter. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  most  respectful  consideration. 

Your  Excellency's  most  obedient  servant, 

His  Excellency  Thomas  Pinckney,  Esq. 

Governor  of  the  State  of  South  Carolina. 

C.  No.  1. 

Fayetteville,  May  Z4fh,  1787. 

Bein^  lately  returned  from  the  Creek  nation,  which  occasioned  the  alarm  in  Georgia  last  summer,  I  do  myself 
the  honor  of  sendm§  you  an  account  of  the  state  of  those  Indians. 

The  invasion  which  threatened  that  State  had  subsided  ere  my  arrival  j  and  first  appearances  seemed  to  promise 
tranquillity;  for  hostages  had  been  given  by  some  of  the  Indians  to  give  satisfaction,  and  enlarge  the  boundary  of  the 
State.  I  soon  discovered  these  hostages  were  but  of  imaginary  consequence;  they  were  taken  from  the  Cusitash,  a 
town  not  only  without  imputation  of  offence  on  this  occasion,  but  at  all  times  attached  to  the  white  people  in  asin- 


gular  manner.    My  tour  to  the  nation  convinced  me,  that  these  men  answered  no  other  purpose  by  their  detention, 
man  to  alienate  the  minds  of  such  of  the  Indians  as  might  be  favorably  disposed;  they  have  since  been  dismissed, 
all  but  a  youth,  who,  in  his  impatience  of  confinement,  put  himself  to  death.    The  further  Creeks  who  had  insulted 
the  State,  continue  in  the  same  disposition;  and  if  their  hatchet  has  been  hitherto  restrained  it  has  been  through  ,  ^ 
their  respect  to  the  United  States,     Their  dispositions  had  been  favorably  inclined  by  the  liberal  sentiments  of  the 
former  commissioners  from  Congress,  and  they  had  got  information  that  there  was  an  agent  now  coming  to  them 
from  that  honorable  body.     This  withheld  their  resentment  to  the  State  of  Georgia.    They  have  all  along  been 
avowedly  opposed  to  the  new  settlements  of  the  white  people.     The  sentiments  of  the  Loiver  towns  seemed  not  so 
well  known  till  I  went  out;  but  at  a  full  meeting  of  these  latter,  they  also  protested  against  what  they  termed  the 
Georgian  encroachments,  which  they  declared  they  would  repel  by  force.     From  a  sketch  of  the  proceedings  at  that 
meeting,  (paper  No.  1)  you  may  see  that  the  veiy  Indians,  said  to  have  made  the  grants,  were  the  first  to  accuse 
the  State  of  liaving  extorted  land  from  them  under  pretence  of  cessions.     All  their  expressions,  indeed,  were  min- 
gled with  respect  for  the  power  that  had  delegated  the  superintendent  to  whom  they  addressed  their  talk.     "'  But 
diere  was  a  third  party,  (tne  Georgians)  they  said,  which  evidently  meant  injustice  and  oppression."    The  meet- 
ing, upon  the  whole,  concluded  so  unfavorably,  that  there  was  room  to  apprehend  an  immeaiate  invasion.     To  that, 
however,  a  temporary  stop  was  put  by  an  idea, of  their  influential  Chief,  McGillivray.     In  this  there  was  something 
so  singular,  that  perhaps  I  may  be  excused  for  relating  it  circumstantially.     The  following,  therefore,  was  nearly 
the  address  of  that  Inaian  Chief:    "  Notwithstanding  that,  as  the  guardian  of  the  Indian  rights,  I  prompt  them  to 
defend  their  lands,  yet  I  must  declare  1  look  upon  the  United  States  as  our  most  natural  allies.     Two  years  I 
waited  before  I  would  seek  for  the  alliance  I  have  formed.     I  was  compelled  to  it.     I  could  not  but  resent  the 
greedy  encroachments  of  the  Georgians;  to  say  nothing  of  their  scandalous  and  illiberal  personal  abuse.    Notwith- 
standing which,  I  will  now  put  it  to  the  test  whether  they  or  myself  entertain  the  most  generous  sentiments  of 
respect  for  Congress.    If  that  honorable  body  can  form  a  government  to  the  southward  of  the  Altamaha,  I  will  be 
the  first  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  thereto;  and  in  return  to  the  Georgians,  for  yielding  to  the  United  States 
that  claim,  I  will  obtain  a  regular  and  peaceable  grant  of  the  lands  on  the  Oconee,  on  which  they  have  deluded 
people  to  settle,  under  pretence  of  grants  from  the  Indians,  you  yourself  have  seen  how  ill  founded.     However,  if 
this  takes  place.  1  will  put  this  matter  out  ol  dispute  for  them.  I  will  give  you  to  the  first  of  August  for  an  answer." 
I  hope  I  shall  be  excused  for  relating  this  unexpected  proposal  in  his  own  words,  as  nearly  as  I  can  recollect; 
his  motives  were  probably  inclination  as  well  as  interest.    I  could  discover  that  his  natural  bias  is  not  towards  his 
Spanish  allies,  and  he  is  a  trader  of  a  company  that  imports  largely,  from  which  the  government  of  Pensacola  exacts 
an  exorbitant  impost.    On  the  other  hand,  he  would  not  only  expect  a  more  moderate  duty  through  the  Altamalia, 
but  the  Indian  country  is  more  accessible  through  that  way. 

The  strength  of  these  Indians  is  about  6,000  gun-men,  mostly  well  armed  with  rifles;  they  extend  down  the 
waters  of  the  Alabama,  and  Apalachicola  rivers,  along  to  the  point  of  Florida,  through  the  Spanish  territories; 
through  which  they  could  have  a  convenient  retreat  in  case  they  were  forced  by  an  expedition  against  them.  It  is 
beyond  a  doubt  that  they  receive  every  encouragement,  from  the  jealous  policy  of  the  Spaniards,  against  us;  from 
thi^  source  they  are  already  provided  with  ammunition,  magazines  of  which  are  dispersed  through  their  towns,  and 
reserved  for  a  public  occasion.  I  am  well  informed,  that  when  the  Creeks  were  threatened  from  Georgia,  the 
Spanish  influence,  in  favor  of  those  Indians,  was  very  active  with  the  Choctaws. 

With  what  conveniency  the  United  States  could  carry  on  a  war  with  the  Creeks,  I  cannot  detennine;  but  I  may 
be  permitted  to  remark,  that  the  State  of  Georgia,  only  in  holding  a  partial  treaty  with  some  of  them,  last  autumn, 
was  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  a  paper  medium,  which  is  already  depreciated  400  per  cent. ;  and  it  was  with  great 
difficulty  that  the  troops  raised  lor  this  Indian  business  could  be  kept  together  till  it  terminated  in  the  unsubstan- 
tial manner  it  did. 

The  causes  that  excite  an  unfriendly  disposition  in  the  Indians,  piay  in  part  be  gathered  from  Mr.  McGillivray 's 
letter,  which  comes  enclosed  to  you.     liesides,  there  are  the  following,  among  other  causes: 

The  natural  reluctance  of  the  Indians  to  part  with  any  of  their  lands:  for,  to  use  their  own  expression,  they 
look  on  their  lands  as  their  blood  and  their  life,  which  they  must  fight  for  rather  than  part  with.  2d.  Because,  in 
obtaining  the  new  purchase,  a  sufticiently  general  consent  of  the  nation  was  wanting;  and  even  that  partial  consent 
extorted  by  threats,  as  they  pretend.  3d.  The  white  people  on  the  frontier  continuing  their  encroachments;  they 
pursue  their  surveys  into  the  Indian  countrv',  and  destroy  the  game  there. 

Much  also  of  the  Indian  animosity  may  be  ascribed  to  the  instigations  of  Mr.  McGillivray,  who  is  said  to  be  in 
Spanish  pay,  and  entertains  a  personal  resentment  to  the  State  of  Georgia.  To  this  may  be  added  habits  of  enmity 
contracted  during  the  war,  and  their  connexion  with  the  British.  In  like  manner,  the  Spanish  influence  now  suc- 
ceeds to  that. 

I  have  sent  you  the  letter  from  Mr.  McGillivray,  not  only  as  it  may  serve  to  give  some  idea  of  the  character  of 
the  man,  but  also,  as  it  contains  a  state  of  Indian  complaints. 

The  two  papers  (No.  2  and  .'5)  from  the  Legislature  and  Executive  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  will  help  to  shew  in 

what  manner  that  Government  has  received  the  institution  of  a  superintendent  within  the  claim  of  their  jurisdiction. 

Permit  me  to  enclose,  also,  a  letter  to  McGillivray,  and  a  talk  to  the  Lower  Creeks;  you  will  please  to  judge 

if  any  of  the  contents  may  be  proper  to  offl>r  to  the  attention  of  Congress;  it  appeared  necessary  for  me  to  mention 

at  least  the  proposal,  as  above,  from  McGillivray. 

I  am,  with  the  greatest  lespect,  sir,  your  obedient  and  humble  servant, 

The  Honorable  Major  General  Knox. 

C.  No.  2. 

Cassetash,  April  4.  1787. 

I  flattered  myself  I  should  have  been  able  in  person  to  deliver  you  the  enclosed.  Unfortunately,  the  decline 
of  my  health  has  disappointed  me  in  that  expectation.  It  is  with  difficulty,  indeed,  that  I  have  reached  thus  far; 
but  I  am  encouraged  by  reflecting,  that  if  our  ettbrts  are  successful  in  removing  the  misunderstanding  which  seems 
to  have  taken  place  between  the  people  of  Georgia  and  some  part  of  the  Creek  nation,  we  shall  have  rendered 
good  offices,  perhaps,  equally  to  both.  That  this  can  be  effected,  I  the  more  readily  hope,  as  each  party  seems  to 
entertain  an  inclination  to  avoid  the  further  efTusion  of  human  blood  on  the  occasion.  I  assure  you,  sir,  the  better 
and  more  moderate  people  among  us,  appear  to  wish  there  may  be  no  cause  to  proceed  to  extremes. 

As  for  the  Uni,ted  States,  the  very  nature  of  their  Government  is  averse  to  violence;  and  if,  through  the  ties  of  the 
confederation,  there  is  a  necessity  to  turn  the  force  of  the  continent  into  this  quarter,  it  will  not  be  without  regret 
that  there  is  occasion  for  the  disagreeable  measure. 

In  like  manner,  it  is  with  pleasure  I  perceive  by  your  letters,  that  the  Indians  only  wish  their  rights  may  not 
be  violated.  Let  both  parties,  therefore,  condescend  a  little.  For  my  part,  the  very  small  share  of  persuasion  I 
possess  among  the  white  people,  shall  be  exerted  for  so  good  a  purpose,  as,  indeed,  it  has  not  been  hitherto  neglected; 
your  more  powerful  influence  among  this  people  cannot  certainly  take  place  to  a  better  end;  matters  may  be  ami- 
cably settled.     It  will  prove  a  mutual  advantage. 

I  confess,  among  the  herd  of  white  people,  there  are  many  who  may  be  ripe  for  precipitating  themselves  into 
measures  as  injurious  to  others,  as  destructive  to  themselves.  The  same,  no  doubt,  among  tne  Indians.  To  restrain 
this  temper,  is  the  duty  of  more  sober  reflection. 

As  for  the  occasion  of  these  animosities,  which  I  am  sorry  has  subsisted,  the  territory  of  the  State  is,  I  own,  in 
my  opinion,  amply  extensive;  and  this  consideration  is  a  security  for  the  Indians,  that  there  will  be  no  similar  ground 
4  * 

22  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

/  for  complaint  in  future;  as  it  cannot  be  an  object  with  Goveniment  to  disperse  its  subjects  still  more  widely,  while 
'    there  is  so  much  internal  room  for  cultivation;  I  can  take  upon  me  to  assure  you  that  measures  are  adopted  with 
strict  severity  for  curbing  the  licentiousness  of  any  who  might  be  disposed  to  give  offence  to  this  people. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  white  people  are  not  without  heavy  complaints.  They  allege  that  the  assassination  in  cold 
blood  of  their  unsuspecting  fellow  citizens,  can  scarcely  be  atoned  for— barbarities  which  may,  indeed,  raise  the 
indignation  of  a  civilized  people;  but,  as  you  well  know,  it  requires  a  different  spirit  to  bring  them  to  any  terms,  so 
you  will  be  the  first  to  discountenance  these  marks,  not  of  the  soldier,  but  the  savage. 

With  respect  to  the  subject  that  produced  these  enormities,  if  I  may  be  permitted  to  remark  without  the  imputa- 
tion of  partiality,  it  is  obvious  that,  as  the  Creeks  have  no  written  laws  or  customs,  it  was  to  be  supposed  the  people 
of  Georgia  would  in  reason  view  that  purchase  as  good  which  they  were  to  make  from  the  people  who  were  in  the 
indisputed  possession  and  use — the  case  of  your  Lower  towns — however,  as  the  subject  of  grievances  is  at  all  times 
a  tender  one,  I  am  sorry  if  I  have  not  touched  it  with  a  finger  sufficiently  delicate.  Let  us  rather  turn  our  views  to 
the  means  of  future  peace  and  happiness.  For  this  purpose,  I  am  anxious  for  an  early  meeting,  and  I  hope  I  am  not 
deceived  in  thinking  you  will  heartily  concur  in  endeavors  of  so  humane  a  tendency. 

As  I  propose  going  to  the  northward  as  soon  as  I  see  this  business  in  any  regular  train,  it  would  do  me  pleasure  to 
convey  any  word  to  your  correspondent  Mr.  H.  who  thinks  of  you  with  sentiments  of  singular  esteem,  and  who  is  a 
man  of  a  benevolence  and  philanthropy  expanded  beyond  party  and  national  contractedness. 

I  am,  witli  great  esteem,  your  obedient  servant, 

ITie  Honorable  Alexander  McGillivray,  Esq, 

One  of  the  Chiefs  of  the  Creek  natioti. 

[For  the  answer  to  this  letter,  vide  B.] 

C.  No.  3.     ■ 

^t  a  meeting  of  the  Lower  Creeeks. — jjpril  10,  1787. 
Friends  and  Brothers: 

The  occasion  that  brings  me  here  to  see  you,  is,  I  believe,  partly  of  the  same  nature  as  that  for  which  you  have 
met  together.  But  before  I  enter  upon  the  business,  I  cannot  help  expressing  the  pleasure  I  feel  at  seeing  so  many 
of  our  particular  friends  assembled.  The  Lower  towns  of  the  Creek  nation  have  always  shown  a  moderation  and  a 
prudence,  which  I  feel  and  admire.  If  this  disposition  is  continued,  it  will  establish  such  a  friendship  and  commerce, 
as  will  be  infinitely  better  than  quarrelling  and  bloodshed. 

There  are  many  present  who  are  already  informed  that  I  am  sent  here  by  the  great  council  which,  in  peace  and 
wai-,  directs  the  affairs  of  all  the  thirteen  united  nations  of  white  men,  of  which  the  Virginians,  your  neighbors,  make 
a  very  small  part.  I  come  now  from  the  centre  of  their  government;  at  the  distance  from  here  of  a  whole  moon's 
journey,  on  strong  horses. 

Brothers:  The  Virginians  of  Georgia,  who  form  one  of  the  thirteen  firesof  our  great  council,  complained,  at  the 
meeting  last  autumn,  that  their  country  was  attacked,  and  their  people  killed  by  some  bad  men  of  the  Creek  nation. 
They  demanded  assistance,  if  due  satisfaction  was  not  given  against  the  offenders.  But  the  old  and  wise  men  of  the 
great  council,  the  Congress,  before  they  would  send  out  a  strong  army  to  assist  in  killing  their  brothers,  the  Indians, 
with  whom  they  would  rather  be  at  peace,  wished  first  to  inquire  into  the  matter,  and  see  if  all  things  could  not  be 
amicably  settled.     For  this  purpose  they  have  sent  me  out. 

Now,  Brothers,  from  peace  may  we  not  all  reap  advantage.'  There  can  be  none  from  spilling  each  other's 

blood.     The  Master  of  Breath  lends  us  that  breath  but  for  a  little  while;  why  then  should  we  snatch  it  from  one 

another  sooner  than  he  designs.''    For  this  reason,  I  hope  both  parties  will  be  moderate.    Perhaps  it  hath  been  a  little 

the  fault  of  both  parties  that  any  of  the  human  blood  hath  been  spilt  on  the  occasion;  1  hope  that  now,  each  will 

yield  a  little  to  t'ne  other.    When  our  friends  of  the  Creek  nation,  who  are  now  at  Augusta,  come  up,  they  will  tell 

you  how  much  I  inculcated  this  to  the  white  people;  I  was  happy  to  find  them  disposed  to  it,  except  a  few  of  their 

mad  young  men,  who  were  too  apt  to  be  disposed  to  war;  but  their  nation  will  not  be  rigorous  in  their  demands: 

they  have  presents  in  waiting  for  the  Indians,  who,  I  hope,  will  go  down  and  receive  the  goods.    I  am  convinced 

/'that  this  nation  will  not,  in  the  end,  lose  any  thing  by  confirming  the  grant  of  such  lands  as  many  of  the  respecta- 

j'    ble  men  of  the  nation  have  thought  might  be  spared,  and  have  already  granted;  which  gift  it  would  look  unmanly  to 

'    retract,  if  it  could  be  done,  but  it  cannot. 

Brothers:  I  have  carefully  avoided  to  mention  any  old  cause  of  quarrels,  and  I  hope  there  will  be  none  for  the 
future.  You  will  find  tliat  the  headmen  among  the  Virginians  have  lately  made  provision  for  severely  punishing  any 
of  their  bad  folks,  who  shall  disturb  their  friends  the  Indians. 

I  will  not  trouble  you  further,  but  to  mention  one  thing,  which  concerns  us  all,  and  which  I  feel  from  my  heart: 
the  red  people  and  the  white  are  equally  interested  in  it.  We  are  countrymen;  we  live  in  the  same  land;  we 
breathe  the  same  air;  we  should  be  brothers.  The  Kings  and  people  who  live  over  the  great  water,  will  wish  to 
subdue  us  all.  They  will  use  cunning  and  force.  Perhaps  at  this  very  time  there  are  men  employed  among  you  to 
set  you  against  us.  It  is  not  so  long  since,  but  you  must  remember  how  one  of  these  Powers  made  violent  efforts 
of  this  kind,  even  upon  us,  the  white  people,  their  children.  But  to  tell  you  what  is  done  by  others  of  them  to 
people  of  your  color,  towards  the  mid-day  sun,  vcould  fill  you  with  horror.  Ought  we  not,  therefore,  to  grasp  one 
another  with  a  strong  arm  of  friendship,  the  more  easily  to  repel  these  foreigners.'  Go  down,  then,  and  receive  the 
presents  which  are  kept  for  you  as  marks  of  friendship,  when  you  run  the  line,  as  you  have  agreed.  You  will  be 
assured  that  every  care  has  been  taken  by  the  Virginians  to  prevent  your  receiving  anv  offence;  as  you,  I  flatter 
myself,  will  also  do  by  them.  For  my  part,  when  I  return  from  whence  I  came,  1  shall  have  the  pleasure  to  tell 
the  great  council  of  Congress  this;  then  they,  far  from  sending  an  army  into  the  Creek  nation,  will  exert  themselves 
to  give  trade,  and  the  comforts  of  life,  to  you  and  your  families.  This  will  make  the  chain  of  our  friendship  brighter, 
and,  indeed,  will  be  better  for  us  all. 

Before  I  make  an  end,  I  must  inform  you  that  our  friend  Chewocleymicho,  and  his  compamons,  the  hostages, 
are  in  good  health  and  spirits.  I  have  sent  down  to  request  they  may  be  brought  up,  that  it  may  not  appear  hai-d  to 
keep  our  friends  too  long  from  their  relations.  But  I  hope  the  time  passes  away  agreeably  with  them:  for  when  I 
left  them,  they  had  nolhmg  to  do  but  to  drink  rum  and  be  merry.  If  there  is  any  just  cause  of  complaint,  I  now 
beg  it  may  be  known,  that  I  may  use  my  best  endeavors  to  find  a  remedy.  All  we  have  to  request  is,  that  you  go 
and  receive  your  presents,  and  attend  at  running  the  line,  according  to  your  agreenvent  at  the  treaty. 

C.  No.  4, 
Proceedings  cf  the  meeting  of  the  Lower  Creeks. — dpril  10,  1789. 

Present:  the  principal  chiefs  of  the  lower  towns;  also,  the  Tallassee,  or  Half-way-house  king;  and  from  the 
further  Creeks,  Alex'rMcGdlivray.  Of  the  white  people,  besides  the  supenntendent  of  Indian  affairs,  the  two 
State  commissioners,  Messrs.  Barnard  and  Gaiphin. 

Mr.  McGillivray  opened  the  business,  by  telling  the  Indians  "  they  knew  for  what  purposes  this  meeting  was 
called :  he  regretted    it  had  not  been  earlier,  that  their  sentiments  respecting  the  white  people's  settling  their 

ir89.]  THE  CREEKS   AND   OTHERS.  23 

lands,  might  have  been  certainly  known;  that  the  Virginians  (J.  e.  Georgians)  had  falsely  persuaded  the  rest  of  the 
white  people  they  had  purchased  those  lands  from  them:  there  was  now  a  gentleman  come  out  to  inquire  into 
this  business;  that  he  came  from  a  different  quarter,  and  would  be  a  good  witness  to  the  truth.  He  (McGillivray) 
had  no  doubt  they  would  treat  him  with  the  highest  respect,  and  with  every  attention  to  what  he  might  have  to  say 
to  them.*'  He  then  requested  the  superintendent  to  put  any  questions,  or  make  any  proposals  he  thought  proper. 
During  the  talk  of  the  superintendent,  the  Indians  observed  a  singular  decorum  and  attention,  till  he  came  to  request 
them  to  go  down  and  run  the  line;  at  which  they  interrupted,  by  asking  if  the  white  people  wanted  to  make  any 
more  of  them  prisoners  (i.  e.  hostages.) 

In  answer  to  the  talk,  the  Tall^sge-king  spoke  first.  He  said,  that  "he  was  glad  the  superintendent  had  come 
out,  that  he  might  make  known  Tiiscomplaints,  of  which  he  had  many.  He  had  always  been  a  friend  to  the  white 
people;  that,  after  the  war,  he  was  invited  to  Augusta,  where  he  expected  to  be  treated  like  a  friend;  instead  of 
which,  the  white  people,  their  long  knives  in  their  hands,  insisted  on  his  making  a  cession  of  land,  which  he  had 
no  right  to  do;  but  that,  after  three  days'  importunity,  he  was  obliged  to  consent,  on  condition  the  nation  would 
agree  to  it." 

The  Hallowing  king  of  the  Cowetas  seemed  principally  to  undertake  to  speak  for  the  Indians  in  general.  He 
expressed  their  thankfulness  to  the  superintendent  for  coming  so  great  a  journey,  with  the  good  intention  of  settling 
the  quarrel  between  them  and  the  Georgians.  .If  the  matter  rested  between  them  and  Congress,  no  doubt  it  could 
be  amicably  concluded;  but  there  was  a  third  party,  who  had  no  mind  to  do  justice.  He  gave  an  historical  account 
of  the  progress  of  the  white  people,  from  even  before  their  establishment  to  the  southward  of  the  Savannah,  as  he 
had  seen  himself,  or  been  informed  by  older  men.  But,  says  he,  "  these  last  strides  tell  us  they  never  mean  to  let 
their  foot  rest;  our  lands  are  our  life  and  breath;  if  we  part  w  itli  them,  wc  part  with  our  blood.  We  must  fight  for 

The  superintendent  then  endeavored  to  show  the  difficulty,  nay,  theimpossibility  of  evacuating  the  lands  on  which 
people  hau  settled,  after  buying  them,  in  the  opinion  that  they  were  granted  by  the  Indians,  in  atonement  for  the 
many  unprovoked  injuries  the  State  had  sustained.  He  adduced  many  reasons  to  make  it  probable  the  Tallassee 
king  had  made  the  grants  unconstrained.  He  promised  them  every  security  should  be  given  them  against  all 
future  encroachments;  and  he  ofl'ered  to  take  off  several  conditions  of  the  late  treaty,  that  migfit  seem  to  bear  too 
hard.  But  they  insisted,  the  great  grievance  was  taking  their  land;  and  that  thev  could  not  dispense  with.  When 
they  were  desired  to  declare  if  nothing  would  do  but  relinquishing  the  lands  on  the  Oconee,  they  answered,  that,  or 

The  superintendent  took  his  leave,  assuring  them  of  his  good  wishes  to  the  nation:  and  that  he  would  always 
use  his  endeavors  in  obtaining  for  them  whatever  might  be  fair  and  reasonable;  but  that  lie  was  sorry  to  tliink  their 
demands  in  the  present  were  neither. 

Mr.  McGillivray's  proposal  was  made  next  day. 

D.  No.  1. 

Augusta,  Geo.  I5th  November,  1787. 

I  do  myself  the  honor  to  enclose  to  your  Excellency  a  report  of  a  committee  of  the  General  Assembly  of  this 
State,  respecting  the  Creek  Indians.  It  so  fully  informs  your  Excellency  of  the  unavoidable  necessity  there  is  for 
a  war  with  that  nation,  that  little  is  left  for  me  to  say  on  the  subject.  In  my  letter  to  our  delegates,  of  the  9th  of 
August,  I  inform  them  of  the  murders  committed  by  the  Indians,  and  by  their  answer,  it  appears  the  letter  was  laid 
before  Congress,  since  which  time  our  frontiers  have  been  tlie  scene  of  blood  and  ravages;  they  have  killed  thirty-one 
of  our  citizens,  wounded  twenty,  and  taken  four  prisoners;  they  have  burnt  the  court  house  and  town  of^  Greensburgh, 
in  the  county  of  Greene,  and  a  number  of  other  nouses  in  different  parts  of  the  country.  The  Assembly,  fully  con- 
vinced that  the  State  never  can  have  a  secure  and  lasting  peace  with  that  perR(lious  nation,  untd  they  have 
severely  felt  the  effects  of  war,  have  ordered  three  tliousand  men  to  be  raised,  and  given  the  Executive  power  to 
call  forth  fifteen  hundred  more,  should  the  first  not  be  adequate.  The  arming  and  equipping  these  troops  will  be 
attended  with  such  expense,  that  the  aid  of  the  Union  will  be  required,  in  adilition  to  our  exertions,  and  I  flatter 
myself  the  United  States  will  grant  such  assistance  as  will  enable  us  to  niosecute  the  war  with  vigor,  and  establish 
us  in  the  blessings  of  peace.    I  would  also  take  the  liberty  of  remarlving,  that  I  have  reason  to  think  the  Creek 

Indians  are  .supplied  with  arms  and  ammunition  from  the  Spanish  government  of  West  Florida,  and  whether  it 
may  not  be  proper  for  Congress  oflicialiy  to  remonstrate  against  such  supplies  being  granted  them,  whilst  engaged  ia 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  respect,  &c. 

a  war  with  us. 


*  D.  No.  2.  ■'. 

HocsE  OF  A.SSE.MBLV,  Tlksdav,  the  S.3d  October,  1787. 

Tlie  House  proceeded  to  take  into  consideration  the  report  of  the  committee,  to  whom  was  referred  the  mes- 
sage of  his  Honor  the  Governor,  of  tJic  18th  instant,  together  with  such  parts  of  the  despatches  accompanying  the 
same,  as  relates  to  the  Creek  Indians:  and  the  same  being  read  and  amended,  was  agreed  to  by  the  House,  and  is 
as  follows: 

"The  committee,  consisting  of  General  Clarke,  Mr.  Telfair,  Mr.  Joseph  Haberstiam,  Mr.  Seagrove,  and  Mr. 
Walton,  to  whom  were  referred  the  papers  marked  No.  1,  accompanying  the  Governor's  message  of  the  18th 
instant,  respecting  Indian  affairs,  report: 

•'That,  in  examining  the  letters  and  documents  committed  to  them,  they  have  necessarily  been  led  to  a  reference 
to  the  treaties  and  principal  transactions  with  the  Indians,  which  have  taken  place  since  the  Revolution  and  the  esta- 
blishment of  peace  with  GreatBritain.  And  they  find  that,  on  the  thirty-first  day  of  May,  in  the  year  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  eighty-three,  the  Cherokees,  by  a  treaty  held  at  Augusta,  among  others,  agreed  to  and  subscribed 
tlie  following  clause: 

"  '  Clause  3d.  That  a  new  line  shall  be  drawn,  without  dalay,  between  the  present  settlements  in  the  said  State, 
and  the  hunting  ground  of  the  said  Indians,  to  begin  on  Savannah  river,  where  the  present  line  strikes  it;  thence,  up 
the  said  river,  to  a  place  on  the  most  northern  branch  of  the  same,  (commonly  called  Keowee)  wliere  a  northeast 
line,  to  be  drawn  from  the  top  of  the  Ocunna  mountain,  shall  intersect;  thence,  along  the  said  line,  on  a  southwest 
direction,  to  the  top  of  the  said  mountain;  thence,  in  the  same  direction,  to  Tuegola  river;  thence,  to  the  top  of  the 
Currahee  mountain;  thence  to  the  head  or  .source  of  the  most  southern  branch  of  the  Oconee  nvcr.  including  all  the 
waters  of  the  same;  and  thence,  down  the  middle  of  the  said  branch,  to  the  Creek  line.  And  that,  on  tlie  Srst  day 
of  November  following,  by  a  treaty  also  held  at  Augusta,  among  others,  the  Creeks  agreed  to  and  subscribed  a  simi- 
lar clause,  for  establishing  the  same  line  for  their  hunting  grounds.  And  both  nations  made  the  same  relinquish- 
ment, on  account  of  mutual  claims  which  iiad  not  before  been  settled  between  them;  and  this  boundary  was  a<'ain 
acknowledged  and  confirmed  at  another  treaty,  held  with  the  Creeks  at  Galphinton,  the  12th  day  of  November,  1)ne 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-five,  and  extended  from  the  confluence  of  thcOconeeand  Oakmulgee  rivers,  to  the 
sourceof  St.  Mary's.  That  it  is  true,  that,  .some  few  months  after  the  holding  of  this  latter  treaty,  some  uneasmesses 
began  to  be  fomented  in  the  nation,  and  some  murders  were  committed.     This  was  considered  and  declared  to  bean 

24  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

infraction  of  the  treaty,  and  reparation  was  demanded.  It  was  made  a  serious  object  of  Government,  and  the  Leigis- 
lature  being  convened,  our  domestic  situation  and  our  relative  one  with  the  Union,  were  considered  with  all  possible 
attention  and  respect.  Commissioners  were  appointed,  with  fall  powers  to  inquire  into  the  causes,  and  to  restore 
peace;  but  with  power  also,  if  unavoidable,  to  take  eventual  measures  of  defence.  This  proceeding  produced  ano- 
ther treaty,  which  was  held  at  Shoulderbone,  on  the  third  of  November,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty -six, 
whereby  the  violation  was  acknowledged,  the  boundaries  contained  in  the  former  treaties  again  recognized,  and 
ratified,  and  seven  hostages  were  pledged  for  the  faithful  execution  of  the  condition.  Your  committee  cannot 
forbear,  here,  to  observe,  that,  during  the  course  of  all  these  transactions,  the  communications  were  made  in  solemn, 
open,  and  ancient  form,  and  the  articles  of  the  treaties  were  mutually  respected,  until  the  aggression  posterior  to 
that  of  Galphinton.  And  that,  whilst  it  is  admitted  on  the  one  hand,  there  was  no  principle  of  representation  of  the 
parts  of  the  nation  known  in  civilized  government,  it  cannot  be  denied  on  the  other,  that  it  was  such,  as  had  been 
common;  and  the  Indians  acknowledged,  without  doubt,  and  regret  their  forming  a  part,  and  being  members  of  the 
State.  Peace  being  thus  restored  by  the  treaty  of  Shoulderbone,  but  before  the  articles  were  yet  carried  into  full 
effect,  the  State  received  the  appointment  of  a  superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States 
for  the  southern  department,  and  on  the  15th  January,  in  the  present  year,  the  same  was  acknowledged  by  the  fol- 
lowing resolutions  of  the  Legislature: 

"  '  That  this  House  have  a  due  sense  of  the  attention  of  Congress  to  the  affairs  between  this  State  and  the  Indians 
within  its  territory. 

"• '•  ResolveiL  That  his  Honor  the  Governor  be  requested  to  communicate  to  the  said  superintendent,  that  the 
Government  of  this  State,  on  the  former  part  of  the  last  year,  received  certain  advice,  that  it  was  the  intention  of 
the  Creek  Indians  to  make  war  against  the  white  inhabitants  of  the  same;  and  that  a  short  time  after  they  did  actu- 
ally commit  hostilities. 

" '  That,  in  consequence  thereof,  and  agreeably  to  the  articles  ot  confederation  and  perpetual  union,  which  this 
State  holds  as  the  rule  of  its  good  faith,  and  as  the  evidence  of  its  portion  of  sovereignty  of  the  Union,  measures 
were  taken,  which  had  for  their  object,  the  present  security  of  the  State,  and  the  restoring  of  peace  and  tranquillity. 
by  the  most  expeditious  and  certain  means;  and  that,  under  Providence,  the  measures  have  been  attended  with  the 
desired  success. 

" '  That,  immediately  after  the  measures  before  mentioned  were  determined  on,  the  delegates  of  this  State  were 
directed  to  make  full  representation  of  the  same  to  Congress,  %vith  the  motives  which  compelled  the  State  to  the 
same,  without  tlie  delay  which  would  unavoidably  have  arisen  from  the  remote  distance  of  the  State  from  the  resi- 
dence of  Congress,  which  no  doubt  has  been  done  accordingly.' 

"  And  afterwards,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  confer  with  the  said  superintendent  on  the  subject  of  his  mission, 
and  on  the  6th  of  February  they  reported,  and  of  which  the  following  are  extracts: 

" '  Your  committee  report,  that  they  have  conferred  with  the  honorable  the  superintendent  of  the  United  States^ 
and  have  laid  before  him  the  papers  and  instructions  committed  to  their  care,  to  which  he  has  been  pleased  to  return 
the  following  answer: 

"  'Gentlemen  of  the  committee  for  Indian  Affairs,  accept  my  thanks  for  your  polite  communication  of  the  different 
materials  in  your  possession,  to  assist  in  acquiring  an  idea  of  ihe  situation  of  Indian  affairs  in  this  district  The  not 
having  been  engaged  in  this  line  till  very  lately,  will  hardly  permit  me  to  remark  on  the  subject  as  you  request.  I  will 
only  express  my  satisfaction,  in  observing  the  moderation,  as  well  as  spirit,  witli  which  this  State  pursued  her  plan 
of  checking  the  savage  violence  on  the  late  occasion.  The  report  I  have  to  make  to  the  United  States  in  Congress, 
taking  its  complexion  from  these  circumstances,  will  probably  induce  them  to  a  more  cheerful  participation  of  the 

" '  The  spirit  and  prudence  of  the  State  will,  no  doubt,  farther  dictate  means  of  future  tranquillity,  as  well  as 
those  of  invigorating  trie  iiands  of  the  superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  so  far  as  is  conducive  to  the  execution  of 
his  office,  within  the  limits  this  State. 

"  'I  wish  to  do  myself  the  honor  of  assuring  the  honorable  the  Legislature,  that,  as  they  may  think  it  advisable 
for  me,  in  my  official  capacity,  to  be  present  at  making  the  temporary  line,  I  will  cheerfully  attend  to  that,  or  any 
other  measure  they  will  favor  me  with,  pointing  out  in  the  line  of  my  duty;  and  that,  in  every  official  transaction,  1 
shall  observe  a  most  sacred  respect  to  the  rights  of  the  State  of  Georgia. 

*"  I  am,  with  great  respect,  your  humble  servant,  J  AS.  WHITE.' 

"  The  same  committee  having  reported  the  expediency  of  new  regulations  for  Indian  Affairs,  a  bill  Mas  brought 
in  for  that  purpose,  and  being  carried  into  effect,  a  board  of  commissioners  were  appointed,  of  which  the  said  super- 
intendant  was  one.  The  commissioners,  having  convened,  entered  upon  the  duties  of  their  office;  and  it  was 
expected  that  the  Indians  would  be  down  some  time  in  the  spring  on  tne  fulfilment  of  the  Shoulderbone  treaty. 
That,  in  the  mean  time,  the  appointment  of  commissaries,  with  some  other  arrangements,  were  made,  and  the  super- 
intendent determined  to  visit  tne  nation.  When  there,  ne  wrote  to  the  Governor,  from  the  Buzzard -roost,  on  the 
12th  of  March,  stating  the  appearances  of  mischief  with  some  of  the  Indians,  the  probable  good  effects  of  his  medi- 
ation, and  of  the  giving  up  the  hostages,  which  he  recommended.  It  was  also  said",  '  there  is  no  doubt  but  the 
Upper  Creeks  may  be  reconciled  to  the  boundary  as  wished;'  and  by  a  letter  from  Mr.  John  Galphin,  one  of  the 
commissaries,  written  at  the  same  time,  and  on  the  same  sheet,  he  says  '  I  saw  Mr.  McGillivray  lately,  who  says  he 
only  V.  aits  for  Doctor  White,  and,  if  he  comes,  he  will  have  the  line  run  between  the  Indians  and  the  Georgians  by 
the  first  of  May;'  and  he  also  advised  that  the  hostages  should  be  given  up.  Upon  the  foundation  of  these  letters,  the 
surrender  of  the  hostages  was  agreed  to,  and  two  of  the  principal  ones  went  on  with  the  answers,  and  the  others 
were  to  accompany  the  commissioners. 

"  But  that,  on  the  1 3th  of  April  foil  owing,  another  letter,  from  the  superintendent  to  the  Governor,  dated  from  the 
Cussetahs,  advises  to  prepare  for  war,  in  any  event;  adding,  that  his  personal  safety  was  assured  to  be  in  danger, 
should  he  threaten  the  nation  with  the  force  of  the  Union;  and  upon  his  return  to  Augusta,  on  the  23d  of  April,  in 
a  farther  address  to  the  Governor,  he  ascribes  the  suspension  ot  hostilities  between  the  Indians  and  the  State,  to 
propositions  communicated  to  him  by  Mr.  McGillivray,  for  a  new  State  to  be  laid  off,  south  of  the  Altamaha,  and 
mentions  that  he  had  acceded  to  a  truce  until  the  first  of  August.  And  here  ends  the  knowledge  of  your  commit- 
tee, of  transactions  with,  or  by,  the  superintendent.  It  was  but  a  little  while,  however,  before  several  murders  were 
committed  on  our  frontier,  and  which  have  been  repeated,  from  time  to  time,  until  mutual  hostilities  have  at  length 
taken  place  on  the  whole  length  of  our  borders  and  a  war,  by  the  savages,  is  now  raging  with  all  its  horrors. 

"  And  here,  too,  the  task  of  your  committee  becomes  distressingly  difficult.  As  lovers  of  their  country,  and  as  ser- 
vants of  the  State,  it  is  equally  their  desire,  and  their  duty,  to  be  true  and  to  be  just;  and,  while  they  wish  to  treat 
the  servants  of  the  Union  with  the  strictest  respect,  they  ought  to  guard  our  Government  at  home  against  the  impro- 
per imputation  of  wrong.  They  therefore  report  it  as  their  opinion,  that  the  ultimate  causes  of  the  war  were  the  too 
/  sudden  interferences  with  treaties  of  the  State,  by  which  the  minds  of  the  Indians  were  perplexed,  and  the  impres- 
•  sion  induced,  that,  in  a  war  with  the  State,  they  should  not  have  the  strength  of  the  Union  to  fear;  and  that  another 
disposition  would  be  made  of  the  Territory,  than  that  which  considers  it  as  part  of  the  State.  That  representations 
to  this  effect  should  be  immediately  transmitted  to  Congress,  and  the  support  of  the  Union  demanded. 

*'  That,  in  the  meantime,  the  most  vigorous  and  decisive  measures  be  taken,  by  the  Government  of  this  State,  for 
suppressing  the  bloody  violences  of  tlie  Indians.  For  which  purpose,  your  committee  advise,  that  a  law  be  passed, 
as  speedily  as  possible,  for  raising  and  forming  magazines  of  arms,  ammunition,  stores,  and  provision  in  kind,  and 
for  enlisting  of  men  for  the  protection  of  the  State." 

Extracts  from  the  minutes. 

JAS.  M.  SIMMONS,  Clk.  G.  Ji. 

\rm.]  THE  CREEKS  AND  OTHERS.  25 

E.  No.  1. 

The  Secretar)-  of  the  United  States  for  the  Department  of  War,  in  obedience  to  the  order  of  Congress  of  the  loth 
instant  to  report  a  plan  for  the  protection  ot  the  frontier  of  Georgia,  agreeably  to  the  principle  of  the  resolve  of 
Congress  of  the  2l8t  of  July,  1787,  reports: 

That  he  conceives  it  is  intended  the  protection  to  be  afforded  the  State  of  Georgia,  should  be  complete,  in  case 
the  Creek  Indians  should  persist  in  refusing  to  enter  into  a  treaty  on  reasonable  terms,  and  to  comprehend  all 
operations  offensive,  as  well  as  defensive,  that  may  be  deemed  necessaiy  for  the  full  accomplishment  of  the  object. 

That  unless  rigorous  exertions  be  made  in  the  first  instance,  calculated  to  terminate  enectually  the  contest,  in 
one  campaign,  the  United  .States  will  hazard  the  event  of  being  drawn  into  a  tedious,  expensive,  and  inglorious  war. 
That  the  strength  of  the  Wabash  Indians,  who  were  principally  the  object  of  the  resolve  of  the  21st  of  July, 
1787,  and  the  strength  of  the  Creek  Indians  is  very  different.  That  the  said  Creeks  are  not  only  greatly  superior 
in  numbers,  but  are  more  united,  better  regulated,  and  headed  by  a  man  whose  talents  appear  to  have  fixed 
him  in  tlieir  confidence. 

That  your  Secretary  humbly  apprehends  the  regular  troops  of  the  Union  on  the  Ohio  were  considered  as  the 
basis  of  the  before  recited  resolve,  ot  the  21st  July,  1787.  That  the  militia  intended  to  have  been  drawn  forth  were 
to  have  acted  as  auxilliaries  to  the  said  regular  troops,  and  that  all  the  airangements  were  to  have  been  made  under 
the  direction  of  the  commanding  officer  of  the  said  troops.  That  the  case  is  widely  different  on  the  frontiers  of 
Georgia,  no  troops  of  the  United  States  being  there,  noi  is  it  easily  practicable  to  remove  any  consideiable  body 
from  the  Ohio,  were  the  measure  expedient  in  other  respects. 

That  this  difference  of  circumstances  will  require  a  different  and  more  extensive  arrangement  for  the  protection 
of  the  frontier  of  Georgia  than  any  that  were  contemplated  by  the  aforesaid  resolve  of  the  21st  of  July,  1787. 

That  the  frontier  of  Georgia  may  be  protected  either  by  a  large  body  of  inilitia,  detached  from  time  to  time,  or 
by  a  corps  of  troops  regularly  organized  and  enlisted  for  a  certain  period.  That  a  consideration  of  the  expense  and 
irregularity  of  detachments  of  mere  militia,  compared  with  the  economy  and  vi^r  of  a  corps  of  troops  properly 
organized,  would  evince  the  great  superiority  and  advantage  to  be  deiived  to  tlie  public  by  an  adoption  of  the 
organized  troops. 

That,  from  the  view  of  the  object  your  Secretary  has  been  able  to  take,  he  conceives  that  the  only  effectual  mode  of 
acting  against  the  said  Creeks,  in  case  they  should  pereist  in  their  hostilities,  would  be  by  makmg  an  invasion  of 
their  country  with  a  powerful  body  of  well  regulated  troops,  always  ready  to  combat  and  able  to  defeat  any  combina- 
tion offeree  the  said  Creeks  could  oppose,  and  to  destroy  their  towns  and  provisions. 

Your  Secretary  humbly  conceives,  that  any  interference  on  the  part  of  the  United  States  with  less  force  and 
ener°;y,  would  cherish  the  hostilities  of  the  Creeks  instead  of  extinguishing  them. 

That  he  conceives  the  operation  herein  stated  would  require  an  army  of  two  thousand  eight  hundred  non-com- 
missioned officers  and  privates  of  the  different  species  of  troops,  to  be  raised  for  the  term  of  nine  months. 

That  the  said  troops  should  be  commanded  by  one  major  general,  and  one  brigadier  general,   to  be  appointed 
by  Congress,  who  should  also  appoint  an  inspector  and  quarter  master  to  said  troops. 
That  the  pay  and  emoluments  of  said  officers  be  fixed  by  Congress. 
That  the  organization  of  the  troops  should  be  as  follows: 

Three  regiments  of  infantr},  of  seven  hundred  eachjoneregimentof  cavalry,  of  five  hundred  and  sixty;  one  corps 
of  artillery  of  one  hundred  and  forty. 

That  if  Congress  should  approve  of  these  numbers,  they  might  be  apportioned  as  follows: 

Georgia. — One  regiment  of  infantrj',      -- -        700 

Five  companies  of  cavalr}',  of  70  each,         -        -        -        -        .......        -        350 


South  Carolina. — One  regiment  of  infantry,           -         -        -        -        ..-■..        .        .     ,  .■        700 
Two  companies  of  artillery,  of  70  each, 140 


North  Carolina. — One  regiment  of  infantry, 700 

Three  companies  of  cavalry, 210 



That  all  the  regimental  officers  be  appointed  by  the  said  States,  respectively,  according  to  the  proportions  to 
be  specified  by  the  Secretary  of  War. 

That  the  said  troops  should  be  mustered,  and  inspected,  in  the  manner  to  be  directed  by  the  Secretary  of  War, 
which  musters  should  be  considered  as  essential  vouchers  in  the  settlement  of  the  accounts  of  the  troops. 

That  the  said  troops  should  be  paid  by  the  States  in  which  they  are  respectively  raised,  according  to  the  rates  of 
pay  established  for  the  troops  of  the  United  States. 

That  suitable  clothing,  to  tiie  value  of  ten  dollars,  be  allowed  each  non-commissioned  officer  antl  private,  who 
should  enlist  for  the  said  term  of  nine  months,  which,  with  tents,  the  necessary  camp  equipagCj  and  wagons  or  other 
means  of  transportation,  agreeably  to  the  proportitms  to  be  specified  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  snould  be  furnished  to 
the  troops,  by  the  States  in  which  they  shall  be  raised. 

That  the  States  of  North  and  Soutli  Carolina  should  also  subsist  their  quotas  respectively  until  their  arrival  at 
the  place  of  rendezvous  to  be  appointed  by  the  commanding  officer. 

That  the  rations  and  forage  of  said  army  should  be  provided  by  contract  by  the  State  of  Georgia,  while  acting^ 
within  the  said  State,  and  also  for  the  quotas  of  South  and  North  Carolina  until  they  should  return  to  the  places  ol 
dismission  within  the  said  States  respectively. 

That  the  issues  of  tlie  rations  of  provision  and  forage,  should  be  checked  in  the  manner  to  be  directed  by  the 
Secretary  of  War,  and  for  every  ration  of  provision  allowed  accordingly  the  United  States  should  be  charged  a  sum 
not  exceeding parts  of  a  dollar,  and  for  every  ration  of  forage  not  exceeding parts  of  a  dollar. 

That  the  amount  of  pay,  transportation,  and  subsistence  of  said  troops,  should  be  settled  in  the  nuanner  an<l  forms 
to  be  previously  established  by  the  Board  of  Treasuiy,an(l  the  same,  when  completed,  should  be  passed  to  the  credit 
of  said  States,  on  the  existing  requisitions,  according  to  the  amount  they  may  have  respectively  furnished. 

That  as  it  is  highly  probable  that  the  said  States  may  be  deficient  in  arms,  accoutrements,  and  ammunition,  the 
same  be  furnished  out  of  the  arsenals  of  the  United  States,  and  be  transported  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  by  water,  to 
such  ports  within  the  saidStates  as  may  be  most  convenient,  and  addressed  to  the  executives  of  the  same. 

That  ten  pieces  of  light  field  artillery,  with  their  necessary  apparatus,  and  a  suitable  quantity  of  ammunition  be 
also  transported  by  the  Secretary  of  War  to  Savannah  in  Georgia,  for  the  purposes  of  the  said  expedition,  addressed 
to  the  major  general  who  may  be  appointed  for  tiie  expedition. 

That  the  expenses  of  every  species,  which  would  be  incurred  for  the  various  objects  of  the  said  army,  for  nine 
months,  may  be  estimated  at  four  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars. 
Ail  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  Congress. 

H.  KNOX. 

War  Office,  96th  July,  1788. 

26  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

In  Congress,  Oc/oZ>er  26//t,  178".  ■ 

Instructions  to  the  Commissioners  for  negotiating  a  treaty  tvith  the  tribes  of  Indians  in  the  Southern  Department, 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  peace  between  the  United  States  and  the  said  tribes. 


Several  circumstances  rendering  it  probable  that  hostilities  may  have  commenced,  or  are  on  the  eve 
of  commencing,  between  the  State  of  North  Carolina  and  the  Cherokee  nation  of  Indians,  and  between  the  State 
of  Georgia  and  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  you  are  to  use  every  endeavor  to  restore  peace  and  harmony  between 
the  said  States  and  the  said  nations,  on  terms  of  justice  and  humanity. 

The  great  source  of  contention  between  the  said  States  and  the  Indian  tribes,  being  boundaries,  you  will  carefully 
inquire  into,  and  ascertain,  the  boundaries  claimed  by  the  respective  States;  and  although  Congress  are  of  opinion  that 
they  might  constitutionally  fix  the  bounds  between  any  State  and  an  independent  tribe  of  Indians,  yet,  unwilling  to 
have  a  ditference  subsist  between  the  General  Government  and  that  of  the  individual  States,  they  wish  you  so  to 
conduct  the  matter  that  the  States  may  not  conceive  their  legislative  rights  in  any  manner  infringed,  taking  care,  at 
the  same  time,  that  whatever  bounds  are  agreed  upon  they  may  be  described  in  such  terms  as  shall  not  be  liable  to 
misconstruction  and  misrepresentation,  but  may  be  made  clear  to  the  conceptions  of  the  Indians,  as  well  as  whites. 

The  present  treaty  having  for  its  principal  object  the  restoration  of  peace,  no  cession  of  land  is  to  be  demanded 
of  the  Indian  tribes. 

You  will  use  the  utmost  care  to  ascertain  who  are  the  leading  men  among  the  several  tribes — the  real  head-men 
and  warriors;  these  you  will  spare  no  pains  to  attach  to  the  interest  of  the  United  States,  by  removing,  as  far  as  may 
be,  all  causes  of  future  contention  or  quarrels;  by  kind  treatment,  and  assurances  of  protection;  by  presents  of  a 
permanent  nature;  and  by  using  every  endeavor  to  conciliate  the  aftections  of  the  white  people  inhabiting  the  fron- 
tiers towards  them. 

You  will  encourage  the  Indians  to  give  notice  to  the  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  of  any  designs  that  may  be 
formed  by  any  neighboring  Indian  tribe,  or  by  any  person  whatever  against  the  peace  of  the  United  States. 

You  will  insist  that  all  prisoners,  of  whatever  age,  sex,  or  complexion,  be  delivered  up,  and  that  all  fugitive 
slaves  belonging  to  citizens  of  tlie  United  States  be  restored. 

F.    No.  1. 

.  WmssBOROvGH,  25th  June,  1788. 
Sir:  . 

I  beg  leave  to  lay  before  you  the  steps  taken  by  the  commissioners  to  bring  about  a  treaty  with  the  Creek 
Indians,  agreeably  to  the  resolves  of  Congress. 

A  talk  was  sent  to  that  nation  the  29th  of  March  last,  addressed  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  the  head  men  and 
warriors,  urging  the  necessity  there  was  to  treat,  and  in  the  most  pointed  terms  insisting,  as  a  first  principle,  that 
every  hostile  procedure  should  instantly  cease.     A  Mr.  Whitfield  was  the  bearer;  he  is  a  respectable  character,  and 
has  formerly  traded  with  them;  he  writes  us  that  the  Indians  are  highly  pleased  with  what  Congress  has  done,  and 
^    willing  to  treat  on  the  principles  of  justice  and  equity;  on  that  ground  they  will  meet  the  superintendent  and  com- 
missioners; in  the  interim,  all  hostilities  to  cease.    This,  I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you,  is  the  case  at  present,  and 
the  sooner  it  can  be  effected  the  better,  as  it  is  the  wish  of  the  Indians  that  the  treaty  be  held  as  speedily  as  possible. 
The  above  accounts  I  laid  before  the  Executive  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  who  agreed  with  me  in  opinion,  that  the 
15th  September  next  is  as  early  as  this  matter  can  be  begun  on.    The  reason  is  obvious;  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina not  complying  with  the  resolves  of  Congress,  in  forwarding  the  needful,  nor  is  it  to  be  expected  that  they  intend 
it,  (see  a  copy  of  the  Governor's  letter  enclosed)  and  even  supposing  they  had,  upon  a  general  calculation  the  sum 
allowed  by  Congress  would  have  been  too  small  to  carry  into  effect  a  treaty  with  the  Creeks  alone,  considering  the 
greatness  of  their  nation;  presents,  I  make  no  doubt,  arc  expected  by  them.    The  goods  on  hand  from  the  last  treaty 
amount  to  not  more  than  ^6400,  and  many  of  them  consist  of  perishable  aiticles,  which  of  course  have  suffered. 

The  two  commissioners.  Generals  Pickens  and  Matthews,  with  myself,  made  an  estimate  a  few  davs  ago  at 
Augusta,  a  copy  of  which  you  have  herewith.  As  these  gentlemen,  as  well  as  myself,  calculated  on  the  lowest 
scale,  I  make  no  doubt  you  will  think  with  me,  that  a  further  supply  is  necessary;  there  is  every  reason  to  believe 
there  \yill  be  present  from  one  thousand  to  fifteen  hundred  Indians,  and  each  Indian,  General  Pickens  (who  has  been 
on  similar  occasions  of  this  kind  before)  assures  me,  at  such  a  time,  which  cannot  well  be  denied  them,  expects 
double  rations.  Upon  the  whole,  I  trust,  on  a  matter  of  such  consequence  to  the  States,  Georgia  in  particular,  that 
Congress  will  give  it  a  reconsideration,  and  make  such  provision  as  they  conceive  best  on  this  business.  The  treaty, 
as  I  before  mentioned,  will  take  place  on  the  15th  September  next,  therefore  no  time  ought  to  be  lost. 

I  beg  leave  further  to  observe,  tiiat  my  commission  as  superindendent  expires  the  29th  of  August;  it  will  be 
necessary  to  prolong  the  time,  if  it  is  the  wish  of  Congress  to  continue  to  be  represented  in  the  southern  department 
I  shall  conclude,  with  assuring  you,  that  (he  States  of  South  Carolina  and  Georgia  will  contribute  every  thing  in 
their  power  towards  facilitating  the  treaty  under  the  auspices  of  Congress;  before  whom  I  beg  you  will  lay  the  pur- 
port of  this  without  delay.    They  may  depend  on  my  utmost  exertions  in  forwarding  a  plan  so  highly  necessary. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

General  Knox,  Secretary  of  f Far. 

V.    No.  «. 

Edenton,  19/A  March,  1788. 

The  resolution  of  Congress  of  26th  October,  to  which  you  refer  in  the  letter  you  did  me  the  honor  of  address- 
ing to  me  on  the  18th  day  of  February  last,  did  not  come  to  me  till  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Assembly;  and  as  I 
considered  that  the  settling  the  boundaiy  between  this  State  and  the  Indians  a  subject  of  too  much  importance  for 
me  to  act  in,  without  the  direction  of  the  Legislature,  I  laid  aside  t!ie  consideration  of  it  till  since  I  had  thethonor  of 
receiving  your  Excellency's  letter. 

I  yesterday  laid  all  the  papers  relatingto  this  business  before  the  Council  of  State,  for  their  consideration,  who 
concurred  with  mc  in  opinion  that  the  powers  of  the  Executive  department  of  this  State  did  not  extend  so  far  as  to 
comprehend  all  the  objects  contained  in  the  instructions  sent  fonvard  by  Congress,  for  the  government  of  the  com- 
missioner to  be  appointed  by  this  State,  and  though  the  resolution  of  Congress,  passed  as  early  as  the  26th  of  October. 
no  hostilities  have  hitherto  been  committed  on  the  inhabitants  of  this  State  by  the  Cherokees,  nor  have  loe  any  inti- 
mation from  the  inhabitants  of  the  frontier  that  any  such  hostilities  are  at  present  apprehended.  I  have  not,  there- 
fore, appointed  a  commissioner  to  treat  with  the  Cherokees.  Should  the  States  of  South  Carolina  and  Georgia  be  of 
opinion  that  the  co-operation  of  this  State  can,  in  any  manner,  facilitate  the  negotiation  with  the  Creeks,  we  will  be 
ready  to  adopt  any  measure  that  may  have  a  tendency  to  promote  the  peace  and  security  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  at 
any  time  when  they  may  think  proper  to  favor  us  with  an  intimation  in  what  manner  we  can  be  useful  to  them. 
I  have  the  nonorto  be,  with  the  highest  consideration  and  respect,  sir,  &c. 


Hia  Excellency  the  Governor  of  South  Carolina. 














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23  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

F.    No.  4. 

WiNNSBOROUGH,  August  5,  1788. 


By  talks  received  from  the  head  men  and  warriors  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  dated  the  30th  June  last,  I  am 

given  to  understand,  that  a  party  from  North  Carolina  (called  Franklin  State)  with  Servier  at  their  head,  came  over 

and  destroyed  several  of  their  towns,  killed  near  thirty  of  the  Indians,  made  one  prisoner,  and  obliged  the  remainder 

to  fly  with  their  families  to  some  of  the  Lower  towns  for  protection.    Notwithstanding  these  outrages,  there  are,  at 

/   this  present  time,  near  thirty  of  their  towns  in  friendship  with  the  white  people,  whose  wish  is  to  remain  so,  as  their 

/    talks  run  continually,  for  a  lasting  peace  to  be  establislied  between  them  and  the  whites.     The  Overhills,  the  other 

part  of  the  nation,  where  the  above  affair  happened,  seem  determined  for  war,  of  which  I  shall  make  the  Governor 

of  North  Carolina  acquainted.     The  daily  encroachments  made  on  the  territories  of  this  set  of  people,  is  such  as  to 

induce  them,  through  me,  to  lay  their  distressed  situation  before  Congress,  which  this  opportunity  gives  me  the 

honor  of  now  doing,  presuming  they  will  see  with  me,  the  real  necessity  there  is  for  an  accommodation  taking  place 

'-     with  this  nation,  and  order  the  necessary  supplies  accordingly,  for  carrying  the  treaty  into  eifect.    I  must  beg  leave 

to  add,  that,  could  I  have  been  supplied  with  the  needful,  I  should  have  called  this  nation  to  a  permanent  treaty  long 

ere  this. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  obedient  servant, 


Sir:  This  moment  General  Pickens'  letter  came  to  hand,  which  I  have  taken  the  liberty  to  enclose  to  you. 

R.  WINN. 
General  Knox,  -Secre/ari/o/ /far. 

'  ■,  F.    No.  6. 

WixNSBORouGH,  August  8,  1788. 

The  gentleman  who  was  sent  to  the  Creek  nations,  with  talks  from  the  commissioners,  has  returned  with 
answers  which  appear  to  be  friendly.  The  Indians  are  willing  to  come  to  a  treaty  next  month,  therefore,  the  15th 
day  is  set  for  that  purposej  the  meeting  will  he  held  on  the  Tugelo  river,  at  the  house  of  a  Mr.  Lachland  Cleave- 
iand,  on  the  Georgia  side,  m  consequence  of  which,  hostilities  have  ceased  on  both  sides. 

I  make  no  doubt  the  wish  of  Congress  will  be  fully  answered,  provided  the  Assembly  of  Georgia  repeal  a  law, 
which,  in  some  measure,  militates  against  the  resolves  of  Congress,  in  carrying  into  effect  the  treaty  with  tliat 
nation.     The  Assembly  are  now  sitting  on  the  business,  which,  1  hope,  will  have  the  desired  effect. 

I  have  tlie  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  humble  servant, 

General  Knox,  i'ccre/ari/ o/W^ar. 

F.    No.  7. 

WjNNSBOROuGH,  Octobcr  14,  1788. 

I  have  had  the  honor  of  receiving  your  several  letters,  with  the  duplicates  of  each,  enclosing  the  different 
resolves  of  Congress,  of  July  I5th,  August  4th,  and  14th,  respecting  Indian  affairs,  and  shall  at  all  times  be  happy, 
through  you,  to  lay  before  that  honorable  body  such  information  as  offers  in  that  department. 

From  several  conferences  with  the  commissioners,  relative  to  the  Creek  Indians,  and  opening  a  correspondence 
with  McGillivray,  who  is  their  head  man,  we  were  led  to  believe,  that  our  negotiations  would  terminate  in  a  peace 
between  that  nation  and  the  State  of  Georgia;  and  agreeably  to  what  I  before  informed  you,  had  actually  appointed 
the  time  and  place  for  holding  a  treaty,  not  doubting,  when  we  met,  to  get  over  every  obstacle  in  bringing  it  to  an 
j^sue.  However,  not  having  the  supplies  necessary  in  time,  and  receiving  a  letter  (see  No.  1,  enclosed)  from  the 
(jovernor  of  Georgia,  we  wrote  to  McGillivray,  and  the  head  men  and  warriors,  to  postpone  the  treaty  until  the 
spring  of  next  year;  to  this  we  have  had  no  answer  as  yet,  but  have  received  a  letter  from  him  (see  No.  2,  enclosed) 
wherein  he  insists,  as  a  leading  principle,  upon  having  the  boundaries  the  same  as  they  were  when  the  State  of  Georgia 
was  a  British  province;  these  tenns  of  treaty  he  mentions  in  his  first  letter  to  the  commissioners,  but  neither  they 
nor  myself  imagined  this  would  operate  in  his  breast,  or  with  the  Indians,  as  a  barrier  to  the  treatv,  when  we  produced 
the  different  articles  of  peace  entered  into  since,  with  the  bounds  prescribed,  and  mutually  agreed  to  by  both 
parties.  (See  a  copy  of  our  letter,  to  which  No.  2  is  an  answer.)  It  evidently  appears  by  his  last,  if  we  are  to 
expect  peace  with  these  Indians,  it  must  be  on  his  own  terms.  From  these  considerations,  we  may  think  it  our 
duty  to  reply  in  a  different  manner  to  what  we  have;  as  soon  as  we  have  an  answer  to  our  last,  respecting  the  post- 
poning the  treaty.  I  shall  do  myselt  tlie  lionor  of  transmitting  you  a  copy  of  it. 

Before  I  quit  the  subject  of  the  Creek  Indians,  it  will  be  necessary  to  inform  you  (in  order  to  make  the  Governor 
of  Georgia's  meaning  appear  more  clear)  that  the  Georgians  have,  at  this  time,  a  law  existing,  wherein  they  have 
given  as  bounty  land  to  their  soldiers,  a  large  tract  of  country  which  belongs  to  the  Indians. 

This  I  remonstrated  to  the  Executive  of  that  State;  an<i  tnis  was  another  motive  for  the  treaty's  being  postponed, 
as  such  a  law  should  be  repealed  before  an  accommodation  could  take  place. 

With  due  respect,  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 


The  Honorable  Genefdl  Knox,  Secretary  of  War. 

F.    No  8. 

Augusta,  (Georgia)  August  14,  1788. 

The  disagreeable  and  unhappy  situation  of  our  State  afTairs  is  such,  that  I  am  sorry,  on  this  occasion, 
to  be  under  the  necessity  to  declaim  against  theu*  inability  ot  carrying  into  effect  tlie  business  fully,  of  the  proposed 
treaty  with  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians. 

In  order  to  obviate  the  many  difficulties  and  insufficiency  that  appeared  in  the  operation  of  the  said  treaty,  I  did, 
with  the  advice  of  the  Executive,  call  the  Legislature  to  convene  in  Augusta,  the  22d  ultimo,  but  without  effect; 
and  the  Executive  have  it  not  in  their  power  to  make  any  appropriations.  I  have,  and  will  continue  to  exert  myself, 
in  endeavoring  to  obtain  a  credit  from  the  mercantile  line,  either  on  public  or  private  faith,  and,  if  successful,  will 
give  you  early  notice  thereof.     But  in  this  I  doubt. 

I  would,  therefore,  (if  Congress  does  not  appropriate  a  further  sura  for  carrying  on  the  said  treaty,  as  the  super- 
intendent, I  presume,  represented  the  whole  to  that  honorable  body)  most  seriously  recommend,  that  you  endeavor 
all  in  your  power  to  have  the  said  treaty  postponed  if  possible.  I  promise  you  the  sight  of  the  business  shall  not 
be  put  off,  but  every  preparation  in  our  power  shall  be  exerted.  You  have  to  urge,  on  your  parts,  the  reason  for 
postponing  the  treaty  to  be,  that  of  the  change  of  Government,  and  of  other  matters;  that  I  dare  say  would  be 


1789.]  THE   CREEKS    AND    OTHERS.  29 


sufficient,  particularly  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  who  is  a  sensible,  intelligent  man.  If  possible  that  the  same  could  be 
postponed  until  the  spring  of  the  next  year,  it  would  be  well;  but  at  any  rate,  for  two  or  three  months.  This 
matter  would  be  best  managed  by  the  person  you  appoint  to  go  to  tlie  nation,  who  ought  to  be  a  sensible  man.  I 
shall  engage  tliat  peace  be  observed  by  the  citizens  of  this  State,  against  the  Creek  nation,  as  far  as  is  in  my  power 
to  enforce;  you  will  please,  also,  to  urge  the  observance  of  the  same  on  their  parts,  against  the  citizens  ot  this  State.    ' 

I  flatter  myself,  gentlemen,  taking  a  review  of  our  situation,  that  you  will  do  all  in  your  power  to  obtain  peace 
with  the  Indians  within  your  district,  and  the  citizens  of  the  United  States. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  every  sentiment  of  respect,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Hon.  Richard  Winn,  Esq.  Superintendent,  and 
The  Hon.  Geo.  Mathews  and  Andrew  Pickens,  Esqrs. 

Commissioners  of  Indian  Affairs. 

. .  c  F.  No.  9. 

•     Fort  Charlotte,  Jidy  16,  1788. 
To  Alexander  McGillivray,  Esquire,'and  others,  the  Chief  Men  and  Warriors  of  the  Creek  nation. 

This  day  your  letter  was  opened,  which^ou  were  pleased  to  address  to  us,  as  also  the  talks  of  the  Hallowing 
King,  of  the  Lower,  and  Mad  Dog,  of  thebpper  Creeks,  in  answer  to  the  one  sent  you  by  Mr.  Whitfield. 

We  are  happy  to  find  that  you  are  willing  to  meet  us  in  treaty,  so  as  to  convince  the  world  that  your  conduct, 
and  the  leading  men  of  the  Indians,  is  such  as  to  dispose  you  to  do  that  which  is  right  and  just.  On  such  grounds, 
we  are  equally  willing  to  meet. 

You  mention  you  expect  a  requisition  will  be  made  by  us  to  the  people  of  Georgia,  to  retire  from  the  Oconee 
river,  within  the  bounds  claimed  under  the  British  Government.  This  we  are  not  authorized  to  do,  but  will  write 
to  the  Governor  of  Georgia,  requesting  him  to  issue  his  proclamation  that  no  further  trespasses  be  committed,  and 
that  all  hostilities  do  cease.  We  make  no  doubt  you  will  lose  sight  of  all  matter  of  little  weight,  and  bring  fully 
into  view  the  grand  object  of  the  treaty,  agreeably  to  the  resolves  of  Congress,  so  as  to  restore  peace  and  harmony 
once  more  between  the  citizens  of  Georgia  and  the  Creek  Indians,  on  the  principles  of  justice  and  humanity;  as  we 
do  firmly  assure  you  'tis  what  we  ardently  wish. 

As  to  the  time  and  place  for  holding  the  treaty,  this  power  was  fully  vested  in  the  superintendent  and  the  Execu- 
tive of  Georgia,  and  they  had,  previous  to  any  aflvice  received  from  Mr.  Whitfield,  (except  his  letter  of  May  15th) 
appointed  the  15th  September  next,  the  day  on  which  the  treaty  is  to  begin,  on  the  river  Tugoolo,  the  dividing  line 
between  South  Carolina  and  Georgia,  at  the  house  of  Lachland  Cleaveland,  on  the  Georgia  side,  at  which  tiine  and 
place  we  hope  to  meet  you  and  the  Creek  chiefs  as  brothers.  We  wisli  to  see  every  thing  conducted  in  the  greatest 

We  conclude,  thanking  you  for  your  polite  attention  to  Mr.  Whitfield,  and  shall  be  disposed  to  make  you  a  like 
return  in  future. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  your  obedient  servants, 

RICHARD  WINN,  Superintendent. 

ANDREW  PICKENS,  Commissioner  for  South  Carolina. 

GEORGE  MATHEWS,  Commissioner  for  Georgia. 

Gentlemen : 

F.  No.   10. 

Little  Tallassee,  12//t  Augtisl,  1788. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  I6th  July,  this  day.  It  is  with  equal  surprise  and  concern,  that  I  learn 
from  you  that  the  honorable  the  Coiigresshas  not  authorized  you,  its  c(mimissioners,  to  give  us  a  full  redress  of  our 
complaints,  and  to  give  us  full  satifaction  in  what  concerns  our  territory,  which  the  Georgians  are  attempting  to  wrest 
from  us  forcibly;  all  which  we  were  taught  to  expect  from  the  justice  and  humanity  ot  that  honorable  body,  from 
the  measure  adopted  by  them  in  sending  Doctor  White  among  us,  to  be  fully  and  truly  informed  of  the  cause 
of  the  war  between  us  and  Georgia.  We  had  great  expectations  that  we  should  soon  experience  the  good  effects  of 
it,  in  having  the  causes  of  our  discontents  removed;  and  more  particularly,  (m  Mr.  Whitfield's  coming  here,  we 
did  so  firmly  believe  that  we  were  on  the  point  of  obtaining  a  satisfactory  peace,  that  we  were  eager  to  meet  you 
and  conclude  one;  but  your  letter  discovers  to  me  that  nothing  has  been  done,  and  all  is  yet  to  do. 

It  was  expected  that  the  requisition  which  I  made  to  you  for  removing  the  Georgians  from  the  disputed  lands,  was 
to  be  considered  by  you  as  it  was  meant  by  us,  as  an  indispensable  preliminary  to  form  the  basis  on  which  the  treaty 
of  peace  was  to  be  concluded. 

I  feel  much  pleasure  in  your  approving  of  the  leading  sentiments  as  expressed  in  my  letter  by  Mr.  Whitfield, 
and  it  is  with  regret  that  I  remark,  that  our  enemy  does  not  manifest  an  equal  disposition  with  us,  to  terminate  the 
war,  by  agreeing  to  equitable  terms  of  peace;  and,  as  we  ask  no  concession  from  them  as  the  price  of  peace,  so  they 
ought  not  to  demand  any  on  our  side. 

When  I  next  meet  the  chiefs,  which  \vill  be  early  in  September,  I  will  explain  to  them  the  contents  of  your 

Meantime  I  answer  you,  as  well  knowing  that  they  will  not  consent  to  treat,  unless  they  see  their  requisition 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  most  respectful  consideration,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

To  the  Hon.  Generals  Richard  W  inn,  Andkkw  Pickens,  and  George  Mathews, 

Commissioners  appointed  by  the  honorable  the  Congress,  to  treat  ivith  the  Southern  Nations  of  Indians. 

F.  No.  11. 

Winnsbohough,  8th  December,  1788. 

I  do  myself  the  honor  to  enclose  you  a  copy  of  McGillivray's  last  letter  to  the  commissioners  and  myself, 
together  with  our  answer,  by  which  you  will  discover,  if  the  Indians  evade  coming  to  a  treaty,  they  mean  war,  and 
will,  in  my  opinion,  come  down  in  great  force  against  the  State  of  Georgia. 

On  the  receipt  of  his  letter,  which  never  came  to  hand  till  the  13th  of  last  month,  though  dated  so  early  as  the 
15th  ol  September,  I  immediately  directed  a  meeting  of  the  commissioners  at  Hopewell,  when  it  was  agreed  on,  that 
the  treaty  could  not  take  place  sooner  than  next  May,  or  June,  as  it  was  thought  necessary  the  Indians  should  have 
time  to  consult,  and  finally  determine  on  the  last  talk  sent  them,  which  is  the  answer  alluded  to,  wherein  we 
expressly  request  their  reply  to  be  pointed  and  decisive,  and  that  it  be  despatched  to  us  as  soon  as  possible.  Should 
they  do  this,  it  will  give  Congress  and  the  Georgians  timely  notice  to  prepare  for  the  worst,  or  otherwise,  as  it  may 

Not  long  since,  a  fort,  between  French  Broad  and  Holston  rivers,  was  taken  by  the  Cherokees  and  Creeks.  Ten 
persons  were  killed,  and  about  thirty  were  made  prisoners.  The  war  is  still  carried  on  between  North  Carolina 
and  the  Cherokees.  By  a  talk  I  lately  held  with  one  of  die  chiefs  of  that  nation,  he  says,  "  notwithstanding  what 
has  happened  between  them,  their  principal  men  wish  for  peace;  that  they  are  now  holding  a  great  talk  among  their 
head  men  and  warriors,  the  result  of  which  was  not  determined,  but  he  thinks  tliey  would  gladly  bury  the  hatchet." 

30  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

I  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  McGillivray  is  trying  to  unite  the  two  nations,  the  Creeks  and  Cherokees. 
The  South  Carolina  and  Georgia  commissioners  tliink,  Avith  me,  that,  if  the  State  of  North  Carolina  would  send 
forward  their  commissioner  with  the  supplies,  a  treaty  might  be  effected  with  the  Cherokees,  before  a  junction  with 
the  Creeks  could  take  place. 

Sir,  with  regard,  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

The  Honorable  Major  General  Knox,  Secretary  of  War. 

F.  No.    12. 

Little  Tallassee,  I5th  September,  1788. 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  28tli  of  August,  wherein  you  desire  that  the  proposed  treaty  between  us  may 
be  deferred  until  the  spring  of  the  next  year;  the  reasons  you  give  us  for  that  measure  are  good,  and  to  which  we  do 
agrecj  hoping  that  anew  Congress,  acting  on  the  principles  of  the  new  constitution  of  America,  will  set  eveiy  thing 
to  rights  between  us  on  the  most  equitable  footing,  so  that  we  may  become  real  friends  to  each  other,  settling  on  the 
same  land,  and  having  but  one  interest. 

We  expected  that,  upon  Mr.  Whitfield's  return,  a  truce  of  amis  would  have  been  directly  proclaimed  in  Georgia, 
and  can't  account  for  the  delay  of  that  measure;  and  in  fact,  there  lias  been  no  observance  of  it  on  their  part,  from 
June  till  now.  They  have  been  driving  and  plundering  our  hunting  camps  of  horses  and  skins,  &c.  and  it  is  only 
lately,  that  a  Coweta  Indian  brought  me  a  paper,  which  he  found  fastened!^  to  a  tree  near  to  Flint  river,  which,  upon 
a  close  examination,  I  find  to  be  a  tlireatening  letter  directed  to  me.  It  is  wrote  on  the  back  of  an  advertisement,  with 
gunpowder;  a  part  of  it  rubbed  out  as  it  dryed,  and  with  the  carriage.  Tiie  writing  says  something  of  the  war,  and 
your  savage  subjects,  and  an  establishment  of  peace  you  must  "not  expect,  until  all  our  damages  are  made  good  at 
the  treaty,  and  satisfaction  we  will  have  for  our  grievances,"  from  all  which,  I  foresee  great  difhculty  in  the  attempt 
to  preserve  strict  suspension  of  hostility.  I  can  only  assure  you,  that  we  shall  regulate  ourselves  by  the  conduct  of 
the  Georgians,  and  act  according  to  circumstances.  The  writing  I  mention,  is  signed  Jam.  Alexander,  5th  August, 
1788.  The  Cherokees  are  daily  coming  in  to  me,  complaining  of  acts  of  hostility  committed  in  the  most  barbarous 
'  manner  by  the  Americans,  and  numbers  are  taking  refuge  within  our  territory,  who  are  permitted  to  settle  and  build 
villages  under  our  protection.  Such  acts  of  violence,  committed  at  the  time  that  the  Congress,  through  you,  is 
holding  out  to  the  whole  nations  and  tribes,  professions  of  the  most  friendly  nature,  makes  it  appear  to  all,  that  such 
professions  are  only  deceitful  snares  to  lull  them  into  a  security,  whereby  the  Americans  may  the  more  easily  destroy 

Be  not  offended,  gentlemen,  at  the  remark;  'tis  time  that  it  is  universal  through  the  Indians. 
I  am,  with  great  respect,  gentlemen,  your  humble  servant, 


The  Honorable  Generals  Richard  Winx,  Andrew  Pickens,  and  George  Mathews, 
Commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Southern  Nations  of  Indians. 

F.  No.  13. 

Hopewell  on  Keowee,  Nov.  28th,  1788. 


Your  letter  of  the  12th  August  and  1 5th  September  are  now  before  us.  With  regard  to  the  former,  wherein  you 
mention  nothing  has  been  done,  and  all  is  yet  to  do,  give  us  leave  to  tell  you,  that  every  thing  in  our  power  has 
been  done,  in  order  to  bring  forward  a  treaty,  and,  under  the  authority  of  Congress,  to  give  you  full  and  ample 
redress  in  what  concerns  your  territory.  At  the  same  time  we  must  observe,  that  that  honorable  body  will  not  lose 
sight  of  doing  equal  justice  to  the  State  of  Georgia,  whose  claim  to  what  you  call  the  disputed  lands,  is  confirmed 
by  three  different  treaties,  signed  by  your  head-men  and  warriors.  Therefore,  we  earnestly  recommend  you  and 
the  chiefs  seriously  to  consider,  under  these  circumstances,  how  impossible  it  is  for  us  to  comply  with  your  requi- 
sition, relative  to  removing  the  people  from  the  Oconee  lands;  this  can  only  be  the  business  of  the  treaty,  after  a  full 
investigation  of  the  right  of  claim. 

In  answer  to  your  last,  where  you  so  pointedly  attack  that  body  under  whom  we  have  the  honor  to  act,  we  can- 
not be  silent,  least  it  should  be  tortured  into  a  conviction  of  guilt.  Narrow  and  illiberal  indeed  must  be  that  mind, 
that  could  tor  a  moment  suppose,  that  Congress,  after  withstanding  one  of  the  gi-eatest  Powers  of  Europe,  with  her 
allies,  together  with  almost  the  whole  of  the  Indian  tribes  combined,  should  at  this  day  have  recourse  to  base  artifice, 
in  order  to  accomplish  the  ruin  of  a  few  Indian  tribes,  while  she  is  enjoying  the  blessings  of  peace  at  home,  and  an 
honorable  name  among  the  nations  of  the  world. 

We  have  already  enclosed  you  the  Governor  of  Georgia's  proclamation,  dated  July  the  31st,  last,  for  a  truce  of 
arms,  which  has  been  as  strictly  adhered  to  as  possible;  and  any  thing  that  has  happened  in  violation  of  it,  had  you 
been  more  explicit,  and  mentioned  the  time  and  place  where  the  Indians'  horse  ;  and  skins  were  plundered,  strict 
inquiry  might  have  been  made,  and  the  offenders  punislied. 

If  we  take  a  view  of  the  conduct  of  the  Indians  on  your  part,  we  have  more  right  to  complain:  we  daily  hear  of 
the  most  cruel  depredations,  committed  by  the  Creeks  on  the  Georgians;  the  man  you  allude  to,  (Alexander)  we  are 
credibly  informed,  was  in  pursuit  of  a  party  of  Creeks  that  had  stole  twelve  horses  from  Green  county,  and  notwith- 
standing we  have  had  every  assurance  given  us,  that  hostilities  should  cease.  The  Governor  of  Georgia  lias  lately 
handed  us  a  list  of  the  different  counties  tliathave  recently  suttijred,  to  wit: 

Liberty  County,  between  25  and  30  negroes,  and  several  large  stocks  of  cattle. 

Effingham,  one  man  killed. 

Wilkes,  from  6  to  10  horses  plundered. 

Greene,  from  21  to  27  horses         do. 

Washington,  6  horses  do. 

Franklin,  from  16  to  20  horses      do.  One  man  wounded. 

We  must  add  to  the  above  list,  a  pair  of  fine  dun  geldings,  taken  from  General  Martin,  about  a  mile  from  his 
plantation,  by  some  of  the  Coweta  Indians,  wliile  he  was  acting  under  Congress  as  agent  for  the  Cherokees  and 

The  Seminolean  Indians  are  likewise  doing  a  deal  of  mischief;  we  know  not  whether  they  belong  to  any  part  of 
the  Creeks,  but  wish  to  be  informed.  From  these  violations  committed,  whatcan  the  Union  expect,  unless  a  stiicter 
compliance  on  your  part  is  observed  in  putting  a  stop  to  hostilities?  We  are  well  assured.  Congress  will  not  look  on 
in  silence,  and  see  any  part  of  the  Union  robbed  of  its  citizens.  Enclosed  you  will  find  a  late  resolve  of  Congress, 
and  a  proclamation  relative  to  the  Cherokees. 

It  is  our  sincere  wish  that  you  \vill  meet  us  the  eighth  day  of  June  next,  at  the  place  appointed  before;  but  should 
this  appear  to  you  at  too  distant  a  period,  a  month  sooner  will  be  no  object  with  us  in  holding  a  treaty.  In  the  interim, 
we  fully  assure  you  nothing  shall  be  wanting  on  our  parts,  in  the  observance  of  a  strict  suspension  of  arms,  on  a  pre- 
sumption that  you  will  act  in  like  manner.  We  request  that  you  will  consult  the  head  men  and  warriors,  on  this 
occasion,  and  send  us  a  pointed  and  decisive  answer,  signed  jointly,  as  soon  as  possible. 
We  are,  sir,  with  due  respect,  your  obedient  servants, 

,'-  ^     '  ^  .  RICHARD  WINN, 

To  Alexander  McGillivray,  Esq. 

and  the  head  men  and  warriors  of  the  Creek  nation. 

1789.]  THE    CREEKS   AND   OTHERS.  31 

F.  No.  14. 

WiNNSBOROUGH,  Dtc.  19th,  1788. 

Sir:  ,  .         ^ 

Since  I  had  the  lionor  of  writing  you  last,  I  have  received  by  express,  from  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina, 
that  the  Legislature  of  that  State  has  appointed  a  John  Steele,  Esq.  commissioner  on  Indian  Affairs,  and  voted  their 
quota,  agreeably  to  the  resolves  of  Congress.  They  have  also  requested  the  Governor  to  issue  his  proclamation,  that 
hostilities  do  cease  against  the  Cherokees,  and  to  send  a  talk  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  that  it  is  their  wish  to  be  at  peace 
with  the  Creeks.  1  iiese  steps  being  taken  on  the  part  of  North  Carolina,  there  is  not  tlie  least  doubt  of  a  friendly 
treaty  taking  place  with  tlie  Cherokees,  which  persuades  me  will  lead  to  one  with  the  Creeks.  The  Executive  of 
that  State  think  the  last  of  May  the  best  time  for  holding  a  treaty. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  ser\'ant, 

Hon.  Maj.  Gen.  Knox.  , 

F.  No.  15. 

WiNNSBOROUGH,  MuTch  1,  1789. 

I  think  it  necessary  to  inform  you,  that  a  treaty  will  take  place  with  the  Cherokee  Indians,  the  third  Monday 
in  May  next,  at  the  upper  war-ford  on  French  broad  river,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Swananno,  State  of  North 

The  Creek  Indians,  'tis  supposeii,  will  also  treat;  they  are  now  holding  a  great  talk  in  their  nation,  the  result  of 
which  is  not  yet  come  to  hand. 

I  have  the  honor  to  subscribe  myself,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

The  Honorable  Major  General  Knox. 

A  talk,  lately  sent  by  the  Commissioners  of  Indian  affairs  in  the   Southern  Department,  to  the  Creeks^  corres- 

To  THE  Head-men,  Chiefs,  and  Warriors,  of  the  Creek  Nation. 

We  last  year  appointed  a  time  and  place  for  holding  a  treaty  with  you,  to  establish  a  lasting  peace  between  you 
and  us,  that  we  might  again  become  as  one  people;  you  all  know  the  reasons  why  it  was  not  held  at  that  time. 

We  now  send  you  a  talk,  inviting  you  to  a  treaty  on  your  bank  of  the  Oconee  river,  at  the  rock  landing.  We  wisiied 
to  meet  you  at  that  place  on  tiie  8th  of  June,  but,  as  that  day  is  so  near  at  hand,  you  might  not  all  get  notice.  We 
therefore  shall  expect  to  meet  you  on  the  20th  of  June. 

We  have  changed  the  place  of  meeting  from  that  of  the  last  year;  so  that  none  of  you  should  have  reason  to  com- 
plain; it  is  your  own  ground,  and  on  that  land  we  wish  to  renew  our  former  trade  and  friendships,  and  to  remove 
every  thing  tliat  has  blinded  the  path  between  you  and  us. 

We  are  now  governed  by  a  President,  who  is  like  the  old  King  over  the  great  water;  he  commands  all  the  war- 
riors of  the  thirteen  great  Fires.  He  will  have  regard  to  the  welfare  of  all  the  Indians;  and,  when  peace  shall  be 
established,  he  will  be  your  fatiier  and  you  will  be  his  children,  so  tiiat  none  shall  dare  to  do  you  harm. 

AVe  know  that  lands  iiave  been  the  cause  of  dispute  between  you  and  the  white  people;  but  we  now  tell  you  that 
we  want  no  new  grants;  our  object  is  to  make  a  peace,  and  to  unite  us  all  under  our  great  chief  warrior  and  Presi- 
dent, who  is  the  lather  and  protector  of  all  the  white  people.  Attend  to  what  we  say:  Our  traders  are  very  rich, 
and  have  houses  full  of  such  goods  as  you  used  to  get  in  former  days;  it  is  our  wish  that  you  should  trade  with  them, 
and  they  with  you,  in  strict  friendship. 

Our  brother,  George  Galphin,  will  carry  you  this  talk;  listen  to  him;  he  will  tell  you  nothing  but  trutli  from  us. 
Send  us  your  answer  by  him. 


Commissioners  of  the  United  Slates  fin-  Indian  affairs,  in  the  Soutfiern  Departmenl. 
■  April  20,  1789. 

G.  No.  1. 

Augusta,  August  9,  1787. 

From  a  wish  that  you  may  be  informed,  and  through  you  the  honorable  the  Congress  of  the  United  States, 
of  the  situation  of  this  State  witii  the  Creek  Indians,  I  do  myself  the  pleasure  to  enclose  you  two  talks  I  have  received 
from  that  nation,  with  my  answers  thereto,  from  which  it  appears  there  is  reason  to  expect  this  State  will  be  com- 
pelled to  engage  in  a  war  with  them.  It  would  ill  become  a  free  people,  and  more  particularly  those  of  Georgia,  to 
give  satisfaction  for  the  warriors  that  have  been  killed  for  murders  committed  on  our  peaceable  inhabitants,  in  viola- 
tion of  the  most  solemn  treaties  entered  into  with  us,  as  this  State  had  experienced  many  and  repeated  injuries 
from  that  nation,  during  the  late  war  with  Great  Biitain,  such  as  killing  our  inhabitants  and  plundering  us  of  our  pro- 
perty, all  of  which  we  were  willing  to  sacrifice  rather  than  continue  the  war  a  day  longer  than  the  United  States 
wished  to  crown  the  Union  with  peace. 

That  you  may  be  as  well  informed  as  the  nature  and  situati(m  of  matters  will  admit,  it  is  needful  that  I  should 
inform  you,  that,  from  letters  I  received  from  James  White,  Esq.  agent  for  Indian  affairs  for  the  southern  depart- 
ment, dated  last  March  and  April,  there  was  some  reason  to  think  the  Indians  were  not  perfectly  for  peace;  and,  on 
his  return  to  the  State,  he  informed  me  that  they  had  assured  him  that  no  hostilities  should  be  committed  or  injury 
done  to  this  State  before  August,  or  until  they  received  an  answer  from  Congress  or  him;  but,  in  direct  violation  of 
this  promise,  they  did,  onthe  29th  day  of  May,  in  the  county  of  Greene,  kill  and  scalp  two  of  our  men,  and  carried  off 
a  negro  and  fourteen  horses.  A  party  of  militia  crossed  the  Oconee  river  in  pursuit  of  the  murderers  fell  \x\  with 
some  Indians  of  that  nation,  and  killed  twelve,  which,  from  the  first  talk  I  received,  appear  to  be  of  the  Lower 
towns,  and  the  murderers  from  the  Upper  Towns,  which  is  the  distinction  they  make.  From  their  talk  I  thought  we 
were  to  have  peace;  as  they  remark,  it  was  impossible  for  us  to  tell  whether  it  was  the  Upper  or  Lower  Creeks  that 
had  done  the  murder,  or  been  killed  by  our  men.  Their  talk  of  the  27th  of  July  insolently  demands  the  officer  that 
commanded  the  party,  and  as  many  ofhis  men  to  be  delivered  to  them  as  will  make  satisfaction  for  the  twelve  war- 
riors they  have  lost.  Candor  compels  me  to  say,  when  I  think  of  this  insolent  demand,  the  repeated  alarms  they 
have  given  our  frontiers,  and  the  injury  the  State  sustains  from  them,  that  I  feel  my  blood  run  warm  in  my  veins, 
and  a  just  impulse  to  chastise  them  for  their  insolence  and  perfidy,  and  think  it  my  indispensable  duty,  if  they  com- 
mit hostilities  on  this  State,  to  take  the  most  effectual  means  in  my  power  for  the  defence  of  the  same,  by  carrying 
the  war  into  their  country,  or  such  other  measures  as  may  be  most  for  the  safety  and  happiness  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  country. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  much  respect  and  real  esteem,  gentlemen,  your  most  obd't  serv't, 

.  .  GEO.  MATHEWS. 

32  -  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

G.  No.  2. 

CussETAHS,  Jtcne  14,  178f. 

The  beloved  man  from  Congress  was  here,  and  we  had  talk  with  him;  what  was  agreed  upon  there,  did  not 
answer*  then  Mr.  McGillivray  came  over  here,  and  matters  were  settled.     Mr.  White  and  Mr.  McGillivray  came 
upon  terms,  and  it  was  told  to  them,  and  they  agreed  to  it,  till  such  time  as  Col.  White  sent  an  answer  back.    We 
then  thought  that  matters  were  settled,  and  we  did  nothmg  but  mmd  our  busmess.    Mr.  McGillivray  promised  to 
acquaint  the  Upper  Towns  of  this,  and  for  them  to  lie  still.     We  then  expected  that  Mr.  White  would  inform  the 
State  of  Georgia  of  this,  and  tell  them  that  we  were  their  friends.     We  minded  nothing  but  our  hunting;  we  always 
talk  together,  and  always  agreed,  and  promised  that  if  any  thing  happened  we  would  not  go  on  rashly,  but  let  one 
another  know  our  grievances.    You  always  promised  that  the  innocent  sliould  not  suiter  tor  the  guilty.     You  cer- 
tainly knew  us;  we  were  always  among  the  houses;  we  did  not  know  of  the  Upper  Towns  doing  any  mischief,  nor 
did  we  think  that  our  friends  would  kill  us  for  what  other  bad  people  did.     You  could  not  think  that  it  was  any  of  the 
Lower  Towns  did  you  any  mischief,  when  we  were  at  your  houses  and  living  with  you  in  a  manner  that  you  might  be 
sure  it  was  not  us.    We  knew  nothing  of  these  bad  people  going  out  to  do  any  mischief,  or  we  would  have  sent  you 
word:  and  we  don't  think  but  you  must  have  known  that  we  were  your  friends,  or  we  should  not  have  been  among 
you  a  hunting;  and  hope  you  will  send  us  an  answer,  and  tell  us  the  reason  that  you  have  killed  your  friends  for 
what  other  people  did.    It  is  not  the  rule  of  the  Indians  to  acquaint  you  of  this,  but  to  take  satisfaction;  but  we  were 
always  your  friends,  and  we  will  not  take  rash  steps,  unless  you  will  throw  us  away  and  not  have  us  for  friends. 
We  always  were  your  friends,  and  will  be,  let  what  will  happen,  is  the  reason  we  lie  still,  although  we  have  lost 
nine  of  our  people  innocently;  but  still  we  wont  take  rash  steps.    We  must  have  an  answer  immediately,  that  we 
may  know  what  to  do.     Hope  you  will  consider  us,  the  Lower  Towns,  to  be  your  friends.     We  look  upon  all  white 
people  as  one,  and  suppose  you  look  upon  all  Indians  as  one,  is  the  reason  you  have  killed  your  friends,  who  were 
your  friends  in  the  time  of  war,  and  are  yet     We  have  had  a  meeting  lately  with  the  Northward  Indians.     We  told 
them  and  so  did  Mr.  McGillivray,  that  we  had  settled  matters  with  the  Virginians,  and  could  not  go  to  war.     The 
of  your 

there  is  more  killed  innocently;  but  we  will  lie  still,  and  hope  you  will  send  us  an  answer:  it  shall  be   received  as 
friends  to  us  still,  as  we  look  upon  you  as  friends  still.    We  are  sure  that  you  must  have  been  sensible  that  it  was 
not  the  people  that  was  among  you  did  tiie  murder.     It  was  your  rule  that  the  innocent  should  not  suffer  for  the 
guilty.    Hope  you  will  send  an  answer,  that  we  may  know  what  to  do.    We  speak  the  voice  of  the  whole  Lower 
Towns,  and  hope  you  will  consider  us  as  friends.     We  hope  you  will  send  us  an  answer,  and  a  white  flag  with  it, 
that  we  may  still  be  friends;  and  we  will  have  all  the  towns  together,  and  hear  your  answer;  and  then  we  will  be 
friends  a^^ain.    No  person  need  be  afraid  to  come  up,  as  the  whole  nation  will  be  acquainted  with  this.     Who  brings 
an  answei-  will  biing  a  white  flag,  upon  a  pole,  in  his  hand.    We  shall  wait  for  an  answer,  and  nothing  shall  be  done 
to  you,  no  hurt  whatever.    The  Uilk  you  sent  to  Mr.  Barnard,  by  John  Galphin,  he  delivered  to  Mr.  Barnard  a  good 
while  ago,  two  days  after  lie  arrived,  which  we  have  not  yet  heard,  nor  seen  Mr.  Barnard,  as  he  has  not  come  to  town 
yet  to  tell  us  the  talk.    We  hope  you  will  consider  us  as  friends,  as  you  are  sensible  we  are  your  friends:  for,  when 
the  En<^lish  offered  us  great  presents  to  go  and  kill  you,  we  told  them  we  would  not;  that  you  were  our  friends  and 
brothers;  we  were  bornin  one  land,  and  we  were  your  friends  and  brothers,  and  will  be  to  the  last  day,  though  you 
have  not  treated  us  as  friends;  but  it  might  be  a  mistake;  and  hope,  my  friends,  that  you  will  not  delay  an  answer, 
but  let  it  come  up  with  speed.     There  is  a  fellow  down  there  belonging  to  our  town,  the  Cussetahs,  we  hope  he  wont 
be  hurt,  but  let  him  and  John  Galphin's  negro,  that  he  went  down  with,  if  you  are  afraid  to  send  up,  if  you  will  send 
up  the  talk  by  John  Galphin's  negro  and  the  Indian  that  is  there,  if  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  send  them  safe  over  the 
Oconee,  then  we  shall  be  good  friends,  and  try  to  keep  the  path  white  between  us.    You  will  likewise  apooint  some- 
body to  give  out  the  talks  up  here,  and  let  a  man  be  here  constantly,  that  when  there  are  any  bad  people  who  wants  to 
do  mischief,  that  they  can  send  word  down  to  alarm  the  settlements,  so  that  we  may  then  live  like  brothers;  and  let 
us  try  to  keep  peace,  for  peace  is  better  than  war.    We  can't  blame  you  for  taking  satisfaction,  it  you  had  not  taken 
satistaction  trom  those  people  who  were  at  the  houses  with  you  every  day;  and  if  it  is  done  in  a  mistake,  we  must  try  and 
take  satisfaction  from  those  bad  people  that  went  down  and  did  the  first  mischief.    However,  I  hope  you  will  send  us 
a  good  talk  as  soon  as  possible;  the  sooner  it  comes  the  better  for  both  parties,  that  we  may  take  one  another  by  the 
hand  again,  and  see  one  another  once  more  in  friendship,  as  we  always  will.        ^  ,     „       ^  w,     t-  .  t^-        r 

By  the  request  of  the  Lower  Creeks,  the  two  chiefs,  the  Hallowing  King  of  the  Cowetas,  and  the  bat  King  ot 

the  Cussetahs.  .JOHN  GALPHIN. 



G.  No.  3. 
To  the  head-men  and  ivarriors  of  the  Lmver  Creeks.— 9.9th  June,  1787. 

Friends  and  Brothers: 

Your  friendly  talk  we  have  just  received  by  our  commissary,  Mr.  Barnard,  and  are  very  sorry  to  be  informed 
(hat  some  of  your  people,  our  friends,  should  have  been  killed  through  mistake  by  our  warriors,  to  revenge  the  mur- 
ders of  some  of  our  peaceable  inhabitants.  Yourselves  must  be  fully  convinced  that  our  people  have  not  been  the 
ae-'ressors  in  this  instance.  As  soon  as  the  murders  were  committed  by  the  Indians,  our  warriors  crossed  the  river, 
and  unfortunately  fell  in  with  your  people.  It  was  impossible  then  to  distinguish  whether  you  were  our  friends  or 
enemies.  We  never  knew,  until  we  received  your  talk,  by  whom  our  people  were  murdered,  whether  by  Upper,  or 
■whether  by  Lower  Creeks.  We  have  repeatedly  assured  you  it  was  our  desire  to  be  at  peace  with  the  whole  of  your 
nation.    We  still  have  the  same  wish,  notwithstanding  what  has  passed. 

Brothers:  Remember  the  caution  we  now  give  you:  should  any  acts  of  hostilities  be  in  future  committed  against 
our  people,  or  should  any  property  be  taken  from  them,  be  assured  it  will  be  impossible  to  prevent  our  warriors  from 
doing  themselves  justice.  Our  great  council  are  to  meet  in  a  day  or  two,  previous  to  which,  had  we  not  received 
your  talk,  a  large  army  would  have  been  sent  into  your  nation.  What  consequences  would  have  attended  this,  you 
are  capable  of  jiidging.  We  have  sent  orders  to  our  warriors  not  on  any  pretence  to  cross  the  Oconee  river.  We 
wish  you  to  give  your  people  the  same  instructions.    This  will  be  the  means  of  preventing  any  disputes  in  future. 

Brothers:  Should  the  conduct  of  the  Upper  Creeks  render  it  necessary  to  march  an  army  into  the  nation,  be 
assured  we  will  consider  your  towns  as  friends  and  brothers,  and  treat  you  as  such. 

Brothers:  If  you  have  the  friendship  for  us  you  express,  it  is  your  duty  to  keep  a  watchful  eye  on  the  conduct 
of  those  V  ho  you  may  suppose  have  a  wish  or  desire  to  disturb  our  friendship.  Mr.  Barnard  or  Mr.  Galphin  are 
always  among  you.  If  you  hear  of  any  mischief  intended  against  our  settlements,  it  is  your  duty  to  inform  one  or 
both  of  thein  of  it  immediately.  This  you  are  particularly  bound  to  observe  by  an  article  of  the  last  treaty,  entered 
into  with  our  commissioners  at  Shoulderbone.  .  .    i       j 

You  acknowledged  that  the  beloved  man  of  the  Upper  creeks,  Mr.  McGillivray,  made  a  promise  to  our  beloved 
man  who  was  sent  from  the  White  town,  that  no  miscliief  whatever  should  be  done.  After  having  this  assurance, 
our  people  considered  themselves  safe,  and  looked  upon  all  the  Indians  of  your  nation  as  friends  and  brothers,  .lave 
vou  not  often  entered  into  the  most  solemn  engagements  with  us?  And  have  not  you  as  often  violated  them?  What 
had  onr  people  to  expect,  when  they  saw  their  peaceable  countrymen  murdered?  They  determined  to  take  satisfac- 
tion for  the  repeated  injuries  they  had  received,  and  it  was  with  great  difficulty  that  we,  the  grand  council,  could 
prevent  our  young  warriors  from  marching  in  a  body  into  the  heait  of  your  nation.    From  your  late  conduct,  and 

1789.]  THE   CREEKS   AND   OTHERS.  33 

ihe  assurance  jou  have  given  us  in  your  talk,  rest  satisfied  that  we  consider  you,  the  Lower  towns,  as  our  best  friends 
and  brothers;  and  if  you  do  not  long  continue  to  hold  fast  the  chain  of  our  friendship,  it  will  not  be  the  faults  of  the 
white  people. 

You  express  a  wish  in  your  talk  to  have  one  of  your  people,  who  has  been  some  time  at  Mr.  Galphin's,  sent  to 
you.  We  have  inquired  for  him,  and  find  he  has  been  gone  several  days,  and  hope  he  is  now  safe  among  you.  Mr. 
Barnard,  who  is  always  with  you,  will  carefully  attend  to  all  talks  that  we  may  send,  and  deliver  them  out  to  you 
as  soon  as  they  arrive  among  you. 

Brothers:  ^^'e  really  regret  the  loss  of  your  innocent  people  who  have  lateW  been  killed.  It  is  your  duty  as 
men  aiul  warriors  to  do  yourselves  justice,  by  taking  satisfaction  of  the  persons  who  were  the  cause  of  it.  In  doing 
this,  we  shall  be  fully  convinced  of  your  brotherly  love  and  friendship  towards  us. 

Brothers:  It  is  our  wish  to  see  you  and  the  Upper  Creeks  one  people;  but  should  they  continue  to  create  differ- 
ences between  you  and  us,  and  you  should  think  yourselves  unable  to  take  satisfaction,  we  will,  as  all  friends  and 
brothers  ought  to  do,  be  ever  ready  to  give  any  assistance  you  may  require. 

G.  No.  4. 

In  a  meeling  of  the  iMwer  Creeks  in  the  Citssetahs,  Q.Tlh  July,  l7S7.—Talk  of  the  Fnt  King  to  his  honor  Governor 

Matthews  and  the  Council. 

Friends  and  Brothers: 

The  talk  you  sent  us  in  answer  to  ours,  by  your  commissary,  Mr.  Barnard,  we  have  seen  this  day;  and,  as 
that  talk  is  not  satisfactory  to  our  people,  we  have  agreed  upon  to  send  you  this  one  more. 

Friends:  'Tis  not  we  that  have  forgot  the  talks  at  Shoulderbone,  but  you.  Among  other  things,  it  was  proposed 
by  you.  and  agreed  to  by  us,  that  no  hasty  revenges  should  be  taken  in  future  by  either  side:  and  in  the  late  affairs 
tis  you  that  have  been  rash:  for  when  the  injury  was  done  to  you,  you  did  not  wait  but  for  a  little  while  and  look 
around  you  to  find  out  from  whence  the  blow  came,  but  fell  directly  upon  our  people,  your  real  friends,  who  were 
daily  among  your  houses,  and  whose  persons  you  well  knew,  and  some  that  were  taken,  declared  themselves  and 
towns  to  you,  which  you  disregarded;  it  might  have  been  from  people  of  another  nation  for  what  you  knew  at  that 

Friends:  You  ou^ht  not  fo  think  of  making  us  accountable  for  any  measures  of  the  Upper  towns,  our  brothers. 
They  had  two  men  killed  last  summer,  and  tliey  can  answer  for  themselves.  They  went  against  you  unknown  to 
Mr.  G.  or  us,  and  he  did  not  mean  to  break  the  promise  he  made  to  Mr.  White,  as  he  had  declared  to  the  wliole 
nation,  and  a  talk  from  him  is  still  expected  by  us. 

Friends:  You  must  give  us  immediate  satisfaction,  life  for  life,  an  eaual  number  for  twelve  of  our  people 
destroyed  by  you.  The  leader  of  these  mad  people  that  did  the  mischief,  and  so  many  of  his  people,  sliould  tall  for 
satisfaction:  ('tis  our  custom  to  give  it)  then  the  tears  of  the  relations  of  the  dead  will  be  dried  up.  and  our  hearts 
not  continue  hot  against  you:  for  it  is;  in  vain  that  you  call  us  f^riends  and  brothers,  and  don't  consider  and  treat  us 
as  such:  and  as  you  wish  the  chain  of  friendship  to  be  kept  bright  between  us,  we  expect  you  will  not  fail  to  °ive 
us  the  tlesired  satisfaction,  as  we  should  have  given  you  had  we  been  in  fault. 

When  you  do  this,  you  will  then  send  a  gentleman  into  our  land  to  renew  friendship,  as  we  have  often  gone  into 
yours  for  such  purposes. 


In  twenty  days  from  the  date  that  Mr.  Galphin  sets  out,  we  shall  expect  tlie  leturn  of  Mr.  Galpiiin. 

G.  No.  5. 
To  the  Fat  King  ami  other  head-men  of  the  Lower  Creeks. — 7th  August.,  1787. 

When  we  received  your  talk  by  Mr.  Barnard,  our  commissary,  we  considered  you  as  friends  and  brothers. 
In  the  one  you  now  send  us,  there  appears  to  he  mucii  reason  to  suspect  you  of  deceit,  and  that  you  were  then,  as 
well  as  nowj  secretly  our  enemies.  Whether  this  sudden  change  has  been  owing  to  the  duplicity  of  your  beloved 
man  Mr.  Gdlivray,  or  whether  vou  assume  this  conduct,  it  matters  not.  On  wliat  principle  can  you  demand  satis- 
faction t  Your  warriors  were  killed  for  the  murder  of  our  innocent  iniiabitants,  committed  by  your  nation,  in  direct 
violation  of  the  most  solemn  treaties  entered  into  with  us.  We  wislied,  and  still  do  wish,  we  could  forget  the  many 
and  repeated  injuries  you  have  done  us  during  and  since  the  late  war  wilii  Great  Britain.  It  is  in  vain  to  talk  of 
satisfaction.  Did  you  not,  last  summer,  kill  six  of  our  peaceable  frontier  inhabitants?  and  did  you  not.atvSlloulder- 
bone,  engage  to  have  an  equal  number  of  your  men  put  to  death  for  them.-  Have  you  done  this?  No  1  Did  you  not,  just 
before  we  received  your  last  talk,  murder  two  of  our  people  on  the  Oconee?  And  did  you  not,  also,  at  the  very 
time  Mr.  Barnard  was  down  from  you,  kill  two  white  men?  Have  you  complied  witli  a  single  article  of  the  treaties 
of  Augusta,  (jalphinton,  and  Shoulderbone?  No!  Instead  of  complying  with  your  several  engagements,  you  have 
repeatedly  murdered  our  innocent  people,  burned  their  houses,  and  carried  of!"  their  property.  All  these  outrages 
we  have  submitted  to,  rather  than  enter  into  a  war  with  vou.  Your  conduct  towards  us  long  since  has  authorized 
our  putting  flames  to  your  towns,  and  indihcriminateiy  killing  your  people;  but  a  wisli  to  be  at  peace  with  you,  and 
to  spare  tiie  effusion  of  human  blood,  has  prevented  this.  Now  open  your  ears  2«iV/e,  and  hear  what  we  tell  you: 
..Should  any  act  of  hostility,  or  depredations,  be  committed  on  our  people  by  your  nation,  be  peiTectly  assured  we 
will  not  hesitate  to  do  ourselves  aniple  justice,  by  carrying  war  into  your  countiy,  burning  your  towns,  and  stain- 
ing your  land  with  blood.    You  will  then  be  compelled  to  fly  for  refuge  to  some  other  country. 

ft  now  rests  with  you,  whether  we  engage  in  war  or  not:  if  we  do,  remember  yourselves  are  answerable  for  the 
consequences.     The  hatchet  once  lifted  is  not  easily  buried. 

.    •        General  Knox.,  Secretary  of  War,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States.       • 

_  .    •         ,.  ...  War  Oefktk,  Jm/j/ 28//t,  1789. 


Having  examined  the  report  of  the  commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Southern  Indians,  dated   the  SOth  of 
June  last,  and  the  papers  accompanying  the  same,  I  have  the  honor  to  observe: 

That  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  said  commissioners,  that  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians  arc,  generally,  disposed  to 
enter  into  a  treaty  with  the  United  States,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  permanent  peace. 

That  it  is  of  great  importance  that  the  favorable  dispositions  of  the  said  Creeek  nation  should  be  embraced  im- 
mediately, in  order  to  terminate,  by  an  equitable  peace,  the  disturbances  and  hostilities  which  have  for  some  years 
past  existed  on  the  Southern  frontiers. 

That  the  said  commissioners  haA'ingbcen  ai)pointcd  by  the  States  of  Scmth  Carolina  and  (ieorgia,  in  consequence 
of  tlie  resolves  of  the  late  Congress,  of  the  2Gth  of  October,  1787,  it  may  be  considered  that  their  powers  expired 
with  the  late  confederation. 

1  hat^.  therefore,  it  may  be  proper  to  institute  a  commission,  to  consist  of  three  persons,  to  be  appointed  confcjiin- 
abiy  to  the  constitution,  who  should  be  invested  with  full  powers  to  inquire  into,  and  decide  on,  all  causes  of  com- 

34  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

plaint  between  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  the  Southern  nations  and  tribes  of  Indians,  and  to  negotiate 
and  conclude  with  them,  firm  treaties  of  peace,  on  principles  consistent  with  the  national  justice  and  dignity  of  the 

/*        United  States.  ,     ,  .  ,.,..,., 

I  have  tlie  honor  to  be,  with  the  highest  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

H.  KNOX. 

The  Pkesident  of  the  United  States. 

Georgia,  Rock  Landing,  on  the  Oconee  river,  June  SOth,  1789. 

Agreeably  to  the  appointment  of  the  Executive  of  North  Carolina,  under  the  act  of  Congress  of  the  27th  of 

October,  1787,  we  attended  at  the  Upper  War-ford,  on  French  Broad  river,  from  the  25th  of  last  month,  to  the 

/  7th  instant,  in  order  to  meet,  in  treaty,  tlie  cliiefs  and  head  men  of  the  Cherokee  Indians,  but  as  they  did  not  attend 

/    on  or  befoie  that  day,  we  found  it  necessary  to  repair  to  this  place,  as  the  Executive  of  the  State  of  Georgia  had 

^    appointed  the  20th  of  this  month  for  treating  with  the  Creek  Indians.    A  treaty  with  the  Creeks  appearing  to  us  to 

be  of  the  greatest  importance,  we  sent  to  the  Cherokees  a  talk.  No.  1.  A. 

/      On  our  way  to  this  place,  we  met  several  of  the  Cherokee  liead  men,  at  Seneca,  who  gave  us  the  fullest  assur- 
,/  ances  that  no  hostilities  or  depredations  should  be  committed  by  any  of  their  people,  against  the  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  until  a  treaty  should  be  held;  and  we  have  every  reason  to  confide  in  thejr  promises. 

Some  late  depredations  which  were  committed  by  the  Creeks  on  the  frontiers  of  this  State,  so  alarmed  their 
chiefs,  that  they  returned  home  after  having  been  a  few  days  on  their  journey  to  this  place.  The  talks  No.  1,  and 
2;  Mr.  M'Gillivray's  letter.  No.  3;  Mr.  George  Galphin's.letter,  No.  4;  Mr.  John  Galphin's  letters,  No.  5,  6  and  7; 
and  Mr.  M'Gillivray's  letter.  No.  8;  will  explain  to  your  excellency  their  reasons. 

We  have  now  with  us,  Mr.  John  Galphin,  a  chief  speaker  of  the  Lower  Creeks;  the  White  Bird  King,  or  the 
Great  King;  with  sixteen  other  Indians.  They  will  return  to  the  nation  to-morrow,  with  our  general  talk.  No.  9, 
and  our  letter  to  Mr.  M'Gillivray,  No.  10. 

The  great  scarcity  of  corn,  for  upwards  of  eighty  miles  around  us,  was  our  principal  reason  for  postponing  the 
Creek  treaty  so  long;  by  the  middle  of  September  we  shall  be  aided  witli  the  new  crop. 

We  are  nappy  to  inform  your  Excellency,  from  good  authority;  that  the  Creeks  are,  very  generally,  disposed 
for  peace.  We  are  well  assured,  that  all  the  head  men  of  that  nation,  with  upwards  of  two  thousand  Indians,  will 
attend  the  treaty  in  September,  and  we  have  the  fairest  prospects  of  establishing  a  pennanent  peace  with  the  Creeks, 
on  such  terms  as  will  be  pleasing  to  the  Indians,  satisfactory  to  the  State  of  Georgia,  and  honorable  to  the  Union. 

In  justice  to  the  State  of  Georgia,  we  cannot  conclude  this  letter  without  expressing  our  entire  satisfaction  in 
the  conduct  of  her  government;  they  have  cheerfully  advanced  several  thousand  dollars,  to  enable  us  to  meet  so 
large  a  body  of  Indians,  in  a  manner  suitable  to  the  importance  of  the  occasion. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  your  Excellency's  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servants. 

His  Excellency  George  Washington, 

President  of  the  United  States. 

^  ;  I'c         No.  1.  A. 

Upper  War-ford,  ON  French  Broad  river,  7th  June,  1789. 

To  the  Head-men,  Chiefs,  and  Warriors,  of  the  Cherokee  Nation. 
Friends  and  Brothers: 

Agreeable  to  our  appointment  with  you,  we  met  at  this  place,  expecting  to  have  the  pleasure  of  meeting 
you,  to  settle  all  disputes  that  have  subsisted  between  you  and  the  white  people.  We  have  waited  here  for  you 
twelve  days,  and  we  are  now  obliged  to  go  and  meet  the  Creeks,  on  the  Oconee,  on  the  20th  of  this  month,  so  that 
we  can  stay  no  longer.  We  are,  therefore,  under  the  necessity  of  postponing  the  treaty  with  you  till  some  other 
time  that  will  be  appointed  and  made  convenient  for  both  parties. 

We  are  sorry  to  find  that  the  people  of  Cumberland  have  reason  to  complain;  many  of  those  people  have  been 
killed  by  the  Indians.  You  all  know  that  the  people  of  Cumberland  make  no  encroachments  upon  your  lands; 
the  line  was  settled  at  Seneca,  and  the  people  of  Cumberland  do  not  go  over  it.  We  hope  none  of  your  people  are 
concerned  in  such  mischief,  as  it  would  intermpt  the  good  intentions  of  Congress  towards  your  people.  We  expect 
you  will  put  a  stop  to  all  such  proceedings  against  any  of  our  people,  until  we  meet  you  in  treaty,  when  we  have  no 
doubt  of  settling  all  matters  to  your  satisfaction.  In  token  ofour  friendship,  we  send  you  a  string  of  white  beads. 


No.  1. 

^  talk  from  the  Head-men  and  Chiefs  of  the  /.ower  Creek  nation,  to  the  Commissioners  of  the  United  States,  of 

Indian  affairs,  in  the  Southern  Department.— May  23rf,  1789. 

We  received  your  talk  by  Mr.  George  Galphin,  but  at  that  present  time  we  were  not  able  to  give  you  an 
answer,  in  consequence  of  a  great  meeting'and  a  talk  being  concluded  by  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  the  wliole  nation, 
in  consequence  of  the  encroachments  of  the  Georgians  on  our  hunting  grounds.  Orders  were  given  out  for  our  war- 
riors to  be  in  readiness  to  turn  out  in  respect  to  their  lands.  We  then  first  sent  runners  every  where  to  stop  and 
turn  back  all  parties  they  could  come  up  with,  until  we  could  hear  from  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  have  his  advice  in 
the  matter.  There  are  some  people,  we  believe,  gone  on,  the  consequence  of  which  we  cannot  be  accountable  for, 
as  they  were  gone  before  your  talk  came  in;  but  I  hope  there  will  be  no  blood  spilt;  your  delay  in  not  sending  up 
your  talk  sooner,  is  the  reason  of  it:  had  your  talk  come  a  little  sooner,  it  might  have  been  a  great  deal  better.  W'e 
have  been  informed  you  would  send  a  talk  to  us,  but  its  not  coming,  we  did  not  know  what  to  do.  Now  we  have 
sent  to  Mr.  McGillivray  to  know  when  he  will  appoint  the  time  for  setting  off  to  meet  you  at  the  place  you  appoint- 
\  ed.  Mr.  Galphin  is  gone  to  settle  this  matter  with  him;  he  will  bring  you  word  when  it  will  be  agreed  on  by  the 
chiefs  of  the  Lower  Creek  nation. 

No.  2. 

A  Talk  from  the  Chiefs,  Head-men,  and  Warriors,  of  the  Lower  Creek  Nation.— 1st  June,  1789. 

The  day  is  coming  at  last,  that  I  hope  we  shall  see  you  our  fathers,  friends,  and  brothers  again,  as  we  used  in 
friendship,  and  renew  all  our  former  friendships.  It  was  never  our  intention  to  be  against  any  white  people.  JV  e 
now  come  to  take  you  by  the  hand,  with  a  clear  and  wiling  mind,  and  with  an  intent  to  remove  all  things  that  had 
shut  our  path  so  long,  and  to  renew  our  former  trade  in  friendship  once  more. 

ir89.]  THE  CRREKS   AND  OTHERS.  35 

We  have  always  received  your  talks  friendly,  and  sent  you  our  talks  again;  letting  you  know  always  our  griev- 
ances, and  the  reasons  why  this  long  dispute;  but  we  now  hope  all  will  be  forgot,  and  we  now  come  to  make  our 
talks  firm  again,  as  we  die!  when  we  first  took  white  people  by  the  hand.  As  we  were  all  made  by  one  master  of 
breath,  although  put  in  different  parts  of  the  earth,  he  did  not  make  us  to  be  at  variance  against  eacii  other;  but  it 
has  happened,  by  the  bad  doings  of  our  mad  people,  on  both  sides.  When  we  first  met  the  white  people,  at  the  sea 
side,  we  did  not  meet  in  arms,  but  with  a  desire  of  being  further  acquainted  witli  each  other;  until  the  great 
encroachments  of  our  lands  raised  us,  which  has  occasioned  the  late  troubles  aniong  us.  You  are  sensible  that,  at 
our  first  meeting  at  the  sea  side,  for  the  benefit  of  trade,  we  gave  our  land  as  far  as  the  water  ebbed  and  flowed,  and, 
by  frequent  request,  granted  as  far  as  possible,  reserving  our  hunting  grounds:  for  wliat  will  be  the  use  of  goods 
brought  amongst  us,  it  our  young  men  have  not  hunting  ground  to  kill  game,  to  purchase  tiie  goods  brought  to  us.'' 

We  never  met  together  yet  to  explain  our  grievances,  but  we  told  them  to  tlie  beloved  man.  Col.  White,  who 
came  here  to  us,  anJhe  promised  to  lay  all  our  talks,  that  we  gave  him,  before  the  Congress,  and  that  we  should 
have  redress  and  justice  done  us.  Now  we  rest  witli  hopes  that  you  will  do  the  same  by  us,  as  we  expect  you  have 
the  same  talks. 

We  received  your  invitation,  and  do  expect  that,  when  we  meet,  all  past  grievances  will  be  forgot,  and  laid 
a-one  side,  and  then  renew  our  friendship  once  more,  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  our  people.  Mr.  George  Galphin  will 
acquaint  you  of  every  particular.  This  is  all  we  have  to  say,  until  we  shall  take  you  by  the  hand,  as  our  fathers, 
friends,  and  brothers. 

James  Derezeaux,  Interpreter. 

Dear  Sir: 

No.  3. 

Little  Tallassee,  18/A  May,  ir89. 

I  have  this  moment  received  your  letter,  enclosing  a  talk  of  invitation  to  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  nation 
to  meet  the  commissioners  of  Congress  the  !20th  June  next. 

I  wish  that  you  could  have  been  up,  while  I  was  in  the  Lower  towns;  the  great  fatigue  which  I  have  undergone 
this  spring,  prevents  my  seeing  the  Lower  chiefs  on  the  occasion. 

I  have  received  a  letter  from  the  commissioners  and  superintendent  last  winter,  in  which  they  declared,  in  the 
most  pointed  and  unequivocal  terms,  that  it  was  impossible  to  make  the  restitution  of  territory  the  basis  of  a  peace 
between  us  and  Georgia,  which  we  demanded  as  a  first  measure  to  be  complied  with  by  them,  to  lead  the  way  to  a 
lasting  peace. 

At  our  late  convention,  I  explained  the  letter  to  tlte  chiefs,  who  were  much  dissatisfied  at  the  declaration,  and 
observed,  that  it  was  in  vain  to  talk  of  peace  while  an  obstacle  of  such  magnitude  was  suffered  to  remain  in  the  way 
of  it,  on  the  part  of  the  Georgians;  and  the  warlike  preparations,  which  you  notice  in  your  letter,  are  carrying  on  to 
make  another  trial  to  accomplish  by  force,  what  can't  be  obtained  by  peaceable  methods.  Our  excursions,  hitherto, 
have  been  made  with  no  other  view  than  to  warn  tiie  Georgians  to  desist  from  their  injustice,  and  to  induce  them  to 
listen  to  reason  and  humanity.  It  is  well  known,  that,  it  any  other  was  our  motive,  that  our  force  and  resources 
are  equal  to  effect  their  destruction. 

On  the  present  occasion,  the  chiefs,  having  sent  for  my  opinion  and  advice,  I  have  wrote  to  them,  to  be  explained 
by  Mr.  Derezeaux.  I  have  left  the  matter  to  their  own  choice;  if  they  agree  to  meet,  1  will  likewise  go,  though  I 
iiave  the  best  reasons  against  it.  Yet  apprehensions  for  personal  security  shall  not  deter  me  from  fulfilling  the  duty 
which  I  owe  my  country. 

I  am,  sir,  your  humble  servant, 


Mr.  Geo.  Galphin,  at  Cussetafis. 

No.  4. 

Lower  Creeks,  May  27,  1789. 

1  have  to  acquaint  your  honors,  that,  on  my  arrival  in  the  Creek  nation,  I  found  it  in  a  very  bad  situation  to 
bring  about  a  treaty.  I  at  first  began  to  despair  of  having  it  in  my  power  to  effect  any  of  the  business  I  came  on, 
as  the  whole  Upper  and  I^ower  Creeks,  down  as  far  as  the  SeminoleSj  were  ready  fitted  off'  to  go  out  to  war;  and 
would  have  been  started,  if  I  had  been  but  four  days  later,  on  the  frontiers  of  Georgia.  Upwards  of  three  thousand 
would  have  been  out,  and  intended  to  have  drove  Ogechec  from  the  mouth  to  the  head,  which  I  fear  they  would 
have  effected,  after  viewing  the  frontiers  in  such  an  unprepared  state,  and  the  Indians  going  on  at  such  a  surprise. 

1  was  told,  by  many  of  the  Indians,  that,  if  anyone  else  had  come  at  such  a  time  but  myself,  they  never  should 
have  returned  bark.  'I'he  cause  of  their  setting  out  on  such  a  general  excursion,  was  by  consent  of  Mr.  McGillivray, 
after  a  general  meeting  of  the  chiefs  and  head  men  of  the  whole  Upper  and  Lower  Creeks;  and,  being  infonned  by 
liim  that  they  were  not  to  have  their  lands  on  the  Oconecs  restored  to  tiiem  again,  he  acquainted  them  that  the  , 
Spaniards  had  provided  for  them,  for  the  purpose  of  defending  their  rights  to  their  lands,  fitteen  hundred  stand  of) 
arms,  and  forty  thousand  weight  of  ammunition.  This,  he  told  me,  was  what  the  Governor  or  commandant  atPen- 
sacola  told  him,  was  what  they  had  orders  to  do  by  orders  from  their  king.  On  hearing  of  this  great  supply,  the 
Indians  were  much  exalted,  and,  I  believe,  would  have  turned  out  to  a  man,  except  the  Cussetahs,  who  seemed  much 
against  it,  which  was  happy  for  me  on  my  business,  or  1  could  have  done  notiiing. 

On  my  arrival  at  the  ('ussetahs,  I  met  with  Mr.  Barnard,  who  had  been  at  Air.  McGillivray's  talk,  and  had  been 
trying  all  he  could  to  put  a  sto|>  to  their  rash  proceedings,  till  an  express  was  sent  down,  with  an  offer  of  peace  on 
any  conditions,  as  any  thing  that  could  be  done  to  prolong  the  time,  until  news  could  have  been  got  down,  to  have 
warned  the  frontiers  from  such  a  destruction  as  must  have  ensued,  would  have  been  better  than  to  have  it  gone  on.  ^ 
Mr.  Barnard's  offers  could  not  avail,  as  the  Indians  seemed  determined  to  prosecute  what  they  begun.  Mr.  Bar- 
nard's life  and  property  were  immediately  threatened,  and  every  exertion  possible  made  use  of,  to  prevent  his  going 
oft',  or  sending  down  news  to  Georgia  of  what  was  going  forward.  At  my  meeting  Mr.  Barnard  at  the  Cussetahs, 
I  handed  him  liis  honor  the  Governor's  letter,  likewise  General  Twiggs',  and  communicated  the  whole  of  my  busi- 
ness to  him.  He  acquainted  me  with  every  matter  respecting  the  present  situation  of  affairSj  and  gave  me  every 
advice  he  thought  necessary  to  effect  my  business,  and  then  left  me  to  my  brother  John  to  complete  it,  as  he  told  me 
he  dared  not  be  seen  to  concern  with  me,  at  that  time,  at  the  risk  of  his  life,  which  I  found  to  be  the  truth. 

My  brother,  havin"  a  good  deal  of  influence  in  the  Cowetas,  through  our  connexion  there,  which  was  the  most 
strenuous  for  mischief  I  set  him  to  work  on  them,  and  myself  with  the  Cussetahs.  We,  in  two  days,  got  them  to 
stop  all  that  were  on  the  move,  till  we  could  write  Mr.  McGillivray.  They  agreed  to  wait  till  they  heard  his  answer. 
After;  finding  out  the  true  situation  of  affairs,  and,  according  to  my  instructions  from  you,  I  wrote  a  letter  acquaint- 
ing hiiii  fully  with  my  business  with  the  chiefs  of  the  nation,  and  from  whom  I  was  sent;  and,  as  head  of  the  nation, 
gave  liim  every  security,  if  he  attended  the  treaty,  tiiat  no  molestation  would  by  any  means  take  place,  but  timt  eveiy 
respect  would  be  shown  him,  which  I  hope  your  honors  will  take  every  step  to  secure,  that  my  promises  to  him  and 
the  rest  of  the  heads  may  not  be  violated.  After  my  letter,  he  left  the  determination  of  the  business  on  hand  to  the 
heads  of  the  Cussetahs  and  Cowetas,  who.  after  seeing  Ms  answer,  consented  to  treat.  He,  at  the  same  time,  gave 
them  to  understand,  that,  if  they  were  inclined  to  a  treaty,  he  would  likewise  attend,  and,  by  what  I  can  plainly  see, 
there  is  no  measure  to  be  fallen  upon,  to  settle  the  present  cause  of  dispute,  without  his  voice.  Even  if  a  treaty 
could  be  called  without  his  consent,  it  could  not  be  a  general  one;  therefore  it  would  only  be  leaving  matters  in 
the  same  disagreeable  situation  that  they  are  now  in,  and  leaving  the  frontiers  still  open  to  perpetual  violation.  His 
attendance  will  put  the  matter  effectually  out  of  every  kind  of  jeopardy,  one  way  or  other. 


36        '  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789 

I  am  now  at  Mr.  Barnard's,  on  Flint  river,  forwarding  to  you  this  express.  I  likewise  sent  my  brother  off,  before 
I  left  the  town,  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  to  know  exactly  when  he  and  the  rest  of  the  heads  would  wish  to  meet.  I  set 
off  again  for  the  Cussetahs  to-morrow,  and,  on  the  return  of  my  brother,  I  shall,  in  a  few  days,  set  out  for  Augusta, 
where  I  hope,  by  the  time  I  get  there,  you  will  nearly  effect  every  preparation  necessary  tor  a  treaty  at  the  Rock 

I  shall  be  particular  in  ascertaining  every  necessary  intelligence,  which  I  hope  in  a  short  time  to  be  able  to  com- 
municate to  your  honors  in  Augusta.    Till  then  I  remain,  witli  due  respect, 

Your  honoi's'  most  obed" t  humble  serv't, 


P.  S.  I  have  enclosed  Mr.  McGillivray's  answer  to  me  for  your  perusal,  and  likewise  a  talk  from  the  whole  of 
the  Lower  Creeks. 

G.  G. 

The  Hon.  And'w  Pickens  and  H'y  Osborn,  Esq. 

Commissioners  for  Indian  .Affairs  in  Southern  Department,  at  Augusta. 


No.  5. 

CowETAs,  2Sf/  Maj/^  1789, 

I  take  the  liberty  of  writing  to  your  honor  of  the  situation  of  this  our  country.  Wlien  my  brother  arrived 
here,  we  had  just  had  a  full  meeting  of  all  the  chiefs,  and  had  lon^  waited  for  talks,  but  never  received  any, 
A  John  Tarvin  arrived  from  Augusti,  who  we  expected  we  should  have  some  talks  by,  but  had  none^  there 
were  a  few  private  letters  for  Mr.  McGillivray,  but  nothing  of  consequence.  The  chiefs  then  thought  it  was 
not  the  Georgians'  intention  to  make  a  peace,  on  which  many  turned  out;  and  the  day  my  brother  arrived,  there 
were  not  less  than  two  thousand  under  amis.  I  gave  him  my  assistance,  and  stopped  all ;  and  immediately  sent 
to  Mr.  McGillivray.  who  acted  the  same.  There  might  be  small  parties  out  that  were  gone  so  far.  that  it  was^ 
out  of  our  power  to  stop  them:  they  turned  out  before  your  talks  came  up  to  this  country.  I  hope  tnat  the  small 
damages,  wnich  may  be  done  by  them,  will  be  overlooked;  if  not,  perhaps  we  shall  not  agree,  as  it  cannot  be 
accounted  for,  when  they  were  in  the  woods  before  your  talks  came  to  this  country,  and  I  hope  all  will  be  looked 
over.  I  am  sorry  it  was  not  more  in  my  power  to  assist  my  brother,  owing  to  a  bad  state  of  health  I  have  teen  ia 
for  some  time  past;  but,  finding  that  he  must  fall  through  with  his  business,  if  I  did  not  assist  him,  though  I  rode- 
about  with  him  in  great  pain;  and  yesterday  had  a  meeting  of  the  Lower  towns,  from  which  you  will  see  the  talks. 
\  I  found  it  necessary  to  go  up  to  the  Upper  towns,  and  see  Mr.  McGillivray,  as  it  was  needless  to  have  a  treaty  with; 
\part  of  the  nation,  and  not  the  whole.  It  may,  perhaps,  detahi  the  time  longer;  but  the  business  will  be  well  tlone- 
I  had  been  told  that  his  lionor  the  Governor  wrote  to  Mr.  Barnard;  am  surprised  that  his  honor  is  not  more  acquainted 
with  business  of  this  country,  than  to  tliink  that  Mr.  Barnard's  influence  could  be  of  any  service  to  that  country,  t 
believe  him  to  be  a  friend  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  but  I  must  take  the  liberty  to  acquaint  you  that  Mr.  Barnardl 
cannot  do  any  thing  here  more  than  a  trader,  nor  is  it  in  his  power.  You  will  get  the  fullest  information  of  this 
country  by  my  brother  George,  and  a  treaty,  you  may  rely  on,  we  will  try,  if  possible,  to  be  at  the  time  appointed;; 
but,  if  we  should  not,  you  must  wait  a  few  days  longer,  as  this  is  an  extensive  country,  and  business  cannot  be  done 
in  a  day  or  two.  It  w;ill  be  necessary  that  every  preparation  be  made,  for  we  will  try  to  make  a  lasting  peace;  and^ 
for  that  intention,  I  will  try  to  bring  the  chiefs  of  the  whole  nation.  We  may  be  in  number,  that  will  come  down, 
about  two  or  three  thousand,  and  hope  that  you  will  be  in  readines  for  the  reception  of  that  number. 

I  must  now  give  some  small  remarks  of  the  usage  I  have  had  in  the  vState  oi  Georgia.  ^Vhen  I  was  only  seven- 
teen, the  Assembly,  under  some  pretence,  robbed  ine  of  better  than  forty  thousand  acres  of  land,  a  precedent  not  to 
be  equalled  in  all  the  annals  of  history.  I  then  settled  store  on  the  Oconee  river,  and,  being  alarmed  that  the  Indians 
were  likely  to  do  mischief.  Captain  Kemp,  with  several  of  the  neighbors,  requested  I  would  go  to  the  nation  to  know 
the  certainty,  and,  if  possible,  to  prevent  so  shocking  a  scene.  On  my  way  up,  I  met  and  passed  them;  no  sooner 
out  of  sight,  I  got  round  them,  and  gave  the  inhabitants  timely  notice,  tliough  my  horse  tired,  and  had  to  travel  on 
foot  forty  miles,  a  fatigue  I  was  but  little  accustomed  to.  They  might,  had  they  been  possessed  of  one  spark  of 
gratitude,  reckoned  that  information  a  temporal  salvation.  I  leave  the  judicious  part,  for  I  think  there  must  be  some, 
to  judge  their  gratitude,  when,  at  that  very  juncture,  they  burned  my  house,  robbed  me  of  better  than  two  hundred 
pounds  sterling,  to  induce  me  to  believe  it  was  the  Indians;  and  repeatedly  threatened  my  life,  from  no  motive,  I 
know  of,  but  of  saving  them.  Had  the  men  who  made  application  the  smallest  idea  of  justice,  they  would  not  have 
suffered  me  to  be  treated  as  I  was.  Soon  after,  the  commissioners  made  application  to  me  to  biing  the  Indians  to  a 
treaty;  it  w;is  hardly  possible  for  me  to  be  zealous  to  serve  a  people  who  liad  so  unjustly  injured  me,  and  were 
•  continually  declaring  they  would  take  my  life.  However,  to  induce  me  to  undertake  it,  and  exhaust  the  remains 
of  my  shattered  fortune,  they  seemed  so  point  out  steps  that  would  retrieve  my  lands,  and  my  own  foolish  credulity 
once  more  permitted  me  to  comply  with  their  request.  The  inhabitants  were  still  swearing  vengeance  against  me. 
I  then  did  not  think  my  life  safe;  I  was  then  obliged  to  seek  refuge  in  this,  niy  own  country,  where  I  was  in  some 
safety;  and  I  have  laid  out  of  my  own  pocket  better  than  eighty  pounds  sterling  in  purchasing  the  prisoners  that  were 
brought  here,  and  risque  my  life  to  save  theirs.  All  this  I  nave  done  to  serve  the  Georgians.  I  will  write  you  more 
satisfactory  than  at  present,  as  I  am  now  in  a  great  hurry.  You  may  be  in  preparation  for  a  treaty;  and  have  the 
honor  to  be,  sir, 

Your  most  obed't  servant, 

The  Hon.  Henry  Osborne,  Esq. 

Commissioner  of  Indian  Jlffairs,  Jlugusta. 

No.  6. 


In  my  last  letter  to  you,  I  mentioned  where  I  was  going;  to  the  Upper  towns,  in  order  to  see  Mr.  McGilli- 
vray, and  have  just  arrived,  and  completed  the  business  that  my  brother  came  on,  which  he  must  have  fallen  through 
with,  had  I  not  assisted  him.  I  have  settled  every  matter  for  him,  and  will  be  ready  to  start  from  this  place,  with 
all  the  Lower  towns,  the  13th  of  this  month.  I  expect  to  be  joined  with  all  the  Upper  Creeks,  and  our  chief  speaker, 
Mr.  McGillivray,  the  tenth  of  this  month.  We  shall  have  all  the  chiefs  of  the  whole  nation  with  us.  I  can  just 
tell  your  honor,  that  there  will  be  more  chiefs  at  this  treaty,  than  ever  was  at  a  treaty  yet,  in  order  to  settle  every 
dispute.  Matters  may  be  settled  on  good  terms,  but  we  cannot  come  upon  any  terms  unless  every  dispute  is  settled 
on  a  good  footing;  particularly  that  of  mine,  concerning  my  lands,  which  were  taken  from  me  when  I  was  under 
age.  I  should  once  have  thought  myself  happy  of  being  a  citizen  in  the  State  of  Georgia,  but  it  was  withheld,  and 
I  must  now  look  upon  myself  a  chief  in  the  whole  of  the  lower  towns,  as  they  have  now  given  me  the  honor  of  settling 
their  business  for  them.  In  my  last,  I  gave  you  my  reason  for  leaving  the  State  of  Georgia,  but  I  would  still  wish 
every  matter  could  be  settled  on  good  terms  for  a  peace:  for  no  man  has  taken  more  pains  than  I  have. 

I  make  no  doubt  there  have  been  some  people  on  the  frontiers  killed  lately,  but  we  have  lost  twelve  in  number; 
I  think  that  may  be  upon  a  balance  for  what  are  lost  on  the  frontiers. 

I  will  try  to  be  down  by  the  time  appointed;  it  will  be  very  necessary  that  all  white  people,  who  have  no  business, 
should  be  ordered  away,  as  they  generally  give  more  disturbance  than  any  others;  and  for  no  person  to  come  on  this 
side  of  the  river,  as  the  Indians  are  a  jealous  people,  and  hope  every  method  will  be  taken  to  Iceep  people  back  that 

CowETAs,  June  1st,  1789. 

1789.]  THE   CREEKS   AND   OTHERS.  37 

Jiave  no  business  there,  if  not  we  shall  return:  for  the  people  of  Georgia  always  bully  than  treat  with  tlie  Indians, 
but  I  hope  such  steps  will  not  be  taken  now. 

I  remain  sir,  your  obed't  servant, 

The  Hon.  Henry  Osborne,  Esq. 

Commissioner  of  Indian  .Affairs,  Jiugusta. 


No.  r. 

Rock  Landing,  24/A  June,  1789. 

I  arrived  here  yesterday,  and  meeting  Mr.  Brian,  the  interpreter,  this  morning,  he  informed  me  of  seeing 
a  Mr.  Whitehead  on  his  way  from  the  nation,  wiiu  did  not  altogether  give  him  a  true  account  of  us,  but  I  can  assure 
you  that  I  have  it  in  my  power  to  settle  every  matter  amicably  and  satisfactorily  to  both  parties. 

I  shall  wait  at  this  place  until  I  get  an  answer  to  return  with,  as  your  honors  will  find,  by  my  instructions,  that 
I  can  settle  every  thing  agreeably. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

TTie  honorable  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Indian  Jiffairs. 

No.  8. 

CowETAS,  l6//j  June,  1789. 

Upon  receipt  of  this  letter,  you  are  requested  by  the  chiefs  to  proceed  to  the  proposed  place  of  meeting  at  the 
Rock -landing,  on  the  Oconee  river,  where,  if  you  meet  with  the  commissioners,  you  are  to  inform  them,  tliat  the 
chiefs  have  resolved  to  put  off  the  meeting  for  the  present,  for  the  following  reasons: 

That  when  the  talk  of  invitation  arrived  iiere,  the  whole  body  of  warriors  were  in  arms,  owing  to  the  commis- 
sioners' letter  of  last  winter^  ready  to  turn  out,  but  the  chiefs  being  ever  ready  to  listen  to  just  terms  of  peace,  they 
agreed  to  meet  the  commissioners  to  treat  as  they  requested,:  but  some  parties  having  early  gone  out,  could  not  be 
stopped,  and  they  having  returned  within  a  few  days  of  the  appointed  time  for  the  chiefs  setting  out  for  the  Rock 
Landing,  and  having  done  mischief  in  killing  several  people,  the  body  of  the  people  stopped  the  chiefs  from  proceed- 
ing to  the  Oc(mee,  apprehensive  that  they  might  sustain  injury  and  insult  from  the  people  of  that  country. 

The  chiefs  are  willing  to  treat  at  a  time  when,  a  few  montiis  having  passed  over,  each  other's  minds  will  be  more 
co>ol,  and  can  talk  over  matters  with  calmness  and  temfter;  mean  time  they  wish  to  have  an  answer  from  the  com- 
missioners, upon  what  grounds  they  intend  to  conduct  the  treaty  on.  They  apprehend  that  some  demands  will  be 
made,  to  which  they  cannot  agree,  and  they  don't  wish  to  meet  them  to  quarrel,  but  rather  desire,  when  they  do  meet, 
to  treat  of  peace,  to  do  it  in  a  peaceable  manner,  and  to  conclude  a  peace  on  terms  that  may  make  it  a  lasting  one. 
Wishing  you  a  good  journey,  remain  with  esteem  and  regard. 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 


P.  S.  Assure  the  commissioners  that  every  exertion  will  be  made  by  the  chiefs  to  keep  things  quiet,  which  may 
be  depended  on. 

Mr.  John  Galphin,  in  the  Cowetas. 

No.  9. 

To  the  Head-men,  Chiefs,  and  If'arriors,  of  the  Creek  nation. 

Rock  Landing,  on  the  Oconee,  June  29th,  1789. 

We  came  to  this  place  expecting  to  meet  you  agreeably  to  our  invitation,  which  we  sent  to  you  by  Mr. 
George  Galphin.  We  are  sorry  .iny  thing  should  have  happened  to  prevent  your  coming.  We  have  heard  your 
reasons  from  your  chief  speaker,  Mr.  McGillivray.  with  which  we  are  satisfied.  We  have  consulted  your  beloved 
man,  Mr.  John  Galphin,  and  have  fixed  the  lime  for  meeting  you  all  at  this  place,  to  be  the  15th  of  September  next 
We  hope  you  will  be  punctual  in  coming,  that  all  disputes  may  be  settled,  and  we  may  again  take  you  by  the  hand 
as  friends  and  brothers. 

As  a  mark  of  your  good  intentions,  we  shall  expect  all  the  prisoners  in  the  nation,  both  whites  and  blacks,  will 
be  sent  to  tliis  place  as  soon  as  possible,  where  one  of  us  will  remain  to  receive  them. 

We  have  strictly  charged  our  people  not  to  cross  over  to  your  side  of  the  Oconee,   and  we  expect  your  people 
will  not  come  on  this  side,  except  at  this  place,  before  the  time  for  holding  the  treaty. 

We  shall  expect  that  all  your  people  will  be  prohibited  from  committing  any  kind  of  depredations  against  ours, 
so  that  peace  may  be  preserved,  and  all  of  us  meet  at  the  appointed  time,  as  friends  and  brothers. 


No.  10. 

Rock  Landing,  June  30th,  1789. 

We  have  received  your  letter  to  Mr.  John  Galphin,  and  are  very  sorry  we  could  not  have  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  you  at  the  time  appointed;  but  as  wc  have  fixeu  a  time  agieeable  to  your  wish,  we  hope  nothing  will  prevent 
your  being  present  on  the  1 5th  of"  September  next.  It  is  our  wish  and  desire  to  make  a  firm  and  lasting  peace, 
on  liberal  terms,  with  all  the  chiefs  of  the  nation.  One  of  us  will  remain  at  this  place  to  iiavc  every  thing  prepared 
for  the  treaty,  and  to  receive  as  many  of  the  prisoners  as  can  be  sent  down  before  that  period.  You  will  oblige  us 
much  by  using  your  influence  on  this  subject,  as  it  will  have  a  very  happy  effect  in  this  country,  and  tend  to  promote 
a  good  understanding  between  the  Indians  and  our  people;  we  expect  all  the  prisoners  that  cannot  be  sent  imme^ 
diately,  will  be  brought  to  the  treaty. 

There  are  few  things  vex  the  people  of  this  country  so  much,  as  having  their  horses  stolen;  we  wish,  and  have 
no  doubt,  but  you  will  put  a  slop  to  that  practice  in  future,  and  that  you  will  order  as  many  of  the  stolen  horses  as 
can  be  found  in  the  nation,  to  be  sent  to  us. 

Mrs.  Girerdeau,  a  widow  lady  of  Liberty  county,  was  plundered  by  a  party  of  your  nation  in  August  last,  and 
eight  negroes  taken  ofl".  She  has  five  young  children,  and  the  negroes  were  the  bulk  of  her  and  their  property; 
feeling  for  the  widow  and  orphans,  we  have  granted  her  eldest  son  permission  to  accompany  Mr.  Galphin  to  the 
nation.  We  recommend  him  to  your  humanity  in  the  strongest  terms,  and  reauestyou  to  afford  him  every  necessary 
assistance  in  regaining  the  property:  he  will  return  by  this  route,  and  we  shall  be  happy  to  have  an  opportunity  of 
rendering  you  a  similar  service,  either  in  a  public  or  private  capacity. 

We  have  spoken  very  freely  to  Mr.  Galphin,  he  will  give  you  every  necessaiy  information,  and  do  away  any 
doubts  that  may  have  remained  on  your  mind.    It  would  give  us  great  satisfaction  to  have  some  private  conversation 
with  you  and  him,  prior  to  the  public  talks;  we  doubt  not  but  all  matters  may  be  so  settled  betweon  us,  as  will  make 
the  treaty  both  easy  and  agreeable  to  all  parties. 
6  • 

38  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [ir89. 

For  your  satisfaction,  we  enclose  you  a  resolve  of  the  Executive  of  this  State,  and  an  order  of  the  Governor  thereon. 
It  is  our  wish  that  no  people  whatever,  belonging  to  the  United  States,  should  be  disturbed  or  injured  either  in  their 
persons  or  property,  tdl  all  matters  are  finally  settled  between  us. 

We  are,  sir,  your  obedient  and  very  humble  servants, 

To  Alexander  McGillivray,  Esq.  _  Commissioners. 

Chief  Speaker  in  the  Creek  Nation. 

In  Council,  Augusta,  June  19M,  1789. 

To  the  end  that  no  interruption  or  personal  interference  may  take  place,  between  the  honorable  the  commis 
sioners  and  the  Indians,  in  the  progress  of  the  treaty  at  the  Rock  Landing,  it  is  unanimously  ordered,  in  the  most 
express  terms,  that  no  person  or  persons  whatsoever,  do  approach  the  treaty  ground,  or  cross  over  the  Oconee  U* 
the  south  side,  during  the  time  of  holding  the  same,  or  within  ten  days  thereafter,  without  special  permission  from 
the  commissioners,  for  that  purpose;  and  any  breach  of  this  order  will  be  punished  with  the  utmost  severity. 

Extract  from  the  minutes. 

J.  MERIWETHER,  S.  E.  C. 

Council  Chamber,  June  I9th,  1789. 

In  pursuance  of  the  above  order  of  Council,  the  Governor  and  Commander-in-chief  orders  and  directs,  that  the 
officers  of  the  militia,  guard  to  the  commissioners,  and  of  the  State  troops,  do  see,  at  their  respective  stations,  that 
the  same  be  not  violated:  and  any  neglect  herein,  will  be  deemed  a  breach  of  duty,  and  punished  accordingly. 


No.  3. 

General  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 


This  nation  of  Indians,  consisting  of  separate  towns  or  villages,  are  seated  principally  on  the  head  waters  of  the 
Tennessee,  which  runs  into  the  Ohio.  Their  hunting  grounds  extend  from  Cumberland  river  along  the  frontiers  of 
Virginia,  North  and  South  Carolina,  and  part  of  Georgia. 

The  frequent  wars  they  have  had  with  the  frontier  people  of  the  said  States,  have  greatly  diminished  their  num- 
bers. The  commissioners  estimated  them,  in  November,  1785,  at  2,000  warriors^  tiut  they  were  estimated,  in  1787. 
by  Colonel  Joseph  Martin,  who  was  well  acquainted  with  them,  at  2,650;  but  it  is  probable  they  may  be  lessened 
since,  by  the  depredations  committed  on  them. 

The  United  States  concluded  a  treaty  with  the  Cherokees,  at  Hopewell,  on  the  Keowee,  the  28th  of  November, 
1785,  which  is  entered  on  the  printed  journals  of  Congress,  April  17th,  1786.  The  negotiations  of  the  commis- 
sioners on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  are  hereunto  annexed,  marked  A. 

It  will  appear,  by  the  papers  marked  B,  that  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  by  their  agent,  protested  against  the 
said  treaty  as  infringing  and  violating  the  legislative  rights  of  that  State. 

By  a  variety  of  evidence  which  has  been  submitted  to  the  late  Congress,  it  has  been  proved  that  the  said  treaty 
has  been  entirely  disregarded  by  the  white  people  inhabiting  the  frontiers,  styling  themselves  the  State  of  Franklin. 
The  proceedings  of  Congress  on  the  first  ot  September,  1788,  and  the  proclamation  they  then  issued  on  tliis 
subject,  will  show  their  sense  of  the  many  unprovoked  outrages  committed  against  the  Cherokees. 

The  information  contained  in  the  papers  marked  C,  from  Colonel  Joseph  Martin,  the  late  agent  to  the  Chero- 
kees, and  Richard  Winn,  Esq.  will  further  evince  the  deplorable  situation  of  the  Cherokees,  ana  the  indispensable 
obligation  of  the  United  States  to  vindicate  their  faith,  justice,  and  national  dignity. 

The  letter  of  Mr.  Winn,  the  late  superintendent,  of  the  first  of  March,  inftrms,  that  a  treaty  will  be  held  with 
the  Cherokees  on  the  third  Monday  of  May,  at  the  LFpper  War-ford,  on  French  Broad  river. 

But  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  time  for  which  both  he,  and  Colonel  Joseph  Martin,  the  agent  to  the  Cherokees  and 
Chickasaws,  were  elected,  has  expired;  and,  therefore,  they  are  not  authorized  to  act  on  the  part  of  the  Union.  If 
the  commissioners  appointed  by  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  and  Georgia,  by  virtue  of  the  resolve  of  Congress 
of  the  26th  of  October,  1787,  should  attend  the  said  treaty,  their  proceedings  thereon  may  soon  be  expected. 

But  as  part  of  the  Cherokees  have  taken  refuge  within  the  limits  of  the  Creeks,  it  is  highly  probable  they  will 
be  under  the  same  direction,  and,  therefore,  as  the  fact  of  the  violation  of  the  treaty  cannot  be  disputed,  and  as  the 
commissioners  have  not  power  to  replace  tlie  Cherokees  within  the  limits  established  in  1785,  it  is  not  probable, 
even  if  a  treaty  should  be  held,  as  stated  by  Mr.  Winn,  that  the  result  would  be  satisfactory. 
All  which  IS  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

H.  KNOX. 

War  Office,  July  7th,  1789. 

A.  No.  1. 

Hopewell,  on  the  Keowee,  2rf  December,  1785. 



We  enclose  to  your  Excellency  a  treaty  which  we  entered  into  on  the  28th  ultimo,  with  all  the  Cherokees  at 
this  place.  We  had  invited  the  Chiefs  only  of  the  respective  towns,  but  they  having  some  reason  to  expect  ill 
treatment  from  some  disorderly  people  in  that  part  of  the  westward  of  North  Carolina,  where  the  exercise  of  an 
independent  government  has  lately  been  assumed,  were  under  the  necessity  of  bringing  their  young  warriors,  their 
wives  and  children,  who  were  most  exposed,  to  be  protected,  so  that  from  this  nation  we  have  had  nine  hundred 
and  eighteen. 

Previous  to  entering  into  the  treaty,  we,  with  interpreters  who  understood  the  Cherokee  language  well,  explain- 
ed the  occurrences  of  the  late  war,  with  the  extent  of  territory  ceded  to  us  by  the  King  of  Great  Britain.  We  also 
explained  every  article  of  the  treaty,  so  that  they  could  comprehend  it  perfectly.  After  it  was  signed,  they  express- 
ed their  obligations  to  the  United  States  of  America  for  taking  them  under  protection,  and  treating  them  with  such 
unexpected  justice. 

The  agents  of  Georgia  and  North  Carolina  attended  the  treaty,  as  will  appear  by  their  protest,  herewith  enclosed. 
The  commissioners,  in  establishing  the  boundary  which  is  the  chief  cause  of  all  the  complaints  of  the  Indians, 
were  desirous  of  accommodating  the  southern  States,  and  their  western  citizens,  in  any  thing  consistent  with  the 
duty  we  owed  to  the  United  States. 

We  established  the  line  from  forty  miles  above  Nashville  on  the  Cumberland,  agreeable  to  the  deed  of  sa'e  to 
Richard  Henderson  &  Co.  as  far  as  the  Kentucky  ford;  thence  to  the  mountain  six  miles  south  of  Nolichuckey, 
agreeable  to  the  treaty  in  1777,  with  Colonel  William  Christie,  William  Preston,  and  Evan  Shelby,  on  the  part  of 
Yirginia;  and  Waitstill  Avery,  attorney  general.  Colonel  Robert  Lanier,  William  Sharp,  and  Joseph  Winston,  on 


thepart  of  North  Carolina;  thence  by  agreement,  south,  to  the  North  Carolina  line,  and  to  the  South  Carolina 
Indian  boundary;  thence  to  the  Tueelo  river,  the  treaty  at  Dewit's  corner  in  17T7,  with  States  of  South  Carolina 
and  Georgia;  thence,  over  the  Currahee  mountain,  to  the  south  fork  of  Oconee,  the  treaty  at  Augusta,  of  1783.  The 
line  from  Duck  river  is  now  given  by  the  Cherokees  to  accommodate  the  people  of  Nashville,  and  others,  south  of 
the  Cumberland,  (which  river  is  the  southern  boundary  of  the  lands  sold  to  Richard  Henderson  &  Co.)  as  it  would 
be  difficult  to  remove  them,  as  well  as  very  distressing  to  the  citizens. 

There  are  some  few  people  settled  on  the  Indian  lands,  whom  we  are  to  remove,  and  those  in  the  fork  of  French 
Broad  and  Holston,  being  numerous,  the  Indians  agreed  to  refer  their  particular  situation  to  Congress,  and  abide 
their  decision.  We  told  them  there  were  too  many  for  us  to  engage  positively  to  order  otf,  althougli  they  had  set- 
tled expressly  against  the  treaty  entered  into  by  Virginia  and  North  Carolina  with  the  Cherokees  in  1777. 

The  commissioners  know  not  what  is  best  to  be  done  in  this  case.  They  see  that  justice,  humanity,  and  good 
policy,  require  that  some  compensation  should  be  made  to  the  Indians  for  these  lands;  but  the  manner  of  doing  it 
probably  would  be  difficult.  However,  a  small  sum  we  think  could  be  raised  on  the  unlocated  lands,  as  well  as 
from  th9se  already  settled;  and  which,  if  appropriated  to  the  purpose  of  teaching  them  some  useful  branches  of 
mechanics,  would  be  of  lasting  advantage.  Some  of  the  women  have  lately  learnt  to  spin,  and  many  of  them  are 
very  desirous  that  some  method  should  be  fallen  on  to  teach  them  to  raise  flax,  cotton,  and  wool,  as  well  as  to  spin 
and  weave  it. 

We  have  required  the  aid  of  the  agent  of  North  Carolina,  and  the  commissioners  of  Georgia,  in  the  execution 

We  told  them  that  we  invited  and  expected  the  head-men  and  warriors  only;  that  the  object  of  our  commission  was 
altogether  for  their  benefit,  and  we  had  made  provision  accordingly. 

The  Spaniards  and  the  French  from  New  Orleans  are  making  great  efforts  to  engross  the  trade  of  the  Indians; 
several  ot  them  are  on  the  nortli  side  of  the  Tennessee,  and  well  supplied  with  proper  goods  for  the  trade.    The 
Governor  of  New  Orleans,  or  West  Florida,  has  sent  orders  to  the  Chickasaws  to  remove  all  traders  from  that-- 
country,  except  those  who  had  or  should  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Catholic  King:  and  also,  had  apppointed 
ten  traders,  who  were  down  after  goods,  when  our  informant,  a  man  of  respectability,  left  that  country. 

We  sent  a  very  intelligent,  honest  man,  with  our  invitation  to  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws.  to  treat  with  us, 
and  he  brought  us  assurances  from  them,  that  they  would  attend  the  treaty;  and  some  of  the  former  set  out  before 
he  left  the  Chickasaw  nation,  but  none  of  them  have  as  yet  arrived,  and  we  cannot  account  for  it,  unless  we  give 
credit  to  reports,  which  contradict,  expressly,  all  assurances  of  their  attachment  to  the  United  States,  and  joy  on  the 
first  notification  of  the  resolution  of  Congress,  appointing  commissioners  to  treat  with  them,  and  receive  them  into 
the  favor  and  protection  of  the  United  States.  The  Cherokees  say  that  the  Northern  Indians  have  their  emissaries 
among  the  Southern  tribes,  endeavoring  to  prevail  on  them  to  form  an  alliance  offensive  against  the  United  States, 
and  to  commence  hostilities  against  us  in  the  spring,  or  next  fall,  at  the  farthest:  they  also  say,  that,  not  only  the 
British  emissaries  are  for  this  measure,  but  that  the  Spaniards  have  extensive  claims  to  the  southward,  and  have 
been  endeavoring  to  poison  the  minds  of  the  Indians  against  us,  and  to  win  their  affections,  by  large  supplies  of 
arms,  military  stores,  and  clothing. 

We  are  at  a  loss  what  to  do,  to  complete  the  object  of  our  commission;  the  sum  to  which  we  are  limited,  is 
already,  by  our  disappointments  and  expenses  attendant  thereon,  so  diminished,  that  we  are  unable  to  fix  on  any 
place,  and  therefore  must  await  the  further  order  of  Congress. 

We  have,  for  the  information  of  Congress,  collected,  as  near  as  may  be,  the  number  of  Indians  in  the  four  South- 
ern States,  and  we  find  the  gun-men  of  the  Cherokees,  -  -  .  .  .  2,000 

The  Upper  and  Lower  Creek  nation,  from  an  agent  who  resided  seven  years  in  their  towns,  and  employed 

by  John  Stewart,  for  the  purpose,      ---.-..  5  400 

The  Chickasaws,       ------...  gOO 

The  Choctaws,  ------...  6,000 

^,  ,  14,000 

There  are,  also,  some  remains  of  tnbes  settled  among  these,  as  Shawanees,  Eutchees,  &c.  &c. 
At  a  moderate  calculation,  we  may  reckon  the  women,  the  children,  and  the  old  men,  unfit  for  hunting,  to  four 
times  the  number  of  gun-men. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  due  respect,  &c. 

His  Excellency  Richard  Henry  Lee,  Esq.  LACH'N  McINTOSH. 

President  qf  Congress. 





A.    No.  2. 





1.  Auifiisia. 
S.  Nutchrz. 

3.  Ocdiife  river. 

4.  South  Turk  uf  Oconee. 

5.  BroatI  river, 

6.  Car;ihee  muuntaiii, 

7.  Siivaunah  river. 

8.  Keeowee  river. 

9.  SiliidHh  river. 
10.  .Missi^siiipi  river, 
IL  'llie    rivt  r  above  the    fort, 

calKd  KasKaskia  by    the 


12.  Tennessee  river, 

13.  Ococh:ip[io  river. 

14.  Muscle  Shoals, 

15,  Chiekflsaw  Claim, 

16.  Ocuiiiiee  Mountain. 

17,  Mou'itain  SIX  miles  S.  of 


18.  French  Br.iad  river. 

19.  Nolichueky  river. 

20,  Holstun  river. 

21.  ]  ong  island  of  Holston. 

22.  Chneh  rtver, 

23.  Po.vell  river. 

24.  Martin's  Station, 

25.  N.shville. 

26.  Cumberland. 

27.  Wabash,  or  Enemy  river. 

28.  Ohioiiver. 

29.  Falls. 

30.  Kentucky  river. 

31.  Fort  Put. 

32.  Henderson's  Range  for  his 

horses  and  cattle,  wiibin 
the  circle. 

This  map  is  copied  from  one  drawn  by  the  Tassel,  and  some  other  of  the  head-men  of  the  Cherokees,  to  describe 
their  territorial  claims.     It  is  not  known  whether  the  line  from  the  mountain,  six  miles  south  of  Nolichucky,  will 
touch  the  North  Carolina  line  to  the  east  or  west  of  the  South  Carolina  Indian  boundary;  but  it  is  supposetl  to  be 
to  the  west. 
Keeowee,  28//t  of  November,  1785. 

A.  No.  3. 

Hopewell  on  Keowee,  the  I8fh  November,  1785. 

The  commissioners  of  (he  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  to  treat  with  the  Cherokees,  and  all  other 
Indians  southward  of  them,  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  assembled. 

Present:  Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin  Mcintosh;  from  the  State  of  North 
Carolina;  the  honorable  William  Blount,  Esq.  who  produced  his  commission,  as  agent  for  that  State. 

The  commissioners  ordered  a  return  to  be  made  of  the  Indians,  and  there  were  live  hundred.  The  head-men 
and  warriors  having  informed,  that  the  present  representation  of  their  tribes  was  not  complete,  but  would  be  so  in  a 
few  days,  it  was  agreed  to  postpone  treating  with  them  until  the  whole  representation  should  arrive. 

November  21. 

The  head-men  and  warriors  of  all  the  Cherokees  assembled.  Ordered,  that  the  interpreters  inform  the  Indians 
that  commissioners  will  meet  them  to-morrow  at  10  o'clock,  under  the  bower  erected  for  that  purpose. 

November  22. 

The  commissioners  assembled.  Present:  Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin 
Mcintosh.  From  the  State  of  North  Carolina.  William  Blount,  agent.  From  the  State  ot  Georgia,  John  King  and 
Thomas  Glasscock,  commissioners.  From  all  the  tribes  or  towns  of  the  Cherokees,  the  head-men  and  warriors. 
James  Madison,  Arthur  Coody,  interpreters. 

The  commissioners  delivered  the  following  address  to  the  Indians: 

Head-men  and  warriors  of  all  the  Cherokees:  We  are  the  men  whom  you  were  informed  came  from  Congress 
to  meet  you,  the  head-men  and  warriors  of  all  the  Ciierokees,  to  give  you  peace,  and  to  receive  you  into  the  favor  and 
protection  of  the  United  States;  and  to  remove,  as  far  as  may  be,  all  causes  of  future  contention  or  quarrels.  That 
you,  your  people,  your  wives  and  cliildren,  may  be  happy,  and  feel  and  know  the  blessings  of  the  new  change  of 
sovere  gnty  over  this  land,  which  you  and  we  inhabit. 

We  sincerely  wish  you  to  live  as  happily  as  we  do  ourselves,  and  to  promote  that  happiness  as  far  as  is  in  our 
power,  regardless  of  any  distinction  of  color,  or  of  any  difference  in  our  customs,  our  manners,  or  particular  situation. 



This  humane  and  generous  act  of  the  United  States,  will  no  doubt  be  received  by  you  with  •'ladness  and  held  in 
ffratefui  remembrance,  and  the  more  so,  as  many  of  your  young  men,  and  the  greatest  number  of  your  warriors 
during  the  late  war,  were  our  enemies,  and  assisted  the  King  of  Great  Britain  in  his  endeavors  to  conquer  our  country' 

You,  yourselves,  knovv,  that  you  refused  to  listen  to  the  good  talks  Congress  sent  you;  that  the  cause  you 
espoused  was  a  bad  one:  that  all  the  adherents  ot  the  King  ot  Great  Britain  are  compelled  to  leave  this  country 
nevermore  to  return.  ■'' 

Congress  is  now  the  sovereign  of  all  our  country,  which  we  now  point  out  to  you  on  the  map.*  They  want 
none  of  your  lands,  or  any  thing  else  which  belongs  to  you;  and  as  an  earnest  of  their  regard  for  you  we  oronose  to 
enter  into  articles  of  a  treaty  perfectly  equal,  and  conformable  to  what  we  now  tell  you. 

If  you  have  any  grievances  to  complain  of,  we  will  hear  them,  and  take  such  measures,  in  consequence  thereof 
as  may  be  proper.  We  expect  you  will  speak  your  minds  freely,  and  look  upon  us  as  the  representatives  of  your 
father  and  friend,  the  Congress,  who  will  see  justice  done  you.    You  may  now  retire,  and  reilect  on  what  we 

November  23. 

Present  as  yesterday.  After  sitting  some  time  in  silence,  the  Tassel  of  Chota  arose,  and  addressed  the  commis- 
sioners as  follows: 

I  am  going  to  let  the  commissioners  hear  what  I  have  to  say  to  them.     I  told  you  yesterday  I  would  do  this  to 
day.     I  was  very  much  pleased  at  the  talk  you  gave  us  yestercfay;  it  is  very  different  from  what  I  expected  when  I 
left  home;  the  head-men  and  warriors  are  also  equally  pleased  with  it. 

Now,  I  shall  give  you  my  own  talk.  I  am  made  of  this  earth,  on  which  the  great  man  above  placed  me  to  pos- 
sess it;  and  what  I  am  about  to  tell  you,  I  have  had  in  my  mind  for  many  years.  ' 

This  land  we  are  now  on,  is  the  land  we  were  figiiting  for,  during  the  late  contest,!  and  the  great  man  made  it 
for  us  to  subsist  upon.  You  must  know  the  red  people  are  the  aborigines  of  this  land,  and  that  it  is  but  a  few  years 
since  the  white  people  found  it  out.  I  am  of  the  first  stock,  as  the  commissioners  know,  and  a  native  of  this  land* 
and  the  white  people  are  now  living  on  it  as  our  friends.  From  the  beginning  of  the  first  friendship  between  the 
white  and  red  people,  beads  were  given  as  an  emblem  thereof:  and  these  are  the  beads  I  give  to  the  commission- 
ers of  the  United  Mates,  as  a  confirmation  of  our  friendship,  and  as  a  proof  of  my  opinion  of  what  you  yesterday 
told  us.— [A  string  of  white  beads.]  j      2'  n 

The  commissioners  have  heard  how  the  white  people  have  encroached  on  our  lands,  on  every  side  of  us  that  they 
could  approach.  ^ 

I  remember  the  talks  I  delivered  at  the  Long  Island  of  Holston,  and  I  remember  giving  our  lands  to  Colonel 
Christie  and  others,  who  treated  with  us,  and  in  a  manner  compelled  me  thereto,  in  1777.     I  remember  the  talks 
to  Colonel  Christie,  when  I  gave  the  lands  at  the  mouth  of  Cloud's  creek,  eighteen  springs  past.    At  that  treaty 
we  agreed  upon  the  line  near  the  mouth  of  Lime  Stone.     The  Virginia  line,  and  part  from  the  mouth  of  Cloud's 
creek  to  Cumberland  mountain,  near  the  gap,  was  paid  for  by  Virginia. 

From  Cloud's  creek, a  direct  line  to  the  Chimney-top  mountain,  thence,  to  the  mouth  of  Big  Lime  Stone  onNoli 
chuky,  thence,  to  the  first  mountain  about  six  miles  from  (he  river,  on  a  line  across  the  sun,  was  never  pa'id  tor  by 
the  Carolina  which  joins  the  Virginia  line.     I  wish  the  commissioners  to  know  every  thing  that  concerns  us  as  I  tell 
nothing  but  the  truth.     They,  the  people  of  North  Carolina,  have  taken  our  lands  for  no  consideration    and  are  now 
making  their  fortunes  out  ol  them.     I  have  informed  the  commissioners  of  the  line  I  gave  up,  and  the  people  of 
North  Carolina  and  Virginia  have  gone  over  it,  and  encroached  on  our  lands  expressly  against  our  inclination      Thev 
have  gone  over  the  line  near  Little  River,  and  they  have  gone  over  Nine-mile  Creek,  which  is  but  nine  miles  from  our 
towns.     I  am  glad  ol  this  opportunity  of  getting  redress  from  the  commissioners.     If  Congress  had  not  interposed 
I  and  my  people  must  have  moved.    They  have  even  marked  the  lands  on  the  bank  of  the  river  near  the  town 
where  I  live;  and  from  thence,  down  in  the  fork  of  (he  Tennessee  and  Holston. 

I  have  given  in  to  you  adetail  of  the  abuse  and  encroachments  of  these  two  States.     We  shall  be  satisfied  if  we  are 
paid  for  the  lands  weliave  given  up,  but  we  will  not,  nor  cannot,  give  up  any  more— I  mean  the  line  I  "ave  to  Colo 
nel  Christie.  " 

I  have  no  more  to  say,  but  one  of  our  beloved  women  has,  who  has  born  and  raised  up  warriors.— [A  strin<'  of 
beads.]  ..  '  *' 

The  War- woman  of  (^hota  then  addressed  the  commissioners: 

I  am  fond  of  hearing  that  there  is  a  peace,  and  I  hope  you  have  now  taken  us  by  the  hand  in  real  friendship  I 
have  a  pipe  and  a  little  tobacco  to  give  the  commissioneis  to  smoke  in  friendship.  I  look  on  you  and  the  red  people 
as  my  children.  Your  having  determined  on  neace  is  most  nleasing  to  me,  for  I  have  seen  much  trouble  durin"  the 
late  war.  I  am  old,  but  I  hope  yet  to  bear  children,  who  will  grow  up  and  people  our  nation,  as  we  are  now  tt)  be 
under  the  protection  ot  Congress,  and  shall  have  no  more  disturbance.— [A  string,  little  old  pipe,  and  some  tobacco  1 
The  talk  I  have  given,  is  from  the  young  warriors  I  have  raised  in  my  town,  as  well  as  myself.  Thev  reioice 
that  we  have  peace,  and  we  hope  the  chain  ot  trieiidsh;p  will  never  more  be  broke.— [A  string  of  beads.] 

The  commissioners  to  the  Tassel.— We  want  the  boundary  of  your  country;  you  must  recollect  yourself  and  <'ive 
It  to  us,  particularly  (he    ine  between  you  and  the  citizens,  with  any  information  you  have  on  that  subject^  If 
necessary,  you  may  consult  your  friends,  and  inform  us  to-inorrow,  or  as  soon  as  possible  with  conveniency. 
Tassel. — I  will  let  you  know  the  line  to-morrow.    I  have  done  speaking  for  this  day. 

Unsuckanail,  of  New-Cusse,  in  the  middle  settlement.— I  speak  in  behalf  of  Kowe,  New-Cusse  and  Watoge 
I  am  much  pleased  with  the  talks  between  the  commissioners  and  (he  Tassel,  who  is  the  beloved  man  of  Chota  I 
remember  the  talks  given  out  by  you  yesterday.  I  shall  always,  I  hope,  remember,  that  if  we  were  distressed  inany 
manner,  we  should  make  our  complaints  to  the  commissioners,  that  justice  may  be  done.  There  are  around  us 
young  men  and  warriors,  who  hear  our  talks,  and  who  are  interested  in  the  succes  ot  this  treaty,  particularly  as  their 
lands  are  taken  from  them,  on  vyhxh  they  lived  entirely  by  hunting.  And  I  hope,  and  they  all  anxiously  hope  it 
is  in  the  power  of  the  commissioners  to  do  them  justice.  The  line  mentioned  by  the  beloved  man  of  Chota  is'  in 
truth,  as  he  expressed  it;  I  remember  it,  and  it  was  formerly  our  hunting  grounds.  ' 

The  encroachments  on  this  side  of  the  line  have  entirely  deprived  us'of  our  hunting  grounds;  and  I  hope  the 
commissioners  will  remove  the  white  people  to  their  own  side.  This  is  the  desire  of  the  three  towns  I  speak  for-  the 
settlements  I  mean  are  those  on  Pigeon  river  and  Swananno.  It  was  the  desire  of  the  commissioners  that  the  Indians 
should  tell  all  their  grievances,  and  I  hope  they  will  do  justly  therein.  When  any  of  my  young  men  are  huntin<'  on 
their  own  grounds,  and  meet  the  white  people,  they,  the  white  people,  order  them  off  and  claim  our  deer  —[A  strin'' 
of  white  beads.  ]  " 

Chescoenwhee.— I  am  well  satisfied  with  the  talks  of  this  day;  I  intended  to  speak,  but  as  the  day  is  far  spent  I 
will  decline  it  till  to-morrow.     I  will  go  home  and  consider  on  it.  ' 

•  We  used  VIcMiiiray's  map,  and  explained,  with  great  pains,  the  limits  of  tlie  United  States,  as  well  as  the  occurrences  of 
the  late  W!.r;  and  we  believe  they  comprehend  us.  Somcolthe  Indians  li:id  visited  the  Six  Nations;  some  had  been  up  the  Wabash 
and  (lou  n  tli.-  Miami,  to  lake  Erie;  and  others  had  been  «t  fort  Pitt,  the  Natchez,  Pensacola,  St.  Augustine,  Savannah,  Charles- 
ton, an<l  WilliamsbiMir.  g    j^ 

t  Hopewell  is  fifteen  miles  above.the  junction  of  the  Keowee  and  Tugalo;  it  is  a  seat  of  General  Pickens,  in  sight  of  Seneca, 
an  Indian  town  at  die  commencement  of  the  late  war,  inhabited  by  one  hundred,  but  at  present  a  waste.  Dewit's 
corner  is  forty  miles  east  of  this,  and  that  was  the  eastern  Indian  boundary,  till  the  treaty  of  1777,  B.  H. 



November  Mth,  1785. 
Present  as  yesterday : 

TucKASEE. I  remember  the  talks  when  I  made  peace.     I  have  appointed  Chescoenwhee  to  speak  for  me  to-day. 

Chescoenwhee. I  rejoice  that  the  commissioners  have  delivered  their  talks  to  the  head-men  of  the  difterent 

towns.  I  am  in  hopes  that  these  our  talks  will  always  remain  unbroken.  What  you  hear  from  the  representatives  of 
the  towns  the  young  warriors  will  invariably  adhere  to.  I  am  in  hopes  it  is  now  in  the  power  of  the  commissionerSj 
from  their  talks  of  yesterday  and  the  day  before,  to  see  justice  done  to  us;  to  see  that  we  may  yet  have  a  little  land 
to  hunt  upon-  I  was  sent  here  to  settle  all  matters  respecting  my  country,  and  being  under  the  protection  of  the 
United  States,  I  shall  return  satisfied:  we  have  been  formerly  under  the  protection  of  Great  Britain,  and  then,  when 
I  saw  a  white'man,  I  esteemed  him  a  friend,  and  I  hope  that  the  commissioners  of  Congress  will  see  that  times  may 
be  as  formerly.  I  wisl\  what  I  say  may  be  deemed  strictly  true,  for  so  it  is,  and  that  I  may  be  always  looked  on  as 
a  friend  to  thethirteen  United  States,  and  that  they  will  see  justice  done  me. 

The  talks  of  the  commissioners  are  the  most  pleasing  to  us,  as  they  do  not  want  any  lands.  Formerly,  when 
I  had  peace  talks,  the  first  thing  the  white  people  expressed,  was  a  desire  for  our  lands.  I  am  in  hopes  you  will 
adjust  and  settle  our  limits,  so  that  we  may  be  secured  in  the  possession  of  our  own  I  will  abide  by  what  hitherto 
has  been  said  on  this  subject,  but  cannot  cede  any  more  lands.  — [A  string  of  beads.  ] 

1  am  in  hopes  the  commissioners  will  deliver  to  us  our  prisoners  who  are  in  their  lands.  Neither  the  com- 
missioners, nor  any  of  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  can  suppose  that  we  can  be  at  peace  on  their  account; 
they  are  our  own  flesh  and  blood,  and  we  desire  them  out  of  your  country.  I  am  in  hopes  of  seeing  them  with  the 
assistance  of  the  commissioners,  they  have  been  long  detained,  and  we  often  were  promised  by  colonel  Martin 
tiiat  we  should  see  them.  One  of  them  was  taken  from  Talksoa,  three  girls  and  one  boy  from  Erejoy,  and  one 
boy  from  Tuckareechee:  we  do  not  know  how  old  they  are;  we  are  a  people  who  do  not  know  how  to  count  by  years; 
they  are  in  North  Carolina,  and  were  taken  by  an  army  from  thence. 

OoNANooTEE.— I  am  to  deliver  the  talks  in  answer  to  what  I  heard  at  Oostanawie.  I  was  sent  down  from  dif- 
erent  towns  to  receive  the  talks  of  the  commissioners,  and  to  be  governed  by  them.  I  do  expect,  by  the  time  I  return 
home  from  the  commissioners,  the  young  men  of  the  towns  of  our  nation  will  be  tliere  to  hear  me  repeat  what  you 
have  or  shall  say  to  me.  I  was  told  by  all  of  them,  when  I  set  out,  that  they  expected  I  would  return  with  good  talks. 
It  was  the  desire  of  the  commissioners,  that  we  should  tell  all  our  grievances;  the  encroachment  on  our  hunting 
^rounds  is  the  source  of  all  ours,  and  I  hope  they  can  and  will  take  measures  to  see  justice  done  in  our  land.  I  have 
attended  to  the  talks  of  the  commissioners,  and  our  beloved  men,  and  I  sincerely  wish  they  mav  always  abide  by 
them.  I  am  in  hopes  it  is  in  your  power  to  see  our  distresses  redressed,  and  that  you  will  order  oft"  the  people  who 
are  settled  on  our  lands,  and  protect  for  us  our  hunting  grounds.— [A  string  of  beads.] 

I  wish  the  commissioners  to  take  in  hand  the  case  of  the  traders  in  our  country,  and  settle  what  respects  them 
durin"  the  late  war,  so  that  they  may  not  be  seized  on  and  plundered  by  bodies  ot  armed  men  as  they  pass  to  and 
from  the  nation.  I  am  come  down  as  one  to  make  peace  with  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
and  I  hope  the  traders  may  pass  through  the  country.  I  wish  the  commissioners  would  prevent  such  acts  of  injus- 
tice as  robbing  the  traders;  several  of  them  have  been  plundered  in  Georgia  and  South  Carolina,  and  their  lives 
endangered  if  they  should  attempt  to  recover  their  property.  As  for  my  part;  I  mean  to  keep  the  path  clear  for  the 
traders,  as  far  as  our  line,  and  I  hope  the  commissioners  will  do  the  same  on  their  part.  Here  are  the  chiefs  of  all 
our  nation,  who  hear  me;  the  traders  have  been  out  for  goods,  and  returned  without  any,  having  been  robbed,  and 
I  hope  it  will  not  be  the  case  again.  I  sincerely  desire  that  our  talks  and  complaints  may  go  up  to  Congress,  that 
they  may  know  how  we  are  distressed  about  our  country.  I  have  delivered  the  talks  to  the  commissioners,  and 
laid  the  beads  on  the  beloved  table,  and  as  to  my  part  of  the  country,  I  will  keep  the  path  clear. 

Tassel.— We  have  said  all  we  intend  to  day  if  the  commissioners;  have  any  thing  to  say,  we  will  hear  it,  and 
answer  them. 

Commissioners.— We  want  the  boundary  of  your  country,  particularly  to  the  northward  and  eastward;  this  we 
told  you  yesterday;  when  we  can  agree  upon  the  bounds  of  the  lands,  we  mean  to  allot  to  you,  we  will  prepare  the 
draught  of  a  treaty  on  the  plan  we  mentioned  to  you  in  our  address. 
Tassel. I  expected  to  give  the  bounds  of  our  country,  but  it  is  too  late  in  the  day,  and  I  will  do  it  to-morrow. 

November  25. 

Present  as  vesterday. 

The  head-men,  after  some  conversation  together,  requested  the  commissioners  to  give  them  some  paper  and  a 
pencil,  and  leave  them  to  themselves,  and  they  would  draw  the  map  of  their  country. 

November,  26. 

Present  as  yesterday. 

The  head-men  produced  their  map,  and  the  Tassel  addressed  the  commissioners  as  follows: 
I  will  "ive  the  bounds  of  the  land  as  far  as  I  claim.  Colonel  Martin  is  present,  and  heard  our  talks  at  the  long 
island  of  fiolston,  and  lie  knows  every  thing  I  shall  say  to  be  true.  The  line  which  1  have  marked,  begining  on 
the  Ohio,  above  Kentucky,  aud  running  thence  to  where  the  Kentucky  road  crosses  Cumberland  River,  thence  to 
the  Chimney-top  mountain,  and  by  the  mouth  of  Big  Limestone  to  the  mountain,  six  miles  south  of  Nolichucky,  is 
justly  our  boundary  with  the  white  people.  The  Indians  from  the  middle  settlements  will  extend  the  line,  and  shew 

f' IIP  It*    f^lftlTl^ 

I  know  that  Richard  Henderson  says  he  purchased  the  lands  at  Kentucky  and  as  far  south  as  Cumberland, 
but  he  is  a  ro-'ue  and  a  liar,  and  if  he  was  here  I  would  tell  him  so.  He  requested  us  to  let  him  have  a  little  lands 
on  Kentucky^river,  for  his  cattle  and  horses  to  feed  on,  and  we  consented,  but  told  him  at  the  same  time,  he  would 
be  much  exposed  to  the  depredations  of  the  Northern  Indians,  which  he  appeared  not  to  regard;  provided  we  gave 
our  consent.  If  AttacuUaculla  signed  his  deed  we  were  not  informed  ot  it;  but  we  know  that  Oconestoto  did  not, 
and  yet  his  name  we  hear  is  to  it;  Henderson  put  it  there,  and  he  is  a  rogue. 

Commissioners.— You  know  Colonel  Henderson,  AttacuUaculla,  Oconestoto,  are  all  dead;  what  you  say  may  be 
true*  but  here  is  one  of  Henderson's  deeds,  which  points  out  the  line,  as  you  have  done,  nearly  till  it  strikes  Cum- 
berland, thence  it  runs  down  the  waters  of  the  same  to  the  Ohio,  thence  up  the  said  river  as  it  meanders  to  the 
beginning.  Your  memory  may  fail  you;  this  is  on  record,  and  will  remain  forever.  The  parties  being  dead,  and 
so  much  time  elapsed  since  the  date  of  the  deed,  and  the  country  being  settled,  on  the  faith  of  the  deed,  puts  it  out 
of  our  power  to  do  any  thing  respecting  it;  you  must  therefore  be  content  with  it,  as  if  you  had  actually  sold  it,  and 
proceed  to  point  out  your  claim  exclusive  of  this  land. 

Tassel. I  know  they  are  dead,  and  I  am  sorry  for  it,  and  I  suppose  it  is  now  too  late  to  recover  it.  If  Hen- 
derson were  living,  I  should  have  the  pleasure  of  telling  him  he  was  a  liar;  but  you  told  us  to  give  you  our  bounds, 
and  therefore  we  marked  the  line;  but  we  will  begin  at  Cumberland,  and  say  nothing  more  about  Kentucky,  although 
it  is  justly  ours. 

Commissioners.— You  must  also  make  provision,  if  practicable,  for  the  people  settled  at  Nashville,  and  for  such 
other  bodies  of  people,  if  numerous,  as  may  be  within  what  you  have  pointed  out  as  your  claim.  Our  object  in 
treating  with  you  is  to  fix  a  permanent  boundary,  and  to  keep  our  faith  in  whatever  we  promise  you;  and  you  must 
not  expect  from  us  any  promise,  which  we  know  cannot  be  done  but  with  great  inconveniency  to  our  citizens.  The 
Chicicasaws,  we  are  informed  by  Colonel  Martin  and  the  agent  of  North  Carolina,  claim  the  lands  at  Nashville, 
and  they  are  content  that  the  people  should  live  there,  and  you  must  mark  a  line  for  them. 

1789.]  THE    CHEROKEES    AND    OTHERS.  43 

Tassel  and  Tuskegatahee. — We  understand  you  perfectly;  we  wish  to  postpone  this  matter  if  the  Cluckasaws 
would  come;  it  is  a  kind  of  common  right  in  all  the  Indians,  and  they  had  no  right  of  themselves  to  give  it. 

Commissioners. — We  have  now  no  expectations  that  the  Chickasaws  will  meet  us,  and  you  know  the  necessity 
of  having  the  treaty  completed,  that  we  may,  as  early  as  possible,  put  a  stop  to  the  encroachments  you  complain  of, 
if  they  do  exist. 

Tassel  and  Tuskegatahee. — We  know  the  necessity  of  completing  the  treaty,  and  we  will  mark  a  line  for  the 
white  people;  we  will  begin  at  the  ridge  between  the  Tennessee  and  Cumberland,  on  the  Ohio,  and  run  along  the 
same  till  we  get  around  the  white  people,  as  you  think  proper.  We  will  also  mark  a  line  from  the  mouth  of  Duck 
river  to  the  said  line,  and  leave  the  remainder  of  the  lands  to  the  south  and  west  of  the  lines,  to  the  Chickasaws; 
we  will,  from  the  ridge,  go  to  Cumberland,  and  up  the  same  to  where  the  Kentucky  road  crosses  the  same.  Colonel 
Christie  run  the  remainder  of  the  line  with  us,  as  we  have  marked  it,  and  he  said  we  were  at  liberty  to  punish,  or 
not,  as  we  pleased,  any  person  who  should  come  on  our  side  to  violate  the  treaty;  but  this  we  have  not  done,  and 
the  white  people  have  come  over  it  a  great  way,  as  we  have  told  you.  In  the  fork  of  French  Broad  river  and  Holston. 
there  are  three  thousand  souls.  This  is  a  favorite  spot  of  land,  and  we  cannot  consent  to  their  having  of  it;  and  they 
must  be  removed.  There  are  some  few  settled  on  other  parts,  whom  the  commissioners,  we  hope,  will  remove. 
We  cannot  mark  a  line  round  the  people  on  French  Broad;  those  lands  are  within  twenty-five  miles  of  our  towns, 
and  we  prize  them  highly.    The  people  have  settled  there  several  springs  past,  and  they  ought  to  be  removed. 

Commissioners. — We  expect  some  sort  of  provision  will  be  made  for  these  people,  and  you  had  better  think 
seriously  of  it;  they  are  too  numerous  for  us  to  engage  to  remove.  You  sav  they  have  been  there  for  a  long  time, 
and  ought  to  have  been  removed:  while  you  were  under  the  protection  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  he  ought  to 
have  removed  them  for  you,  but  he  neglected  it,  and  we  cannot  stipulate  positively  to  do  anv  thing  respecting  them, 
unless  you  choose  to  mark  around  them;  for  the  present  they  must  remain  as  they  are;  all  the  others  you  mention 
shall  be  removed. 

Tassel. — I  have  shown  you  the  bounds  of  my  countrj'  on  my  map  which  I  drew  in  your  presence,  and  on  the 
map  of  the  United  States.  If  the  commissioners  cannot  do  me  justice  in  removing  the  people  from  the  fork  of 
French  Broad  and  Holston,  I  am  unable  to  get  it  of  myself.  Are  Congress,  who  conquered  the  King  of  Great 
Britain,  unable  to  remove  those  people?  I  am  satisfied  with  the  promises  of  the  commissioners  to  remove  all  the 
people  from  within  our  lines,  except  those  within  the  fork  of  Holston  and  French  Broad;  and  I  will  agree  to  be 
content,  that  the  particular  situation  of  the  people  settled  there,  and  our  claims  to  the  lands,  should  be  referred  to 
Congress,  as  the  commissioners  may  think  just,  and  I  will  abide  by  their  decision. 

Unsuckanail. — I  and  my  people  are  to  extend  their  line,  and,  although  our  claims  are  well  founded  to  a  large 
portion  of  the  mountains,  which  are  of  little  advantage  to  any  but  hunters,  and  of  great  value  to  them,  yet  I  am 
willing  to  extend  the  line  to  the  southward  until  we  come  to  the  South  Carolina  Indian  boundary;  and  we  have  a 
right,  formed  on  the  treaties  at  Dewit's  corner,  and  at  Augusta,  to  make  that  line,  as  far  as  the  south  fork  of  Oconee, 
our  boundary  against  the  white  people. 

November  28th,  1785. 
The  commissioners  assembled. 

Present:  Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin  Mcintosh. 

From  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  William  Blount,  agent. 

From  the  State  of  Georgia,  John  King  and  Thomas  Glasscock,  commissioners. 

The  head-men  and  warriors  of  all  the  Cherokees. 

James  Madison  and  Arthur  Coody,  sworn  interpreters. 

Major  Samuel  Taylor,  Major  W'llliam  Ha/.7.ard,  Captain  commandant  John  Cowen,  John  Owen,  and  George 
Ogg,  merchants,  with  several  other  reputable  characters. 

The  commissioners  produced  a  draught  of  a  treaty,  on  the  plan  they  originally  proposed  to  the  Indians,  which  was 
read,  and  interpreted  to  them  with  great  attention,  so  that  they  agreed  that  they  perfectly  understood  every  article, 
and  would  with  pleasure  unanimousl^y  sign  the  same;  accordingly,  two  copies  were  signed  by  the  commissioners  and 
all  the  head-men,  the  one  for  the  Umted  States,  and  the  other  for  tlic  Cherokees. 

Previous  to  signing,  the  agent  from  North  Carolina,  and  the  commissioners  of  Georgia,  delivered  their  protests 
against  the  same. 

After  the  treaty  was  signed,  sealed,  and  witnessed,  the  commissioners  told  the  head-men  that  Congress,  from 
motives  of  humanity,  had  directed  some  presents  to  be  made  to  them  for  their  use  and  comfort;  and  that,  on  the 
next  day,  they  would  direct  the  presents  to  be  distributed  accordingly. 

November  29. 

Present  as  yesterday. 

The  commissioners  ordered  a  return  of  the  Indians,  and  there  were  nine  hundred  and  eighteen,  and  goods  to  the 
amount  of  $1,311  10-90  were  distributed  among  the  head-men  of  evei-v  town. 

The  Indians  having  expressed  a  desire  to  say  something  farther  to  the  commissioners,  they  attended  accordingly. 

Tassel. — I  wll  now  inform  you  of  some  farther  complaints  against  your  people.  I  remember  the  treaty  with 
Colonel  Christie, and  in  all  our  treaties,  that  we  reserved  the  Long-island  of  Holston  for  ourselves,  as  beloved  ground, 
to  hold  our  treaties  on.  I  remember  the  commissioners  yesterday,  in  an  article  of  the  treaty,  demanded  all  their 
property  and  prisoners.  I  am  now  going  to  make  my  <lemand:  I  desire  that  Colonel  Martin  may  be  empowered  to 
find  and  get  our  prisoners;  he  is  our  friend,  and  he  will  get  them  for  us.  I  am  now  done  my  talks,  and  I  hope  the 
commissioners  will  be  as  good  as  their  promise  yesterday  in  the  treaty.  The  white  people  have  taken  so  much  of 
our  lands,  we  cannot  kill  as  many  deer  as  formerly.  The  traders  impose  on  us  greatly,  and  we  wish  our  trade 
could  he  regulated,  and  fixed  rates  on  our  goods.  Our  traders  are  frequently  robbed  when  coming  to.  and  going 
from,  our  nation.  John  Benge  was,  among  others,  robbed  of  about  £  150  sterling's  worth  of  leather,  in  the  State  of 

Tuskegatahee. — I  am  not  a  chief,  but  will  speak  for  my  country;  I  shall  always  pay  great  regard  to  what  I 
have  heard  respecting  the  treaty,  as  well  as  what  may  be  sent  us  from  Congress  hereafter;  and  as  I  am  within  the 
limits  of  the  United  States,  I  shall  always  expect  tneir  protection  and  assistance.  Our  young  men  and  warriors 
have  heard  what  is  passed.  I  expect,  as  our  boundaries  are  ascertained.  Congress  may  be  informed  of  them;  and 
that,  as  peace  is  now  firmly  established,  and  we  are  all  friends,  we  may  be  allowed  to  hunt  on  each  other's  lands 
without  molestation.  On  my  part,  being  in  peace  and  friendship  with  you,  I  shall  feel  myself  safe  wherever  I  ^a 
Many  of  your  people  on  Cumberland  and  Kentucky  lose  their  horses  in  our  lands,  and,  should  we  find  them,  I  wjsh 
Colonel  Martin  to  receive  them. 

NowoTA. — I  am  fond  to  hear  the  talks  of  the  beloved  men  of  Congress,  and  of  ours.  You  commissioners  remem- 
ber the  talks,  and  I  shall  always  endeavor  to  support  the  peace  and  friendship  now  established.  I  remember  your 
talks  by  Colonel  Martin,  and  I  promised  to  be  attached  to  America;  but,  until  the  present,  I  was  afraid  to  be  in 
your  country.  I  am  now  perfectly  happy,  as  you  are  to  protect  us.  Your  prisoner  at  Chickamoga,  I  will  deliver 
you.  Formerly,  Captain  Commeron  saw  justice  done  to  us  in  our  land;  he  is  gone,  and  I  now  depend  on  the  com- 
missioners. If  any  thing  depends  on  me  to  strengthen  our  friendship,  I  will  faithfully  execute  it.  You  are  now 
our  protectors.  When  Igo  and  tell  to  those  of  our  people  who  could  not  come  to  hear  your  talks,  what  I  have  seen 
and  heard,  they  will  rejoice.  I  have  heard  your  declarations  of  a  desire  to  do  us  any  service  in  your  power;  1 
believe  you,  and  in  confidence  shall  rest  happy. 

Commissioners. — We  will  give  you  provisions  for  the  road,  and  wish  you  may  be  happy.    We  will  send  up  to 
Congress  all  our  talks. 

44  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

B.  No.  1. 

Hopewell  on  Kegwee,  November  22,  1785. 

Having  yesterday  had  the  honor  to  lay  before  you  my  commission,  as  agent  on  the  part  of  North  Carolina,  I 
now  consider  it  my  duty  to  call  your  attention  to  the  following  extract  from  the  constitution  of  that  State,  which  was 
agreed  to  and  published  to  the  world  on  the  eighteenth  day  ot  December,  in  the  year  1776. 

"The  property  of  the  soil  in  a  free  government,  being  one  of  the  essential  rights  of  the  collective  body  of  the 
people,  it  is  necessary,  in  order  to  avoid  future  disputes,  that  the  limits  of  the  State  siiould  be  ascertained  with  pre- 
cision,: and  as  the  former  temporary  line  between  North  and  South  Carolina  was  confirmed  and  extended  by  com- 
missioners appointed  by  the  Legislatures  of  the  two  States,  agreeable  to  the  order  of  the  late  King  George  the 
second,  in  council,  that  line,  and  that  only,  should  be  esteemed  the  southern  boundary  of  this  State,  that  is  to  say; 
beginning  on  the  sea-side,  at  a  cedar  stake  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  Little  River  (being  the  southern  boundary  of  Bruns- 
wick county)  and  running  from  thence  a  northwest  course,  through  the  boundary  hcuse  which  stands  in  thirty-three 
degrees  fifty-six  minutes,  to  thirty-five  degrees  north  latitude,  and  from  thence  a  west  course  so  far  as  is  mentioned 
in  the  charter  of  King  Charles  the  second,  to  the  late  proprietoi-s  of  Carolina.  Therefore,  all  the  territory,  seas, 
■waters,  and  harbors,  with  their  appurtenances,  lying  between  the  line  above  described,  and  tlie  south  line  of  the 
State  of  Virginia,  which  begins  on  the  sea-shore  in  thirty-six-degrees  thirty  minutes  north  latitude,  and  from  thence 
runs  west,  agreeable  to  the  said  charter  of  King  Charles,  are  the  right  and  property  of  the  people  of  this  State  to  be 
held  in  sovereignty." 

And  to  remark  to  you.  that,  years  after,  the  State  of  North  Carolina  was  received  into,  and  signed  the  articles  of 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  vour  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Agent  for  North  Carolina. 
Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin  McIntosh,  Esquires, 
Commissioners  for  negotiating  with  the  Southern  Indians. 

B.  No.  2. 

Hopewell  on  the  Keowee,  November  28,  1785. 

The  State  of  North  Carolina  have  at  this  tirne  a  law  in  force  and  use,  allotting  the  lands  contained  in  the 
following  bounds  to  the  Cherokee  Indians:  "  Beginning  on  the  Tennessee  river,  where  the  southern  boundary  of 
the  State  of  North  Carolina  intersects  the  same  nearest  the  Chickamoga  towns;  thence,  up  the  middle  of  the 
Tennessee  and  Holston  livers,  to  the  middle  of  French  Broad  river;  thence,  up  the  middle  of  the  said  French  Broad 
river;  (which  lines  are  not  to  include  any  island  to  the  mouth  of  Big  Pigeon  river)  thence,  up  the  same,  to  the'  head 
thereof;  thence,  along  the  dividing  ridge  between  the  waters  of  Pigeon  river  and  Tuckasegee  river,  to  the  said 
southern  boundary;  tlience,  west  with  the  said  boundary,  to  the  beginning." 

Should  you,  by  treaty,  fix  any  other  boundaries  than  the  before  mentioned,  within  the  limits  of  the  said  State  of 
North  Carolina,  between  the  said  Cherokee  Indians  and  her  citizens,  that  State  will  consider  such  a  treaty  a  viola- 
tion and  infringement  upon  her  legislative  rights.  The  lands  contained  within  the  limits  of  Davidson  county,  which 
begins  on  Cumberland  river,  where  the  northern  boundary  of  the  said  State  of  North  Carolina  first  intersects  the 
same;  thence,  south  forty-five  miles;  thence,  west  to  the  Tennessee  river;  thence,  down  the  Tennessee,  to  the  said 
northern  boundary;  thence,  east  ^vith  the  said  boundary  to  the  beginning,  have  been  appropriated  by  the  State  of 
North  Carolina,  to  the  payment  of  the  bounties  of  land  promised  to  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  continental  line 
of  that  State;  and  it  is  said  that  the  militia  in  tliat  county  are  in  number  about  seven  hundred;  and  the  State  of  North 
Carolina  have  sold  to  her  citizens,  for  a  valuable  consideration,  several  millions  of  acres  of  the  land,  situate,  lying, 
and  being  between  the  Mississippi,  and  the  line  as  fixed  by  Colonel  Cliristie,  and  others,  in  the  year  1777,  and  without 
the  limits  of  Davidson  county,  on  which  land  several  thousanJs  of  people  are  settled. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Agent  for  North  Carolina. 
Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin  McIntosh,  Esquires, 

Commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Southern  Indians. 

COPY  OF  colonel  Blount's  protest. 

Hopewell  on  Keowee,  November  28,  1785. 

The  underwritten  agent,  on  the  part  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  protests  against  the  treaty,  at  this  instant, 
about  to  be  signed  and  entered  into,  between  Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  Joseph  Martin,  and  Laughlin 
Mcintosh,  commissioners  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Cherokee  Indians  on  the  other  part,  as  contain- 
ing several  stipulations  which  infringe  and  violate  the  legislative  rights  of  the  State. 



Hopewell  on  Keowee,  28/A  November,  1785. 

We  received  vour  letters,  of  the  22d  of  November,  with  an  extract  from  the  constitution  of  your  State,  decla- 
rative of  the  limits  thereof;  of  the  28th,  enclosing  an  abstract  of  an  act  allotting  certain  lands  to  the  Indians  of  the 
Cherokee  nation,  and  your  protest  of  the  same  date,  against  the  treaty  entered  into  between  the  commissioners  of  the 
United  States  of  America  and  all  the  Cherokees;  which  we  shall  transmit  to  Congress. 

We  enclose  two  articles  of  the  treaty  to  you,  which,  we  hope,  as  agent  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  you  will 
take  measures  to  see  executed,  so  far  as  the  same  respect  the  citizens  of  that  State,  or  the  faith  of  the  commission- 
ers pledged  for  the  restoration  of  the  prisoners  now  held  there.  We  are  informed  that  the  late  Governor  Martin 
made  an  unsuccessful  effort  to  restore  them,  and  that  there  are  five,  three  girls  and  two  boys,  in  the  possession  of 
General  McDowel  and  Colonel  Miller.  We  are  certain  that  a  steady  adiierence  to  the  treaty  alone,  can  ensure 
confidence  in  the  justice  of  Congress,  and  remove  all  causes  of  future  contention  or  quarrels.  The  local  policy  of 
some  States  is  certainly  much  opposed  to  I'ederal  measures,  which  can  only,  in  our  opinion,  make  us  respectable 
abroad  and  happy  at  home. 

We  are,  with  due  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servants, 

The  Honorable  William  Blount,  Esquire, 

Agent  for  North  Carolina. 
N.  B.  The  two  articles  enclosed  are  the  second  and  fourth. 

ir89.]  THE   CHEROKEES   AND   OTHER?.  45 

C.  Xo.  1. 

^Vis'ssBORoiGH,  October  IS.  ITSS. 

I  do  myself  the  honor  ot  \yriting  you  the  different  occurrences  respecting  tiie  people  on  the  frontiers  of  North 
Carolina,  and  the  Cherokee  Indians,  transpired  since  my  last. 

In  consequence  of  hearing  that  several  outrages  had  been  committed  by  the  people  of  Franklin,  (formerly  called 
the  new  State)  upon  the  Cherokees,  I  despatched  a  letter  to  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  to  put  a  stop  to  any 
furdier  hostilities,  as  it  was  the  wish  of  Congress  to  carry  into  effect  a  treaty  with  that  nation.  Not  receiving  an 
immediate  answer  from  him.  and  having  reason  to  believe  these  depredations  continued,  I  sent  a  copy  of  the  enclosed, 
addressed  to  the  officers  commanding  on  the  frontiers  of  that  State,  which  I  hope  Avill  be  attended  uith  every  good 
consequence.  You  will  also  find  enclosed  a  copy  of  a  letter  I  have  lately  received  from  the  Governor:  on  compar- 
ing these,  it  will  point  out  to  you  the  similarity  of  our  ideas  relative  to  the  establishment  of  peace  in  that  quarter, 
previous  to  the  late  resolution  of  Congress  coming  to  hand. 

I  shall  avail  myself  of  the  earliest  opportunity  of  making  known  to  the  Executive  of  North  Carolina,  the  further 
supplies  granted  by  Congress  for  cairying  the  treaty  into  eftect,  which  I  hope  may  take  place  without  the  trouble 
and  expense  of  marching  troops  from  the  northward,  urging  the  Governor  to  send"  on  their  commissioner  with  the 
needful,  and  to  name  the  time  and  place.  The  answer,  with  their  determination,  you  may  rely  on  having  transmitted 
you  as  soon  as  possible.  I  beg  leave  further  to-observe.  I  have  enclosed  to  the  Cherokees  the  proclamation  of  Con- 
gress, and  at  the  same  time,  requested  a  suspension  of  liostilities  should  take  place. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  esteem,  sir,  your  most  humble  ser\  ant, 


The  Honorable  General  Knox,  .. 

Secretary  of  JVar. 

P.  S.  Your  favor  of  the  4th  September,  enclosing  the  proclamation  of  Congress,  with  the  duplicate.  I  have  to 
acknowledge,  since  writing  the  above. 

C.  No.  2.  .  •       ■ 

WiNNSBORouGH,  29?A  August,  1788. 
Friends  and  Brother  Soldiers: 

I  write  this  to  you  in  behalf  of  the  United  States,  to  intreat  you  to  desist  from  any  furtiier  hostilities  against 
the  Cherokees,  as  it  is  the  wish  of  Congress  to  be  at  peace  with  every  tribe  of  Indians  whatever^  and  as  tiiey  have 
directed  me  to  secure  that  peace  by  a  permanent  treaty,  your  own  good  sense  must  convince  you  how  impossible  it 
will  be  for  me  to  effect  it  vyhile  these  outrages  on  both  sides  exist.  Besides,  what  have  we  not  to  apprehend,  if  it  is 
not  put  a  stop  to?  A  junction  may  take  place  with  the  Southern  Indians,  and,  both  united,  may  involve  the  innocent 
lives  of  thousands;  perhaps  \yhen,  by  a  well-timed  peace,  nothing  of  tlie  kind  could  ever  happen. 

I  have  daily  expected  an  interference  between  you  and  tiie  Indians  would  have  taken  place,  from  the  Governor 
of  North  Carolina;  but  as  I  have  received  no  accounts  from  him  of  that  nature,  I  cannot,  consistent  with  my  duty 
to  the  Union,  hear  of  these  unhappy  dissensions  continuing,  without  emotion;  therefore,  let  me  again,  in  (he  most 
friendly  manner,  exhort  you  to  a  suspension  of  arms  till  such  times  as  I  hear  from  Congress,  to  whom  I  have  wrote 
for  further  supplies  to  facilitate  a  treaty  as  soon  as  possible,  at  which,  time,  I  am  convinced,  all  grievances  will  be 
adjusted.  The  Indians  I  shall  write  to,  to  the  same  purport,  and  as  I  have  been  at  a  deal  of  pains  to  get  proper 
persons  to  bear  to  both  parties  my  ideas  on  the  matter,  I  hope  it  will  be  attended  with  every  good  consequence,  by 
your  religiously  observing,  on  both  sides,  a  strict  neutrality  till  the  treaty  is  brought  about.  Any  further  information 
you  can  receive  from  Captain  Baker,  who  is  the  bearer  of  this,  and  who  is  a  gentleman  I  particularly  recommend  to 
your  notice.    Wishing  to  heai-  froni  you  as  soon  iis  possible, 

I  am,  friends  and  brotlier  soldiers,  your  obedient  servant, 

,     ,  RICHARD  WINN. 

To  General  Martin  and  others. 

Tlie  commanding  officers  and  inhabitants  beyond  the  mountains. 

C.  No.  3. 

EoEtiTos,  Slst  .August,  178S. 

The  information  Avhich  you  did  me  the  honor  to  favor  me  with  in  your  letter  of  the  ninth,  had  reached  me 
some  time  past.  I  had  given  orders  for  a  process  to  issue  to  apprehend  Sevier,  and  had  directed  the  commandin'^ 
officer  on  the  frontier  to  pursue  a  line  of  conduct  similar  to  that  pointed  out  in  your  letter.  It  gives  me  pleasure  to 
find  that  your  ideas  in  this  particular  so  intimately  correspond  with  the  measures  I  have  adopted  to  restore  and 
preserv  e  the  peace  of  the  frontier. 

I  am,  with  great  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

10  Richard  Winn,  Esquire, 

Superintendent  of  Indian  .iffuirs  for  the  Southern  department. 

•    t 

■  ■  C.  No.  4  .       . 

Winnsborough,  December  13th.  1788. 

Notwithstanding  1  have  received  no  late  accounts  from  Congress,   I  judge  it  necessary  to  continue  giviii"- 
every  information  that  occurs,  relative  to  the  Indians  of  (his  department.  " 

Since  I  wrote  you  last,  the  enclosed  talk  from  the  iiead-men  and  warriors  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  came  to  hand 
which  fully  points  out  their  disposition  to  come  to  a  friendly  treaty.  I  have  urged  (he  same  to  the  State  of  North 
Carolina,  trusting  they  will  send  forward  their  commissioner  and  supplies.  Should  this  step  not  be  taken,  and  that 
State  still  continue  to  do  them  injury,  I  fear  the  disappointment  of  the  Indians  will  be  attended  with  bad  conse- 
sequences,  as,  in  all  probability,  the  Union  may  be  involved  in  a  bloody  and  unnecessary  war,  whereas  a  well  timed 
peace  would  prevent  it. 

Sii-,  I  have  tlie  honor  to  be,  with  respect,  your  obedient  servant, 

Tu    T^i         M    A,  •     r.         ,  u   ,-  o  .r.r  RICHARD  WINN. 

Ihe  Honorable  Major  General  H.  K\ox,  .Sfcre<arv  (2/^  ffar. 

e.  No.  5.  /..,.■...,• 

J  talk  from  the  head-men  and  warriors  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  at  a  tnccting  held  at  Ustinaire,  the  beloved  town 
QOth  November,  1788,  addressed  to  the  honorable  Richard  fVinn,  Esquire,  superintendent  of  the  southern 
department,  in  answer  to  a  talk  sent  by  him,  dated  the  12th  October,  1788. 

Friknd  AND  Brother:  We  received  your  tidk,  likewise  the  resolves  of  Congress,  dated  Istis^ptember,  1788,  like- 
wise a  copy  ot  a  letter  from  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina  to  you,  and  the  proclamation  from  Congress,  all  which 

46  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

aifords  us  much  satistaction  that  we  liave  in  you  a  real  friend,  who  tells  us  the  truth,  and  endeavors  to  do  us  justice. 
It  likewise  gives  us  much  satisfaction  to  hear  from  Congress  and  Virginia. 

Brother:  You  have  opened  our  eyes  and  likewise  our  hearts.  The  talks  we  received  from  you,  pleases  us  mt!ch; 
that  Congress  is  determined  to  have  our  hunting  grounds  open,  so  that  our  young  men  may  hunt  and  kill  deer  to  pur- 
/  chase  goods  of  our  traders,  to  clotlie  ourselves  and  families.  Our  hunting  grounds  were  very  small,  now  it  gives  us 
the  greatest  satisfaction  that  they  will  be  soon  enlarged,  as  appears  by  the  proclamation  from  Congress.  It  likewise 
gives  us  much  satisfaction,  that  we  have  a  view  of  returning  from  the  woods  where  we  have  been  driven,  and  once 
more  settling  again  in  our  old  towns,  which  we  propose  to  do,  when  we  are  certain  that  the  white  people  have  cjuitted 
our  hunting  grounds. 

Brother:  It  affords  us  much  satisfaction  that  a  fnendly  talk  will  soon  take  place.  You  inform  us  you  have  wrote 
to  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  to  fix  a  time  and  place  for  that  purpose;  at  that  time  we  will  talk  overall  mat- 
ters and  smoke  the  pipe  of  friendship. 

The  head-men  and  warriors  from  the  middle  settlement,  were  on  their  way  to  Ustinaire,  but  being  infonned  that 
it  was  good  talks,  and  that  white  beads  and  tobacco  were  sent  from  Ustinaire  to  all  the  towns  in  the  nation,  they 
went  back,  fearing  that  some  of  their  young  men  might  go  out  again  and  do  mischief:  the  lieadmen  are  determined 
to  put  a  stop  to  all  hostilities,  and  for  the  time  to  come,  to  live  like  brothers  and  friends  as  long  as  the  sun  shines  and 
water  runs. 

The  following  talk  comes  from  the  Little  Turkey; 

Friend  and  Brother:  Your  talk  I  have  heard,  which  gives  me  the  greatest  satisfaction,  likewise  all  our  beloved 
men  in  my  part  of  the  nation.  It  is  a  talk  from  you,  our  great  beloved  brother,  who,  I  am  informed,  is  appointed 
by  Congress  to  see  justice  done  us:  we  have  now  heard  from  our  beloved  brother  from  New  York,  likewise  from 
Virginia,  which  now  opens  our  eyes  and  our  hearts,  for  they  are  the  men  we  must  abide  by.  Your  talks  are  good, 
and  your  friendships  we  look  on  sincere,  for  the  good  of  our  land.  I  have  seen  the  resolves  of  Congress,  likewise 
the  proclamation,  for  all  the  white  people  settled  on  our  hunting  grounds  to  go  off  without  loss  of  time. 

Friend  and  Brother:  I  have  the  satisfaction  to  inform  you,  that  Alexander  McGillivray,  chief  of  the  Creek 
nation,  has  taken  your  talks,  likewise  the  talks  from  Congress  and  Virginia,  and  means  to  hold  them  fast,  and  when 
they  meet,  will  take  his  white  brothers  by  the  hand  as  we  do,  and  hopes  to  live  in  peace  and  friendship  as  long  as 
the  grass  grows  and  the  water  runs. 

A  copy  of  this  talk  you  will  please  to  send  to  Congress  and  Virginia;  it  will  be  two  moons  before  every  thing 
can  be  settled  to  your  entire  satisfaction,  because  some  of  our  beloved  men  are  out  a  hunting.  As  for  the  prisoners, 
it  is  impossible  to  send  them  to  Seneca  at  this  time,  because  tliey  are  scattered  througli  the  nation,  but  they  shall 
be  restored  to  their  friends  as  soon  as  possible;  we  shall  have  all  of  them  collected  together;  orders  are  given  out 
that  tliey  may  be  used  well,  that  my  people  should  not  be  reflected  upon  hereafter  for  using  their  prisoners  ill:  this 
you  will  please  to  acquaint  their  friends,  and  hope  they  will  make  themselves  easy  for  a  short  time. 

Friend.  AND  Brother:  We  must  inform  you  that  we  look  upon  the  white  people  that  live  inthe  new  State,  very 
deceitful;  we  have  experienced  them,  and  are  much  afraid  of  them;  we  are  now  obliged  to  keep  spies  out  continu- 
ally on  the  frontiers,  fearing  they  will  return  and  do  us  an  injury  as  they  did  before. 

Friend  and  Brother:  We  must  inform  you,  tliat  there  are  some  Creeks  out  and  some  of  our  people,  that  are  not 
yet  come  in;  if  any  mischief  should  be  done,  that  is  contrary  to  our  desire;  but  on  their  return  will  all  be  stopt,  and 
all  hostilities  cease  against  the  white  people,  and  the  path  made  white.  We  must  inform  you  that  several  tallcs  that 
have  been  directed  to  the  head -men  and  warriors  at  Ustinaire,  have  been  opened  before  we  received  them.  Your 
last  talk  came  under  cover  to  Mr.  Ge^,  and  by  him  delivered  in  the  square  at  Ustinaire,  to  our  beloved  men.  AVe 
do  not  approve  of  any  person  opening  any  talks  that  come  from  our  white  brothers,  except  Mr.  Gegg,  who  explains 
them  to  us,  or  our  linguister,  James  Carry.  The  boy  we  had  prisoner  at  Coosawatchee,  we  are  informed,  is  delivered 
to  Jesse  Spears,  in  orBer  that  he  may  be  conveyed  down  to  Seneca;  the  girl  is  not  yet  come  to  her  friends,  but  we 
presume  she  is  in  the  land.    We  now  have  finished  our  talk;  in  token  of  friendship  and  peace,  we  have  enclosed  a 

string  of  white  wampum.  , .   ,  -^    , 

Yellow  Bird,  The  Little  Turkey, 

Chickhesattee,  Thigh, 

Dick,  Cowetthee, 

Glass,  Dragon  Canoe, 

■>  ■  77ie  Jobber'' s  Son,  Bear  coming  out  of  a  hole, 

Killy  Geshee,  Humming  Bird, 

.     '  Jill  Chestnut,    .  Hanging  Maw, 

The  Warrior  Nephew,  Fool  Warrior  Nottley, 

Second  Man,  Badger, 

Norrawahee,  Prince, 


C.  No.  6.    • 

Long  Island,  Hoslton  River,  \5th  January,  1789, 

I  had  the  honor  to  receive  two  letters  froni  your  office,  bearing  date  the  22d  of  August  last  past,  one  by  way 
of  Virginia,  the  other  North  Carolina,  enclosing  sundry  resolves  of  Congress,  also  proclamations:  they  came  to 
hand  the  9th  day  of  October  last— that  day  being  appointed  by  the  field  officers  of  Washmgton  district,  to  meet  and 
concert  some  plan  for  carrying  an  expedition  against  the  Cherokee  Indians,  which  was  agreed  on  in  the  following 
manner-  Resolved,  That  fifteen  hundred  men  be  immediately  draughted  out  of  Washington  district;  that. each  cap- 
tain of  a  company  see  their  men  well  armed,  and  ten  days'  provision  for  each  man.  Before  the  council  rose,  your 
despatches  came  to  hand,  which  I  immediately  laid  before  them,  which  put  a  final  stop  to  any  further  proceeding 

The  next  morning  I  sat  out  for  my  plantation  in  South  Carolina,  where  some  of  the  Indians  had  retreated  to,  in 
order  to  escape  Mr.  Sevier,  with  a  view  to  send  some  runners  of  them  through  their  nation  and  collect  their  chiefs 
together;  that  I  would  meet  them  at  any  place  they  might  desire,  and  lay  before  them  se\'eral  resolves  of  Congress, 
which  would  be  very  satisfactory  to  them,  also  a  letter  from  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina.  But  on  my  way 
thither  at  Major  Taylor's,  at  Seneca,  was  informed,  a  few  hours  before  my  arrival  tliere,  two  gentlemen  from  Vir- 
dnia  by  order  of  Government,  had  called  two  of  the  Indian  chiefs  there,  and  had  done  some  business  with  them, 
and  the  Indians  set  out  for  their  nation.     On  which,  I  despatched  a  runner  after  them,  and  brought  them  back,  and 

despatched  a  messenger  to  Eastewley,  reouesting  some  of  the  chiefs,  of  my  acquaintance,  to  come  to  my  planta- 
tion where  we  might  talk  face  to  face.  They  attended  accordingly.  I  then  and  there  read  to  them  the  several 
resolves  of  Congress,  to  me  directed,  also  the  proclamation,  and  impressed  on  their  minds  the  justness  of  Congress 
for  their  safety?  also  the  consequence  that  might  attend  to  those  regardless  of  that  power.  After  which,  WiTliam 
Elders  one  of  Aeir  chief  warriors,  rose  up  and  spoke,  which  you  will  see  m  No.  2.     After  he  had  finished  his  talk, 

1789.1  THE  CHEROKEES    AND    OTHERS.  47 

he  tells  me  his  nation  was  for  peace,  and  was  desirous  of  returning  to  their  old  towns;  but  that  they  had  no  way  of 
sustenance;  that  while  they  liveil  out  in  the  hunting  ground,  they  could  get  meat,  and  those  that  went  to  the  Creeks 
could  yet  corn;  that  he  feared  they  must  ail  join  the  Creek  Indians  or  perish.  I  then  asked  him  if  tiiey  could  get 
corn  if  they  all  would  return  to  their  old  towns?  His  answer  was,  they  most  certainly  would,  if  the  w"liite  people 
were  moved  oif  their  lands.  I  then  told  him  I  would,  at  my  own  expense,  furnish  Citico.  a  town  I  formerly  lived  in, 
and  would  lay  a  statement  of  their  distressed  situation  before  Congress:  perhaps  they  might  take  pity  on  them, 
which  seemed  to  have  a  wonderful  effect  on  this  warrior.  In  a  short  time  after,  several  old  women  from  that  town, 
applied  to  me  for  salt  to  purchase  corn  with  from  other  towns.  All  of  whom  I  furnished,  and  sent  them  back  well 
pleased.  In  the  intermediate  time,  I  went  over  to  a  plantation  I  had  in  Georgia;  the  evening  of  my  arrival  at  that 
place.  I  was  attacked  by  a  party  of  Creek  Indians.  In  the  skirmish,  my  overseer  was  badly  wounded;  I  was  obliged 
to  take  to  the  house,  leaving  them  masters  of  the  field:  they  took  off  my  horses,  with  several  others,  leaving  one  of 
their  warriors  dead  on  the  ground. 

I  am  well  assured  that,  with  prudent  means,  we  may  have  the  Cherokee  Indians  our  friends:  but  it  is  to  be  feared 
there  is  a  party  that  has  such  a  thirst  for  the  Cherokee  lands,  they  will  take  every  measure  in  theirpower  to  prevent 
a  treaty.  You  will  observe,  in  the  tulks  sent  on  in  October  last,  that  the  Hanging  Maw  said,  all  hostilities  should 
cease.  Before  he  reached  the  nation,  400  Creek  Indians  were  come  out,  were  joined  by  1200  Cheroke^s.  iiad 
marched  against  the  frontiers,  and  had  stormed  a  fort  and  took  28  prisoners  before  the  runners  overtook  them.  The 
whole  frontier  country  seemed  then  to  be  in  their  power.  Tlie  then  !lo^t!le  Indians  had  several  companies  of  iiorse, 
equipt  from  the  Creek  nation,  commanded  by  white  men  from  that  quarter.  As  soon  as  runners  overtook  them,  and 
informed  that  Congress  had  sent  to  them,  they  returned,  leaving  a  letter  addressed  to  Mr.  Sevierand  myself,  saying 
they  were  then  on  their  own  ground,  and  did  not  intend  to  go  any  farther;  that  the  prisoners  they  should  take  care 
of;  that  they  did  not  wish  to  spill  any  more  blood;  that  they  would  allow  the  people  thirty  days  to  move  oft"  their 
lands.  After  which  the  superintendent  sent  to  diem  to  meet  him  at  Hopewell  or  Keowee,  which  they  did;  two  of 
the  commissioners  met  also,  who  gave  the  Indians  the  greatest  reasons  to  believe  all  hostilities  between  them  and  the 
white  people  would  cease;  the  Indians  w  ent  oft'  well  pleased;  but,  a  few  days  after,  when  all  the  Indians  were  order- 
ed out  by  their  warriors  to  make  their  winter's  hunts,  that  war  was  no  longer  to  be  dreaded  by  them,  bein''  well 
assured  by  the  commissioners  of  the  same,  Mr.  Sevier  went  to  one  of  their  towns,  took  off  29  prisoner^,  and'^plun- 
dered  the  town;  which  actings  of  Mr.  Sevier  made  great  confusion  again,  but  by  the  early  interposition  of  General 
Pickens  and  some  others,  that  aftiont  was  allayed,  alleging  those  Indian  prisoners  taken  by  Mr.  Sevier  were  to 
exchange  for  those  taken  by  them.  Another  misfortune  happened  shortly  after  that:  a  party  of  men  went  to  where 
some  Indians  were  hunting,  under  a  color  to  trade  with  them  for  furs,  wiiich  they  had  at  their  camp,  took  an  advan- 
tage, and  shot  two  of  the  Indians  dead,  and  plundered  their  camp. 

I  fear  no  regulations  to  confirm  a  peace,  so  much  the  desire  of  the  well-disposed  citixen,  will  take  place  with  the 
arrival  of  the  troops  ordered  by  Congress. 

I  have  promised  to  see  the  Indians  again  some  time  in  April  next;  if  Congress  thinks  proper  to  send  on  any  talks 
to  them,  I  think  it  will  be  of  essential  sei-vice  towards  forwarding  the  treaty. 

Any  commands  you  will  honor  me  with,  will  meet  me  at  my  seat  at  fort  Patrick  Henry,  Long  Island,  Holston 
river,  Sullivan  county,  North  Carolina. 

I  have  the  lionor  to  be,  your  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant, 

Tu    H        H   V  c       ,  rri'  V  ^^^-  MARTIN. 

Ihe  Hon.  H.  Knox,  oecrelary  of  Irar,  V 

or,  in  Ills  absence,  the  next  in  command. 

C.  No.  7. 

^  Talk  from  the  Head-men  and  Warriors  of  the  Cherokees,  now  met  at  their  beloved  toicn  of  Ustinaire,  1st  Ncvem- 

ber,  1788,  addressed  to  Brigadier  General  Martin. 
Friend  and  Brother: 

We  hear  that  you  are  at  Tascola,  and  that  you  are  tlie  great  warrior  of  North  Carolina  and  the  new  State 
Your  people  provoked  us  first  to  war,  by  settling  on  our  lands  and  killing  our  beloved  men;  however,  we  have  laid 
by  the  hatchet,  and  are  strongly  for  peace.  Now  we  have  heard  fiom  our  brother,  also  from  Congress,  likewise  the 
Governor  of  Virginia,  who  tells  us  that  the  people  settled  on  our  hunting  grounds  shall  be  removed  without  loss  of 
time,  which  gives  us  great  satisfaction.  As  we  told  you  befi)re,  we  are  strongly  for  peace:  we  do  not  want  any  more 
war;  we  hope  you  will  keep  ycnir  people  now  at  peace,  and  not  to  disturb  us  as  they  have  done.  A\'hen  these  people 
move,  we  shall  all  be  fnemls  and  brothers.  There  are  a  great  many  Creeks  out:  if  they  should  do  your  people  any 
injury  we  hope  you  will  not  lay  the  blame  on  us.  for  all  our  head-men  and  warriors  will  prevent  our  young  people 
lor  the  future  to  do  the  white  people  any  injury,  but  they  expect  they  will  move  oft' their  land  ^  f    1 

The  talk  from  Congress,  and  the  talk  likewise  from  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  we  have  taken  fast  hold  of,  and 
will  remember,  because  they  are  good,  and  strongly  desirous  to  live  in  the  greatest  friendship  with  their  red  brothers 
We  should  be  glad  to  receive  a  talk  from  you,  it  it  is  a  good  one,  and  for  hereafter  to  live  in  peace  and  friendship 
We  desire  you  will  let  our  Inends  and  brothers  in  North  Carolina  hear  this  talk,  which  we  hope  will  be  the  means 
to  procure  that  peace  and  friendsiiip  we  so  strongly  desire.     We  are  your  friends  and  brothers. 

The  Badger,  Tliigh, 

The  Crane.  Pumpkin  Vine, 

^                                                     Bloody  Felloiv,  Chesnnt, 

Jobber's  Son,  Hanging  Maiv, 

Atllygiskee,  Tlie  Lyin  Fawghn, 

:                                                                                 lellow  Bird,  -                The  Englishman,  Src. 

Bear  coming  out  of  the  tree. 

Pine  Log,  ,3rfiVoi;em6er  1788. 

Dear  Sir:  I  send  you  a  talk  from  the  head-men  and  warriors  met  at  Ustinaire,  on  the  1st  instant,  which  I  hope 
Will  give  you  satisfaction,  and  prevent  a  war.    I  should  always  be  glad  to  receive  a  line  from  you. 
I  am,  dear  sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 


.  '  C.  No.  8.  ■  '■ 


We  have  been  long  acquainted  with  you,  and  know  you  to  be  our  friend:  but  what  is  the  reason  Congress  has 
not  moved  those  people  from  off  our  lands  before  now?  You  were  one  of  the  beloved  men  that  spoke  for  Congress  at 
Keowee  three  years  ago;  you  then  said  the  people  should  move  off  in  six  moons  from  that  time:  but  near  forty  moons 
T+iP?;-^"°  thev  are  not  gone  yet.  We  well  remember,  whenever  we  are  invited  into  a  treaty,  as  observed  by  us 
at  that  time,  and  bounds  are  fixed,  that  the  white  peonle  settle  much  faster  on  our  lands  than  they  did  before.  It 
must  certainly  be  the  case,  they  think  we  will  not  break  the  peace  directly,  and  they  will  strengthen  themselves  and 
Keep  the  lands.  You  know  this  to  be  the  case.  You  told  us  at  the  treaty,  if  any  white  people  settled  on  our  lands 
we  might  do  as  we  pleased  with  them.  They  come  and  settle  close  by  our  towns,  and  some  of  the  Chicamoga  people 
came,  contrary  to  our  desire,  and  killed  a  family;  and  the  white  people  came  and  drove  us  out  of  our  towns,  and 

48  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789, 

killed  some  of  our  beloved  men,  and  several  women  and  little  children,  although  we  could  not  liclp  what  tlie  Chica- 
nioga  people  does.  You  know  that  well.  We  are  now  like  wolves,  ranging  about  the  woods  to  get  something  to  eat. 
Nothing  to  be  seen  in  our  towns  but  bones,  weeds,  and  grass.  But,  for  all  this,  we  will  lie  still;  we  will  not  do  am 
more  miscliiel'  if  the  white  people  will  stop.  I  am  but  a  boy,  but  my  eyes  are  open,  and  wherever  I  turn  them,  many 
young  men  turn  with  them.  I  here  give  you  this  string  ot  white  beads,  as  a  token  of  my  friendship  to  you;  also  1 
present  you  with  a  string  in  the  name  of  yoiir  brother  John  Watts;  he  says  he  holds  you  fast  by  the  hand,  but  he 
cannot  see  you  3'et,  as  he  is  in  great  trouble  about  liis  uncle.  But  the  Corn-tassel  will  come  to  your  house  towards 
the  Sjiring,  and  stay  a  great  while  witli  you.  as  it  will  be  very  Imngry  times  with  him  then. 


C,  No.  9. 

Fort  Patrick  Henry,  Sullivan  Co.  N.  Carolina,  February  2,  1789. 

I  have  certain  accounts  tiiat  some  designing  men  on  the  Indian  lands  have  assembled  themselves  to  the  number 
of  fifteen,  and  call  themselves  a  convention  of  the  people,  and  have  entered  into  several  resolves,  which  they  say  they 
will  lay  before  Congress;  one  of  which  resolves  is,  to  raise  men  by  subscription  to  defend  themselves,  as  the  Legis- 
lature of  North  Carolina  refuses  to  protect  them  on  tlie  Indian  lands,  but,  on  the  contrary,  have  directed  and  ordered 
those  people  off  the  Indian  lands.    A  certain  Alexander  Outlaw  by  name,  I  am  informed,  is  to  wait  upon  Congress 
on  behalf  of  this  new  plan.    I  think  it  my  duty  to  say  the  truth  of  him:  Shortly  after  the  murder  of  the  Corn-tassel 
and  two  other  chiefs,  this  said  Outlaw  collected  a  party  of  men  and  went  into  an  Indian  town  called  Citico,  whei"e 
1        he  found  a  few  helpless  women  and  children,  which  he  inhumanly  murdered,  exposing  their  private  parts  in  the  most 
^        shameful  manner,  leaving  a  young  child,  willi  both  its  arms  broke,  alive,  at  the  breast  of  its  dead  mother.     These 
are  facts  well  known  and  cannot  be  denied  in  this  country.    Mr.  Outlaw  has  done  every  thing  in  his  power  to  drive 
the  Indians  to  desperation,  although  I  find  some  complaint  by  the  said  Outlaw  against  me,  for  carrying  on  an 
expedition  against  the  Cherokee  Indians  without  orders  from  Government.    I  have  once  stated  that  matter  to 
you,  but,  least  that  may  not  have  come  to  hand,  I  beg  leave  to  state  the  facts  to  you.    In  the  montli  of  May  last,  a 
boat,  richly  laden,  was  going  down  Tennessee  to  Cumberland,  the  crew  were  decoyed  by  the  Chicamoga  Indians  and 
Creeks  together,  all  of  which  crew  were  killed  and  taken  prisoners;  after  which  doings,  tlie  Corn-tassel  informed  me 
of  the  cruel  murder  they  had  committed,  also  the  repeated  murders  and  robberies  they  were  constantly  committing 
on  tiie  frontiers  of  Cumberland  and  Kentucky,  also  on  the  Kentucky  i-oad,  in  company  with  the  Creeks.     There,^ 
was  not  the  least  Iiopes  of  reclaiming  tiiem  as  long  as  they  lived  so  far  detached  from  their  nations.     That  the  Corn- 
tassel  had  talked  to  them  until  he  found  it  was  of  no  use;  that  he,  mth  the  other  chiefs,  advised  and  thought  it  best  to  go 
against  them  and  burn  their  towns,  by  which  means  they  would  return  to  their  allegiance;  that  then  they  would  have 
it  in  their  power  to  govern  them.    This  the  Indian  chiefs  urged  in  the  strongest  terms,  which  account  I  laid  before 
the  Executive  ofNorth  Carolina,  who  advised  that  peace  should  be  offered  them,  and,  if  refused  by  the  Indians,  that 
then  the  principal  officers  of  Washington  district  should  pursue  such  measures  as  to  them  should  appear  most  likely 
to  put  a  stop  to  those  merciless  Indians  on  the  frontiers  and  roads.     It  was  unanimously  agreed  to  march  against 
Chicamoga,  but  by  no  means  to  give  offence  to  the  Cherokees,  which  has  been  a  means  of  uniting  the  Chicamoga 
Indians  to  the  other  Indians.    It  will  now  be  our  own  faults  if  we  do  not  make  all  that  race  of  Indians  our  friends. 
So  great  the  thirst  for  Indian  lands  prevails,  that  every  method  will  be  taken  by  a  party  of  people  to  prevent 
a  treaty  with  the  Indians.     They  are  now  laboring  to  draw  some  of  the  Indians  to  a  treaty,  as  they  may  purchase 
J     their  country:  this  party  say,  if  they  can  purchase  of  the  Indians,  they  will  have  it  \vithout  the  consent  of  any  other 
/        power;  that  the  Indians  have  an  undoubted  right  to  it,  and  not  Congress;  that  if  they  could  only  prevail  on  a  few 
1        of  the  lower  class  to  come  into  their  scheme,  they  would  get  conveyances  made  and  contend  for  the  right.    This  I 
\^     have  heard  fiom  them. 

I  this  moment  have  received  a  talk  from  the  Chickasaw  Indians,  which  I  enclose  you. 

I  have  the  honor,  with  much  respect,  to  be,  your  most  humble  and  most  obedient  servant, 

The  Honorable  H.  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  .,       .  • 

or,  in  his  absence,  the  next  in  command. 

C.    No.  10.  '    ' 

WiNNSBOHoiiciH,  March  1,  1789. 

I  think  it  necessary  to  inform  you,  that  a  treaty  will  take  place  with  the  Cherokee  Indians,  the  tliird  Monday 
in  May  next,  at  the  Upper  War-forcl,  on  French  Broad  river,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Swananuo,  State  of  North 

The  Creek  Indians,  'tis  supposed,  will  also  treat;  they  are  now  holding  a  great  talk  in  their  nation,  tlie  lesult  oi 
which  is  not  yet  come  to  hand. 

I  have  the  honor  to  subscribe  myself,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

The  Honorable  Major  General  Knox. 

No.  4. 

Gen.  Knox,  Secretary  of  J  far,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States, 


This  nation  of  Indians  were  estimated  by  the  commissioners,  in  1785,  at  800  warriors;  other  opinions  make  them 
amount  to  1200. 

The  lines  of  their  territory  between  the  Cherokees  and  Choctaws,  do  not  appear  precisely  fixed.  Their  limits, 
established  by  the  treaty  hereafter  mentioned,  are  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  ndge  which  divides  the  waters 
running  into  the  Cumberland,  from  those  running  into  the  Tennessee.  The  Mississippi  on  the  west,  the  Choctaws 
and  the  Creeks  on  the  south,  and  the  Cherokees  on  the  east. 

The  United  States  formed  a  treaty  \vith  the  Chickasaw  nation,  at  Hopewell,  the  10th  of  January,  1786,  which 
was  entered  on  the  journals  of  Congress,  April  17th,  1786.  r  ,       t       ^ 

By  this  treaty,  they  acknowledge  themselves  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  and  of  no  other 
sovereign  whosoever.  A  tract  of  land  is  reserved  for  a  trading  post,  to  the  use  and  under  tiie  Government  of  the 
United  States,  of  a  circle  ot  five  miles  diameter,  at  the  lower  post  of  the  Muscle  Shoals,  at  the  mouth  or  junction  of 
the  Ocochappo  with  the  Tennessee.  The  land  transportation  from  the  head  of  the  Ocochappo,  to  the  head  of  the 
most  northerly  part  of  the  Mobile  river,  is  said  not  to  exceed  thiiiy-five  miles. 

The  distance  of  this  nation  from  the  frontier  settlements  being  sogi-eat,  is  the  pnncipal  reason  that  no  complaints 
have  been  made  of  the  encroachments  of  the  whites.  ,      ,. 

In  the  year  1787,  they  sent  one  of  the  warriors  of  their  nation  to  Congi-ess,  to  represent  the  distressed  situation 
of  the  Cherokees;  and  that,  unless  the  encroachments  of  the  whites  were  restrained,  they  should  be  obliged  to  jom 
the  Cherokees;  and,  also,  to  enforce  the  establishment  of  trade  agreeably  to  the  treaty. 



This  nation  of  Indians  were  estimated  by  the  connnissioners  of  the  United  States,  at  6,000  warriors;  other 
opinions  state  them  at  4,500  or  5,000. 

Their  principal  towns  or  villages  are  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Pascagoula  and  Pearl  rivers.  They  are  mostly 
to  the  nortliward  of  tlie  31st  degree  of  latitude;  but  some  of  them  are  to  the  southward  of  it,  within  the  territoi^ 
of  Spain. 

Both  the  Chickasaws  and  Choctaws  are  represented  as  candid,  generous,  brave,  and  honest,  and  understanding 
each  other's  language. 

The  commissioners  of  the  United  States  concluded  a  treaty  with  the  Choctaws  at  Hopewell,  on  the  3d  of 
January,  1786,  and  the  same  is  entered  on  the  journals  of  Congress,  the  I6th  of  April,  1786. 

By  this  treaty,  the  Choctaws  acknowledged  themselves  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  and  of 
no  other  sovereign  whosoever.  And  three  tracts,  or  parcels  of  land,  each  of  six  miles  square,  for  (he  establishment 
of  trading  posts,  are  reserved  to  the  use  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  at  such  places  as  they  shall  think 

The  distance  of  the  Choctaws  has  also  pre\ented,  hitherto,  those  encroachments  which  have  been  complained  of 
by  the  Cherokees. 

In  the  year  1787,  thev  sent  Tobocah,  one  of  their  great  medal  chiefs,  to  Congress,  principally  in  order  to  solicit 
the  establishment  of  trade. 

All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

"•■'■'  ■••   ■,  _H.  KNOX.    '- 

War  Offick,  7  th  day  of  July,  1789.  •■  •   .• 

"■'■'■■  _         No.  1.  ■•■      /  ■  ■    ■  '    ■■■-    '    , 

Seneca  on  Keowee,  December  SO,  1785. 


The  commissioners  have  been  mucii  lunger  executing  the  duties  of  the  commissioUj  than  tliey  at  first  had  any 
idea  of.  As  I  informed  you  from  Charleston,  of  the  last  of  September,  we  were  under  the  necessity  of  postponing 
the  time  of  meeting,  both  at  Galphinton  and  diis  place,  one  month  later  than  the  original  appointment,  that  the 
Indians  might  have  full  time,  and  that  all  delays  be  avoided.  Accordingly,  the  commissioners,  Mr.  Perry  excepted, 
met  at  Galphinton,  the  24th  and  28tii  of  October;  and  although  we  had  had  assurances  that  the  chiefs  of  the  Creek 
nation  would  meet  us  there,  yet,  from  some  cause,  not  clearly  known,  we  were  met  only  by  the  representatives  of 
two  towns  who  had  been  friendly  to  us.  This  disappointment  was  the  more  unexpected,  as  we  knew  a  majority  of 
the  nation  to  be  pleased  witli  our  invitation,  and  very  anxious  of  establisliing  witli  us  a  permanent  peace;  perhaps  1 
might  attribute  it  to  the  intrigues  of  the  neighboring  Spanish  officers,  and  to  Alexander  McGillivray,  a  half  breed, 
of  great  abilities  and  consequential  rank  in  his  nation,  and  wiio  has  lately  had  permission  to  form  connexions  with, 
ana  establish  British  commercial  houses  for  tlie  supply  of  the  Indians.  He  is  also  an  agent  of  Spain,  with  a  salaiy 
of  six  hundred  dollars  per  annum,  paid  monthly. 

We  did  not  think  proper  to  enter  into  a  treaty  with  the  heads  of  tiiese  towns  only,  and  after  explaining  to  them 
the  object  of  the  Uniteil  States,  we  dismissed  them,  with  a  few  presents,  as  they  had  been  friendly  to  us  most  of 
the  late  war. 

The  commissioners  of  Georgia  attended,  and  protested  against  every  thing  we  had  done,  or  should  do,  founded 
on  our  commission,  "except  in  such  cases  only,  as  may,  or  shall  lead  to  contiime  principles  of  friendship,  and  to 
explain  the  great  occurrences  of  the  late  war.*'  And  after  we  left  Galphinton,  the  agents  of  that  State  entered  into 
a  treaty  with  the  Indians  then  present,  and  obtained  from  them  a  cession  of  all  the  lands  south  of  the  Altamaha,  aiid 
eastward  of  a  line  to  be  run  southwest  from  the  juncti  in  of  the  Oconee  and  Oakmuigee,  until  it  shall  strike  St. 
Mary's,  with  a  confirmation  of  the  cession  northeast  of  the  Oconee  in  1783. 

The  17th  November  we  arrived  here,  and  were  met  in  a  few  days  by  nine  hundred  and  eighteen  Cherokees,  with 
whom,  on  the  28th,  we  entered  into  a  treaty.  They  were  anxiously  desirous  of  being  under  the  protection  of  the 
United  States,  thereby  to  be  secured  in  the  possession  of  their  hunting  grounds  from  the  avidity  of  land  speculation. 
They  had  for  stmie  time  past  lost  all  confidence  in  promises  made  them  by  the  neighboring  States,  as  well  as  the 
citizens  thereof  They  saw  (heir  situation  with  despondency,  until  they  were  informed  of  the  humane  and  liberal 
views  of  Congress;  aiul  then,  with  joy  and  gladness,  they  embraced  the  protection  we  offered  them,  and  I  believe 
would  have  submitted  their  fate  to  (he  decision  of  the  United  States  without  a  negative.  Colonel  Williain  Blount, 
as  agent  for  North  Carolina,  is  with  us,  and  he  has  entered  a  protest  against  tiie  treaty,  and  the  commissioners  of 
Georgia  were  present,  and  gave  us  a  secoml  protest,  which,  with  the  treaty,  and  all  our  proceedings  thereon,  I  shall 
send  forward  as  early  as  practicable. 

The  4(h  instant,  the  commissioners  agreed  to  adjourn,  and  report  their  proceedings;  and  Joseph  Martin  and 
Laughlin  Mcintosh  set  out  for  their  respective  homes,  leaving  Mr.  Pickens  and  myself-to  discharge  the  Indians,  to 
wind  up  every  thing,  and  close  the  report.  The  ninth,  we  received  advice  from  Captain  Woods,  that  the  chiefs  of 
the  Choctaws  were  on  the  way,  and  would  be  here  in  this  month.  Mr.  Martin  hearing  of  it,  returned  on  the  27th; 
but  Mr.  Mcintosh  was  so  far  on  his  wav  home,  as  to  prevent  his  having  advice  in  time,  although  I  wrote  for  him 
immediately  on  the  receipt  of  the  information.  The  Choctaws  arrived  on  the  26th,  after  a  fatiguing  journev  of 
seventy-seven  days,  the  whole  of  them  almost  naked.  The  Creeks  ende^ivored  all  they  could  to  prevent  then- 
coming,  by  false  infonnation,  stealing  of  horses,  &c.;  but  they  have  apparently  a  rooted  aversion  to  the  Spaniards 
and  Creeks,  and  are  determined  to  put  themselves  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States.  This  day,  we  shall 
commence  our  negotiations  with  them;  we  should  have  done  it  sooner,  but  the  Chiefs  told  us  they  were  so  naked, 
they  must  first  receive  some  clotiiing;  and  we  yesterday  gave  to  eighteen,  coats  in  the  uniform  of  the  late  army, 
with  other  necessaries  to  dress  them,  and  we  foresee  that  there  are  no  difficulties  to  oppose;  but  that  in  a  few  days 
we  shall  finish  our  treaty  with  them.  Some  of  the  Chickasaws  are  here,  and  the  representation  from  the  nation 
expected  to  arrive  every  day;  and  the  same  spirit  actuates  them  as  the  Choctaws,  so  that,  in  a  few  days,  our  negotia- 
tions will  be  complete,  except  with  the  Creeks,  and  all  difficulties  respecting  them  removed. 

On  the  article  of  expense,   we  have  had  our  fears,  and  knowing  the  sum  to  which  we  were  limited  would  be 
exhausted  too  soon,  unless  we  contracted  our  original  plan,  we  were  under  the  necessity  of  dismissing  our  guard 
three  weeks  past,  and  do  our  business  without  one.     This  opportunity  does  not  admit  our  writing  farther. 
We  are,  with-due  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servants, 



The  Honorable  Charles  Thomson,  Esq.  ■'  •  .  - 

■"     ""  .    "  .  '  No.  2  '.    '■ 

„.:,    ,  ■        Hopewell,  4th  of  January,  1786. 

Sir:  :     .        .  . 

The  28th  of  November,  we  had  the  honor  to  enclose  your  Excellency  the  treaty  we  entered  into  with  the 
Cherokees,  and  all  the  papers  respecting  the  same.  At  that  period,  we  did  not  suppose  we  should  be  able  to  meet 
any  other  of  the  tribes  this  winter.  A  few  days  after,  we  received  an  express  from  Colonel  John  Woods,  infonning 
us  of  the  approach  of  the  Choctaws,  and  they  arrived  here  on  the  26th.    They  had  been  on  the  path  from  the  I6fh 


50  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

of  October,  and  had  experienced  great  difficulties  from  tlie  badness  of  the  way,  the  scarcity  of  clothing  and  provi- 
sions, and  the  frequent  interruptions  of  the  Creeks  by  stealing  their  horses,  and  we  were,  from  motives  of  humanity, 
at  their  arrival,  under  the  necessity  of  clothing  the  whole  ol  them,  as  the  weather  was  very  cold,  and  they  were 
nearly  naked,  before  we  commenced  our  negotiations  with  the  chiefs.  The  third  instant,  we  concluded  a  treaty 
with  them,  which  we  enclose  to  your  Excellency,  with  our  journal  and  other  papers  respecting  the  same. 

The  Indians  seem  to  comprehend  very  well  every  article,  and  we  have  taken  great  pains  to  explain  it  to  them, 
as  well  as  the  humane  views  of  Congress  towards  all  the  tribes  of  Indians  within  the  United  States  of  America. 

We  had  some  difficulty  in  finding  out  how  we  should  ascertain  the  bounds  of  the  lands  allotted  to  the  Choctaws, 
and  could  not  fix  them  other  than  as  in  the  tliird  article;  and  knowing  the  avidity  of  land  speculation  would  take 
any  possible  advantage,  we  fixed  on  the  29tii  of  November,  1782,  the  day  before  the  signing  of  our  preliminary 
articles  with  Great  Britain,  that  being,  as  we  conceived,  the  earliest  period  in  our  power. 

The  Indians  were  well  satisfied  with  the  treaty,  and  with  the  treatment  they  met  with,  and  expressed  their 
gratitude  for  it.  But  we  could  perceive  their  strong  hankering  after  presents  could  not  be  abated,  by  the  prudent 
method  we  adopted  of  clothing  tliem  comfortably,  or  by  our  liberality  in  the  treaty.  They  are  the  greatest  beggars, 
and  the  most  indolent  creatures  we  ever  saw,  and  yet  honest,  simple,  and  regardless  of  any  situation  of  distress. 
Their  passion  for  gambling  and  drinking  is  very  great;  we  have  had  instances  of  their  selling  blankets  at  a  pint  of 
rum  each,  and  gambling  them  away,  when  they  had  no  prospect  of  replacing  them,  and  knew  they  must  return  this 
winter  five  hundred  mites  to  their  nation  with  a  shirt  only.  They  were  very  little  accustomed  to  travelling,  arid  we 
should  not  have  had  them  here,  had  we  not  supplied  them  with  provisions  on  the  road.  And  that  they  may  return 
without  starving,  through  indolence,  we  were  necessitated  to  pack  up  sqme  proper  goods,  and  put  them  tinder  the 
care  of  the  interpreter  and  the  four  chiefs,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  provisions. 

The  Spaniards  were  desirous  of  preventing  them  from  meeting  us;  and  Mr.McGillivray,  by  their  order,  took 
pains  to  stop  them  as  they  passed  through  the  Creeks.  But  they  were  determined  to  go  to  Congress,  rather  than 
not  form  some  connexion  witli  us.  They  have  strong  regard  for  the  British,  and  an  exalted  idea  of  the  military 
prowess  of  tiie  United  States;  and  they  urge,  that  as  the  latter  conquered  the  former,  they  are  the  fittest  persons 
on  earth  for  them  to  apply  to  for  protection. 

The  chiefs  produced  their  medals  and  commissions,  and  were  very  desirous  of  exchanging  for  those  under  the 
United  States.  They  were  also  desirous  of  having  three  stand  of  colors,  for  their  upper  and  lower  towns,  and  six 
villages,  and  an  agent  to  superintend  their  business.  Captain  John  Woods  is  recommended  by  two  of  their  chiefs, 
and  l\e  is  a  man  of  some  enterprise  and  ability,  but  mucn  addicted  to  strong  drink.  He  came  in  with  the  Indians, 
and  has  been  at  much  trouble  with  them. 

We  have  appointed  John  Pitchlynn  our  interpreter  of  the  Choctaw  tongue.    We  have  told  him  that  we  did  not 
know  whether  Congress  would  annex  any  salary  to  such  an  appointment;  he  is  a  very  honest,  sober  young  man,  and 
has  lived  twelve  years  in  the  nation,  ancl  is  much  respected  by  the  chiefs  as  an  interpreter. 
,  y  The  presents  we  have  given  the  Indians,  and  the  goods  for  the  purchase  of  provisions,  amount  to  LJJl^  dollars. 
^    We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  sincere  esteem,  sir,  your  Excellency's  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

His  Excellency  John  Hancock,  Esq.  President  of  Congress. 


No.  3. 

Hopewell,  \Ath  January,  1786. 

We  have  the  honor  to  enclose  to  your  Excellency,  a  treaty  we  entered  into  with  the  Chickasaws  on  the  10th 
instant.    They  had  been  as  long  on  the  path  as  the  Choctaws;  but  coming  through  the  Cherokees,  were  better  sup-   . 

Elied  with  provisions,  and  experienced  less  difficulties,  except  from  the  vdlanous  practice  of  horse  stealing,  which 
as  taken  deep  root  among  them  as  well  as  the  Creeks. 
—  We  found  no  difficulty  in  our  treaty  with  these  Indians,  who  are  the  most  honest  and  well  informed,  as  well  as 
the  most  orderly  and  best  governed  of  any  we  have  seen.  The  trading  posts  reserved  to  the  use  of  the  United 
States,  are  situated  in  the  most  convenient  place  within  the  whole  of  their  lands.  It  is  within  sixty  miles  of  their 
towns,  and  one  hundred  of  the  Choctaws'  upper  towns.  The  lands  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  are  very  fit  for 
cultivation  and  for  grazing. 

Through  the  whole  of  our  negotiations,  we  have  paid  particular  attention  to  the  rights  and  interests  ot  the  United 
States,  as  far  as  our  abilities  could  comprehend  them,  regardless  of  the  protests  of  uie  adjoining  Sta.tes  against  us. 
Finding,  from  tlie  delays  of  the  Indians,  and  tlie  particular  circumstances  attending  the  negotiations,  that  our 
■jxpenses  would  exceed  the  sums  we  had  provided  for,  and  even  the  sum  to  wliich  we  were  restricted  by  Congress, 
and  without  completing  the  object  of  our  commission,  we  were  necessitated  to  discharge  our  guard  early  in  Decem- 
ber, and  meet  the  Indians  without  them,  and  curtail  every  expense  that  could  possibly  be  avoided;  and  yet,  after 
all,  they  have  exceeded  our  wishes. 

By  this  treaty,  the  boundaiy  of  tlie  lands  allotted  to  the  respective  tribes  is  closed  on  every  side,  from  the  south 
fork  of  Oconee,  around  northerly  and  westwardly;  and  we  verily  believe,  that,  if  the  adjoining  States  were  disposed 
to  carry  the  treaties  into  effect,  the  Indians  would  be  happy  in  the  new  change  of  sovereignty,  and  in  constant  amity . 
with  us. 

The  Chickasaws  will  leave  us  to-morrow.     We  have  given  them  presents  amounting  to  six  hundred  and  thirty- 
nine  and  three-fifths  dollars,  including  some  goods  for  the  purchase  of  provisions.  The  Choctaws  left  us  on  the  12th. 
The  commissioners  of  Georgia  returned  home  after  the  treaty  with  the  Cherokees.     The  agent  of  North  Carolina 
continued  with  us,  and  we  enclose  his  letter  and  protest. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  sincere  esteem,  sir,  your  Excellency's  most  obedient  humble  servants, 


No.  4. 

Hopewell,  the  7th  January,  1786. 

The  Commissioners  Plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States  in  Congress  assernbled,  appointed  to  treat  with  the 
Cherokees.  and  all  other  Indians  southward  of  them,  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  assembled.  Present: 
Benjamin  Hawkins,  Andrew  Pickens,  and  Joseph  Martin.  From  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  William  Blount, 
Esq.  Agent,  and  James  Colcj  Interpreter. 

The  comniissioners  were  informed  that  the  leading  chiefs  of  the  Chickasaws,  with  their  followers,  had  arrived, 
and  were  desirous  of  seeing  the  commissioners  and  entering  upon  their  business  as  early  as  practicable.  That  they 
had  been  long  on  the  path,  and  detained  by  the  villany  of  the  Cherokees,  some  of  whom  had  stolen  several  of  their 
horses.  They  were  introduced,  and  expressed  a  most  friendly  disposition  towards  the  United  States,  and  an  earnest 
desire  of  entering  into  a  treaty  of  peace  and  protection  with  tneni.  The  commissioners,  after  explaining  the  object 
of  their  commission,  informed  the  chiefs  that  they  would,  on  Monday,  or  as  early  as  would  be  convenient  for  them, 
enter  upon  the  business. 

ir89.]  THE   CHICKASAWS,    CHOCTAWS,    AND   OTHERS.  51 

_  •      ,,     „^,  .■'  '..  ■■"i  '  -  ''  9th  of  January. 

Present  as  on  the  7th.  '    ■  ....  j  y 

The  leading  chiefs  attended  at  10  o'clock,  and,  after  some  friendly  conversation,  the  commissioners  addressed 
the  leading  chiets  as  follow,  viz: 

Leading  Chiefs  who  represent  the  Chickasaws:  We  are  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  from  the  United 
States,  in  Congress  assembled,  who  sent  an  invitation  to  you,  the  leading  chiefs,  who  represent  the  Chickasaws  to 
meet  us  at  this  place,  to  give  you  peace,  and  to  receive  you  into  die  favor  and  protection  of  the  United  States  and 
to  remove,  as  far  as  may  be,  all  causes  of  future  contention  or  quarrels.  That  you,  your  wives,  and  your  children'  may 
be  happy,  and  feel  and  know  the  blessings  of  the  new  change  of  sovereignty  over  diis  land  which  you  and  we 

This  humane  and  generous  act  of  the  United  States  will,  no' doubt,  be  received  by  all  the  Chickasaws  with 
joy  and  gladness,  and  held  in  grateful  remembrance,  particularly  as  it  flows  unsolicited  from  their  justice  their 
humanity,  and  their  attention  to  the  rights  of  human  nature.  ' 

On  our  own  parts,  we  sincerely  wisliyou  to  live  as  happily  as  we  do  ourselves,  and  to  promote  that  happiness  as 
far  as  in  our  power,  regardless  of  any  distinction  of  color,  or  of  any  differences  in  our  customs  or  manners,  or  par- 
ticular situation;  and  as  a  proof  of  the  sincerity^of  our  declarations,  we  propose  to  enter  into  articles  of  a  treaty  as 
equal  as  may  be,  conformable  to  what  we  now  tell  you. 

After  this  address,  the  chiefs  were  told,  that,  at  some  future  period,  the  occurrences  of  the  late  Mar  and  the 
extent  of  territory  within  the  United  States,  would  be  fully  explained  to  them.    To  which  Piomin-'o  replied    he 
wished  to  hear  every  thing  intended  to  be  communicated  to  him,  prior   to  his  talks.     The  whole   was  accordin^'ly 
explained,  and,  apparently,  to  their  satisfaction  and  comprehension.     The  draught  of  the  treaty  was  also  explained 
with  which  they  seemed  to  acquiesce  most  heartily.  "  ■        f       ^  ■< 

The  leading  chiefs  then,  in  turn,  addressed  the  commissioners. 

PioMiNGo. — The  period  has  arrived  that  I  have  visited  you  to  see  you,  and  to  regulate  every  thing  that  respects 
us.  These  beads  are  our  credentials  of  peace  and  friendship,  and  two  of  us  have  come  to  brin°^  the  talks  ot  the 
nation.  These  white  beads  are  of  little  value  but  in  our  nation,  where  they  are  kept  even  by  ourclnldren,  with  vene- 
ration, as  tokens  of  peace  and  fricndsliip.  When  I  take  you  by  the  hands,  the  Jay  will  never  come,  that  discord 
will  break  my  hold.  Although  I  may  not  be  eloquent,  yet  1  wish  my  talks  to  be  as  much  esteemecl  as  if  1  was  it 
being  my  sincere  desire  that  what  I  say  should  be  constiued  most  friendly.  My  talks  are  not  long,  and  1  hope  when 
you  see  these  beads,  you  will  remember  my  friendship. — [Eight  strands  of  beads.]  ' 

MiNGATusHKA. — Tlic  day  is  come  when  I  have  met  you  to  talk  with  you,  and  I  am  well  pleasedj  r.iid  now  you 
shall  hear  what  I  have  to  say. 
i       I  have  come  to  see  you,  and  you  aie  not  strangers  to  us;  you  are  a  white  people  I  claim  as  our  eldest  and  first 
.'brothers.     These  beacls  in  my  hand  are  a  token   of  friend>hip,  and  I  hope  friendly  ideas  will  arise  in  your  minds 
^     whenever  you  see  them.     My  predecessor  loved  you  while  people  in  his  time,  and  1  mean  to  do  the  same.    Our  two 
•    old  leading  men  are  dead,  and  we  two  come  as  their  successors  in  business,  with  the  same  frieiully  talks   as   they 
had,  wliich  were  always  friendly.     Altiiough  our  old  king  and  leading  man  is   dead,  we  wish  their  friendly  talks 
may  live,  and  be  remembered  with  you  as  with  us,  and  for  tiiat  purpose  we  come  to  renew  them.   I  iiope,  when  your 
children  and  our  children  grow  up,  they  will  remember  the  old  peace  and  friendship  of  this  day,  and  strictly  adhere 
to  it.  \This  is  the  day  I  have  come  to  see  you,  and  I  have  been  informed  of  the  peace  of  tlie  United  States  of  \me 
rica  with  all  nations,  and  I  am  glad  of  it,  and  wish  sincerely  it  may  long  continue.     The  substance  of  niy  talks 
is  done,  and  when  we  red  people  talk,  we  give  beads  as  a  proof  of  fruMidship,  and  I  gi\  e  these.    My  talks  are  short 
and  true;  wh(5n  people  are  prolix,  they  somelimes  are  false. — [A  siring  of  beads.  ] 

PioMiNGO.— I  now  represent  Satopoia.  He  is  a  particular  man;  when  he  gives  his  word  or  acquiescence,  he 
never  lets  go,  and  this  is  his  belt:  he  and  I  are  related;  our  sentiments  are  the  same;  our  talks  are  short,  but' his 
token  of  friendship  is  great.— [A  broad  belt  of  wampum.]  Our  talks  are  done,  our  predecessors  are  dead,  and  we 
come  and  give  in  our  talks;  and  now  we  will  hear  further  from  you. 

MixGATusHKA.— The  great  man  of  our  nation  who  wore  this  medal  I  show  you,  is  dead,  and  I  am  his  nephew 
and  a  leader.  On  the  death  of  this  great  man,  he  left  a  daughter,  who  took  care  of  this  nunlal,  and  she  judged  it  was 
proper,  wheii'I  came,  that  I  should  bring  it,  that  you  might  see  it,  and  know  such  a  thing  belonged  to  our  family 
and  accordingly,  she  and  her  mother  sent  it.  ^ ' 

PioMiNGo. — You  see  this  now,  (pointing  to  the  medal)  it  was  worn  by  our  great  man;  he  is  dead;  his  daughter 
sent  it  for  you  to  see  it.     I  take  place,  as  head  leading  warrior  of  tlie  nation,  to  treat  with  all  nations.  '' 

Commissioners.— We  are  glad  you  remember  with  pleasure  the  virtues  of  your  old  and  worthy  predecessors- 
and  \ve  are  pleased  that  the  daughter  of  one  of  them  has  sent  us  this  medal,  with  tiie  reasons  for  so  doin<';  in  return' 
we  will  give  you  some  present  tor  her.  "  ' 

As  you  are  well  pleased  with  the  draught  of  our  treaty,  we  shall  prepare  two  copies  thereof,  to  be  signed  to-mor- 
row, the  one  for  you,  and  the  other  tor  the  Congress. 

When  the  first  article  was  read,  the  chief  Piomingo  said  he  had  no  prisoners  of  ours  in  his  nation,  or  property 
of  any  kind.  To  the  reservation  in  the  third  article,  he  at  first  seemed  much  opposed,  but,  on  being  assured  by  the 
commissioners,  that  they  were  not  desirous  of  getting  his  land,  and  that  all  that  would  be  necessary  for  the  United 
States,  as  a  trading  post,  would  be  five  or  six  miles  square,  he  readily  acquiesced,  and  marked  the  article  in  the 
map,  describin;^  its  diameter  to  be  five  miles,  and  remarked,  at  the  same  time,  that  the  lands  on  the  north  of  the 
river  were  fine  for  cultivation  and  grazing,  and  he  would  have  no  objection  to  our  using  what  we  mHit  think  proper 
for  the  conveniency  of  traders.  o  i     h 

„  ,     ,  iOth  of  Jamiarij. 

Present  as  yesterday. 

The  commissioners  produced  two  copies  of  the  draught  asreed  on,  and  a  map  of  the  lands  in  question,  partly 
drawn  by  themselves,  and  partly  by  the  Indians,  and,  instead  of  agreeing  to  the  line  between  the  respective  tribes 
they  dotted  only  with  black  ink,  which  the  chief  observed,  and  said  he  wished  Congress  would  point  out  his  lands 
to  him;  he  wanted  to  know  his  own.  The  line  was  then  extended,  as  in  the  third  article,  and  the  commissioners 
told  the  chiefs  that  they  must  agree  with  the  neighboring  tribes  respecting  their  boundary,  and  that  then  Congress 
would  send  a  white  man  to  be  present  with  the  Indians,  and  see  them  mark  it. 
'  The  treaty  was  then  read  over  again,  and  every  article  explained  with  great  attention,  and  the  Indians  acquiesced 
with  them;  and,  at  the  close,  the  commissioners  asked  if  they  comprehended  the  whole,  and  were  willing  to  sign* 
diey  answered  yes,  and  that  it  was  all  straight,  meaning  it  was  proper  and  satisfactory  to  them.  It  was  then 
signed;  but,  previous  thereto,  the  agent  of  North  Carolina  delivered  a  letter  to  the  commissioners,  referring  them 
to  his  former  letters  to  them,  respecting  the  constitutional  claims  of  North  Carolina,  to  all  the  lands  witlnn  the 
bounds  describetl  in  their  bill  of  rights.     He  also  gave  in  his  protest  against  the  treaty. 

The  commissioners  informed  the  chiefs,  that,  on  to-morrow,  in  pursuance  of  the  humane  and  liberal  views  of 
Congress,  they  would  make  them  some  presents  for  their  use  and  comfort. 

n         ,  .     ,  nth  of  January. 

rresent  as  yesterday. 

.  It  being  very  wet  and  rainy,  the  chiefs  postponed  receiving  the  presents  till  to-morrcm'.    In  the  evening,  the 

principal  warrior,  Piomingo,  visited  the  commissioners,  and  addressed  them  as  follows,  viz:  "I  am  now  going  to 

inform  you  of  the  situation  of  the  white  people  in  our  land.     There  are  a  great  many  of  them  who  have  numerous 

stocks  of  cattle  and  horses,  and  they  are  not  traders,  or  of  any  advantage  to  us;  and,  when  a  white  man  comes, 

they,  without  our  permission,  or  even  asking  of  it,  build  a  house  for  him,  and  settle  him  among  us.    I  do  not  wish 

C5>  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 

to  be  cross  to  them,  or  do  them  any  injury;  and  I  desire  they  may  go  in  peace  with  their  stocks  to  their  own  ands, 

s"ich  people  as  the;,  areofnousetous;  on  the  contrary,  very  injurious.     If  hey  were  traders,  I  should  be  pleased 

at  their  being  with  us.    They  are  not  those  in  our  towns  only,  who  have  stocks,  but  some  are  settled  out  thirty  or 

forty  miles    who  keep  cattle  and  horses;  and,  if  an  Indian  horse  or  colt  should  get  among  their  stocks,  they  brand 

him;  and  c  aim  him,  to  the  injury  of  the  owner.  ,  Some  pedlars  come,  also,  to  us    who  are  a  pest   as  they  steal 

■       more  than  they  purchase  of  our  horses.    If  we  had  merchant  traders,  who  would  set  down  with  us  and  trade  properly, 

^       I  should  be  pleased  ^vith  it;  such  men  would  be  a  valuable  acquisition  to  us,  as  hey  woud  supply  us  our  necessary 

i .      wants,  in  exchange  for  our  property.     Yo«,  the  commissioners,  have  told  me  that  we  sliall  be  properly  supplied  with 

Tods,  and  I  depend  on  their  promise;  such  men  as  come  properly  to  trade  with  us,  will  be  very  welcome  and  anv 

\       liing  we  have  is  at  their  service.    But  the  class  of  settlers  we  now  have  are  a  pest,  and  I  wish  they  would  go  with 

their  property  to  their  own  lands,  and  enjoy  it.". 

Commissioners.— Your  remarks  are  very  proper,  and  we  have  in  an  article  of  the  treaty,  provided  against  a 
repetition  of  the  abuse,  and  you  will  have  the  right  to  punish  these,  if  you  think  proper.  We  shall  send  the  treaty, 
an^  all  our  talks  witii  you,  to  Congress,  and  they  will  issue  a  proclamation,  warning  the  white  people  of  their  danger, 
and  this  will  be  by  some  person,  communicated  to  the  chiefs  of  all  tlie  Southern  tnbes.  When  you  return,  you 
may,  by  our  interpreter,  communicate  the  article  of  the  treaty  respecting  these  people,  that  they  may  see  their 

«'t»a'^'<^"-  /  ;,.  mh  of  January.- 

Present  as  yesterday.— Piomingo  addressed  the  commissioners  as  follows: 

The  people  I  complained  of  last  night,  I  imagine  will  not  pay  attention  to  what  I  say  respecting  their  removal; 
and  I  wish  tliat  Colonel  Martin  would  come  and  see  them  removed.  My  talk  is  a  short  one.  I  am  only  desirous 
that  Colonel  Martin  may  come  and  adjust  every  thing  between  the  red  people  and  white  people. 

The  Chickasaw  ciiiefs  had  also  informed  the  commissioners  that,  on  tiie  way  hither,  they  saw  two  companies  of 
Creeks  "oin^  to  Cumberland  to  plunder  the  citizens,  and,  very  probably,  to  get  some  scalps.     That  Piomingo  repre- 
sented to  them  the  injustice  of  the  act,  as  well  as  their  folly,  and  expressly  told  tliem  that  the  white  people  on  Cum- 
'  berland  and  their  property  were  equally  dear  to  him  with  his  own;  and  that,  although  the  Creeks  were  numerous, 
1  compared  \vith  the  Chickasaws,  yet,  if  tliey  continued  to  rob  and  plunder  on  his  lands,  his  own,  or  the  hunters  and 
traders  of  the  white  people,  he  would  take  such  steps  as  would  be  proper.  .     ,    ,. 

The  commissioners  then  distributed  presents  among  the  chiefs  and  Indians,  amounting,  includnig  the  goods  to 

purchase  provisions,  to dollars.    They  were  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  presents,  and  the  treatment  they 

met  and  expressed  their  gratitude  for  it,  and  prepared  to  set  out  to  their  own  nation.  In  the  evening  the  Cherokees 
gave  the  chief  a  proof  of  their  ingenuity  in  robbing  of  packs  as  well  as  stealing  horses.  Two  of  them  robbed  the 
chief  of  all  his  presents,  and  the  goods  given  to  purchase  provisions,  and  within  sight  of  the  Chickasaws.  The  com- 
missioners issued  a  proclamation,  ottering  a  reward  for  the  goods  and  the  robbers,  and  sent  runners  to  the  neighboring 
towns  to  proclaim  the  same,  as  well  as  to  call  on  the  chiefs  to  interpose  immediately,  and  apprehend  the  robbers, 
and  send  them  to  Hopewell  to  be  punished. 

15th  January. 

The  chief  of  Chetugoh,  with  three  young  men,  brought  the  goods,  and  informed  the  commissioners  that  they  had 
pursued  the  robbers,  and'  endeavored  to  apprehend  them,   but  could  not.     They  came  up  with  them,  and  fired  at 

The  commissioners  paid  the  reward,  and  told  the  chief  that  they  had  done  very  properly,  and  that,  in  future,  he 
should  be  noticed  for  his  attention  to  this  order,  and  prompt  execution  of  it. 

Gen.  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  in  continuation. 

The  report  of  the  23d  of  May,  1789,  on  the  treaties  at  fort  Hannar,  by  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Terri- 
tory and  the  paper  Number  1,  of  the  Indian  Department,  contain  such  a  general  statement  of  the  circumstances 
relative  to  the  Indian  tribes,  within  tlie  limits  of  the  United  States,  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  as  will  probably  render 
their  situation  sufficiently  understood.  ,1     r.i     ni- 

The  numbers  two,  three,  and  four,  comprehend  a  general  view  of  tlie  nations  soutli  of  the  Ohio. 

But  the  critical  situation  of  affairs  between  the  State  of  Georgia  and  the  Creek  nation,  requires  a  more  particular 
consideration.  In  discussing  this  subject,  it  will  appear  that  the  interest  of  all  the  Indian  nations  south  of  theOhio, 
as  far  as  the  same  may  relate  to  the  whites,  is  so  blended  together  as  to  render  tiie  circumstance  highly  probable, 
that,incaseofawar,  they  may  make  it  one  common  cause.        .,    ^     ,^,        ,     ^,  ^     r  .•      ^        r 

Although  each  nation  or  tribe  may  have  latent  causes  of  liatred  to  each  other,  on  account  of  disputes  of 
boundaries^  and  game,  yet  when  they  sliail  be  impressed  witii  the  idea  that  their  lives  and  lands  are  at  hazard,  all 
inferior  disputes^vill  be  accommodated,  and  an  union  as  firm  as  the  six  Northern  nations  may  be  formed  by  the 

Their  situation,  entirely  surrounded  on  all  sides,  leads  naturally  to  such  an  union,  and  the  present  difficulties  of 
the  Creeks  and  Cherokees  may  accelerate  and  complete  it.  Already  the  Cherokees  have  taken  refuge  from  the 
violence  of  the  frontier  people  of  North  Carolina  within  the  limits  of  the  Creeks,  and  it  may  not  be  difficult  for  a 
man  of  Mr  McGillivray's  abilities  to  convince  the  Choctavvs  and  Chickasaws  that  their  remote  situation  is  their 
only  present  protection;  that  the  time  must  shortly  arrive  when  their  troubles  will  commence. 

In  addition  to  these  causes,  impelling  to  a  general  confederacy,  there  is  another,  of  considerable  importance — the 
policy  of  tiie  Spaniards.  The  jealousy  that  Power  entertains  of  the  extension  of  the  United  States,  would  lead  them 
into  considerable  expense  to  build  up,  if  possible,  an  impassable  barrier.  They  will,  therefore,  endeavor  to  form 
and  cement  such  an  union  of  the  Southern  Indians.       ^      ^    ^         .    ^  ^u    n      i      •    ^u  •    i      .•  ,        ai 

Mr.  McGillivray  has  stated  that  Spain  is  bound  by  treaty  to  protect  the  Creeks  in  their  hunting  grounds.  Al- 
though it  may  be  prudent  to  doubt  this  assertion  for  the  present,  yet  it  is  certain  that  Spain  actually  claims  a  consi- 
derable part  of  the  territory  ceded  by  Great  Britain  to  the  United  States.        ,       ,         ,  .       ,    ^      , 

These  circumstances  require  due  weight  in  deliberating  oji  the  measures  to  be  adopted  respecting  the  Creeks. 

Although  the  case  of  the  Creeks  will  be  a  subject  of  legislative  discussion  and  decision,  it  may  be  supposed  that, 
after  due  consideration,  they  will,  in  substance,  adopt  one  or  the  other  of  the  following  alternatives,  to  wit: 

1.  That  the  national  dignity  and  justice  require  that  the  arms  of  the  Union  should  be  called  forth  in  order  to 
chastise  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  for  refusing  to  treat  with  the  United  States  on  reasonable  terms,  aad  for  their 
hostile  invasion  of  the  State  of  Georgia;  or,    ,^  .     ,  ^     ^       ,       .  ,,,,,■,, 

2.  That  it  appears  to  tlie  Congress  of  the  United  States  that  it  would  be  highly  expedient  to  attempt  to  quiet 
the  ho-til.ties  between  the  State  of  Georgia  and  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  by  an  amicable  negotiation,  and  for 
that  pur'>a«e  there  be  a  bill  brought  in  to  authorize  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  appoint  thlee  commissioners 
to  repair'  to  the  State  of  Georgia,  in  order  to  conclude  a  peace  with  the  said  Creek  nation  and  other  nations  of  Indians 
to  the  southward  of  the  Ohio,' within  the  limits  of  the  United  States. 

Supposing  that  any  measure  similar  to  either  of  the  said  alternatives  should  be  adopted,  it  may  be  proper  to 
examineintotheinanner  which  they  are  to  be  executed.  ■„    rxu    tt  •.    ,  ox  x  jx       i 

The  most  effectual  mode  of  reducing  the  Creeks  to  submit  to  the  will  of  the  United  States,  and  to  acknowledge 
the  validity  of  the  treaties  stated  to  have  been  made  by  that  nation  with  Georgia,  would  be  by  an  adequate  ainny, 
to  be  raised  and  continued  until  the  ofyects  of  the  war  should  be  accomplished. 

When  the  force  of  the  Creeks  is  estimated,  and  the  probable  combinations  they  might  make  with  the  other  Indian 
nations,  the  army  ought  not  to  be  calculated  at  less  than  5,000  men.    This  number,  on  paper,  would  not,  probably, 


afford,  at  the  best,  more  than  3.500  effectives.  The  delays  and  contingencies  inseparable  from  the  preparations  and 
operations  of  an  army,  would  probably  render  its  duration  necessary  for  the  term  of  two  years.  An  operating  army 
of  the  above  description,  including  all  expenses,  could  not  be  calculated  at  less  than  one  million  five  hundred  thou- 
sand dollars  annually. 

A  less  army  than  the  one  herein  proposed,  would  probably  be  utterly  inadequate  to  the  object,  an  useless 
expense,  and  disgraceful  to  the  nation. 

In  case  the  second  alternative  should  be  agreed  upon,  the  negotiation  should  be  conducted  by  three  commission- 
ers, with  an  adequate  compensation  for  the  trouble  of  the  business,  as  an  inducement  for  proper  persons  to  accept 
the  trust. 

The  commissioners  should  be  invested  with  full  powers  to  decide  all  differences  respecting  boundaries,  between 
the  State  of  Georgia  and  the  Creek  Indians,  unconstrained  by  treaties  said  to  exist  between  the  said  parties,  other- 
wise tiian  the  same  may  be  reciprocally  acknowledged. 

The  commissioners  also  should  be  invested  with  powers  to  examine  into  the  case  of  the  Cherokees,  and  to  renew 
with  them  the  treaty  made  at  Hopewell  in  November  1785,  and  report  to  the  President  such  measures  as  shall  be 
necessary  to  protect  the  said  Cherokees  in  their  former  boundaries. 

But  all  treaties  with  the  Indian  nations,  however  equal  and  just  they  may  be  in  their  principles,  will  not  only 
be  nugatory  but  humiliating  to  the  sovereign,  unless  they  shall  be  guarantied  by  a  body  of  troops. 

The  angry  passions  of  the  frontier  Indians  and  whites,  are  too  easily  inflamed  by  reciprocal  injuries,  and  are  too 
violent  to  be  controlled  by  the  feeble  authority  of  the  civil  power. 

There  can  be  neither  justice  or  observance  of  treaties,  where  every  man  claims  to  be  the  sole  judge  in  his  own 
cause,  and  the  avenger  of  h's  own  supposed  wrongs. 

In  such  a  case,  the  sword  of  the  republic  only,  is  adequate  to  guard  a  due  administration  of  justice,  and  the  pre- 
servation of  the  peace. 

In  case,  therefore,  of  the  commissioners  concluding  a  treaty,  the  boundaries  between  the  whites  and  Indians  must 
be  protected  by  a  body  of  at  least  five  hundred  troops. 

The  post  which  they  should  occupy  should  be  without  the  limits  or  jurisdiction  of  any  individual  State,  and 
within  the  territory  assigned  to  the  Indians,  for  which  particular  provision  should  be  made  in  the  treaties. 

All  offences  committed  by  individuals,  contrary  to  the  treaties,  should  be  tried  by  a  court  martial,  agreeably  to  a 
law  to  be  made  for  that  purpose. 

By  this  arrangement,  tiie  operation  of  which  will  soon  be  understood,  the  Indians  would  be  convinced  of  the  jus- 
tice and  good  intentions  of  the  United  States,  and  they  would  soon  learn  to  venerate  and  obey  that  power  from 
■whom  they  derived  security  against  the  avarice  and  injustice  of  lawless  frontier  people. 

Hence  it  will  appear,  that  troops  will  be  necessary  in  either  alternative — an  army  in  case  of  an  adoption  of  the 
first;  and,  after  all  the  success  that  could  reasonably  be  expected,  by  means  thereof,  a  corps  to  be  continued  and 
stationed  on  the  frontiers,  of  five  hundred  men.  In  ca»e  of  the  adoption  of  the  second,  the  corps  of  five  hundred  only 
will  be  wanted,  provided  proper  treaties  can  be  effected. 

But,  in  any  event  of  troops,  the  subject  must  necessarily  be  considered  and  determined  by  Congress. 
The  disgraceful  violation  of  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  with  the  Cherokees,  requires  the  serious  consideration  of 
Congress.  If  so  direct  and  manifest  contempt  of  the  authority  of  the  United  States  be  suft'ered  with  impunity,  it 
will  be  in  vain  to  attempt  to  extend  the  arm  of  Government  to  the  frontiers.  The  Indian  tribes  can  have  no  faith  in 
such  imbecile  promises,  and  the  lawless  wlutes  will  ridicule  a  government  which  shall,  on  paper  only,  make  Indian 
treaties,  and  regulate  Indian  boundaries. 

The  policy  of  extending  trade,  under  certain  regulations,  to  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws,  under  the  protection 
of  military  posts,  will  also  be  a  subject  of  Legislative  deliberation. 

The  following  observations,  resulting  from  a  general  view  of  the  Indian  department,  are  suggested  with  the  hope, 
that  some  of  them  might  be  considered  as  proper  principles  to  be  interwoven  in  a  general  system,  for  the  government 
of  Indian  affairs. 

It  would  reflect  honor  on  the  new  Government,  and  be  attended  with  happy  effects,  were  a  declarative  law  to  be 
passed,  that  the  Indian  tribes  possess  the  right  of  the  soil  of  all  lands  within  their  limits,  respectively,  and  that  they 
are  not  to  be  divested  thereof,  but  in  ccmsequencc  of  fair  and  bona  fide  purchases,  made  under  the  authority,  or 
with  the  express  approbation,  of  the  United  States. 

As  the  great  source  of  all  Indian  wars  arc  disputes  about  their  boundaries,  and  as  the  United  States  are,  from  the 
nature  of  the  government,  liable  to  be  involved  in  evei^  war  that  shall  happen  on  this  or  any  other  account,  it  is 
highly  proper  that  their  authority  and  consent  should  be  considered  as  essentially  necessary  to  all  measures  for  the 
consequences  of  which  they  are  responsible. 

No  individual  State  could,  with  propriety,  complain  of  invasion  of  its  territorial  rights.  The  independent  nations 
and  tribes  of  Indians  ought  to  be  considered  as  foreign  nations,  not  as  the  subjects  ot  any  particular  State.  Each 
individualState,  indeed,  will  retain  the  right  of  pre-emption  of  all  lands  within  its  limits,  which  will  not  be  abridged; 
but  the  general  sovereignty  nmst  possess  the  right  ot  making  all  treaties,  on  the  execution  or  violation  of  which 
depend  peace  or  war. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  conduct  of  some  of  the  late  British  colonies,  in  their  separate  capacities  toward  the 
Indians,  yet  the  same  cannot  be  charged  against  the  national  character  of  the  United  States. 

It  is  only  since  they  possess  the  powers  of  sovereignty,  that  they  are  responsible  for  their  conduct. 
But.  in  future,  the  obligations  of  policy,  humanity,  and  justice,  together  vyith  that  respect  which  every  nation 
sacredly  owes  to  its  own  reputation,  unite  in  requiring  a  noble,  liberal,  and  disinterested  administration  of  Indian 

Altliough  the  disposition  of  the  people  of  the  States,  to  emigrate  into  the  Indian  country,  cannot  be  effectually 
prevented,  it  may  be  restrained  and  regulated. 

It  may  be  restrained,  by  postponing  new  purchases  of  Indian  territory,  and  by  prohibiting  the  citizens  from 
intruding  on  the  Indian  lands. 

It  may  be  regulated,  by  forming  colonies,  under  the  direction  of  Government,  and  by  posting  a  body  of  troops  to 
execute  their  orders. 

As  population  shall  increase,  and  approach  the  Indian  boundaries,  game  will  be  diminished,  and  new  purchases 

may  be  made  for  small  considerations.    This  has  been,  and  probably  will  oe,  the  inevitable  consequence  of  cultivaticm. 

It  is,  however,  painful  to  consider,  that  all  the  Indian  tribes,  once  existing  in  those  States  now  the  best  cultivated 

and  most  populous,  have  become  extinct.     If  the  same  causes  continucj  the  same  effects  will  happen;  and,  in  a  short 

period,  the  idea  of  an  Indian  on  this  side  the  Mississippi  will  only  be  lound  in  the  page  of  the  historian. 

How  different  would  be  the  sensation  of  a  philosopnic  mind  to  reflect,  that,  instead  of  exterminating  a  part  of  the 
human  race  by  our  modes  of  population,  we  had  persevered,  through  all  difiiculties,  and  at  last  had  imparted 
our  knowledge  of  cultivation  and  the  arts  to  the  aboriginals  of  the  country,  by  which  the  source  of  future  life  and 
happiness  had  been  preserved  and  extended.  But  it  has  been  conceived  to  be  impracticable  to  civilize  the  Indians 
of  North  America.    This  opinion  is  probably  more  convenient  than  just. 

That  the  civilization  of  the  Indians  would  be  an  operation  ot  complicated  difficulty;  that  it  would  require  the 
highest  knowledge  of  the  human  character,  and  a  steady  perseverance  m  a  wise  system  for  a  series  of  years,  cannot 
be  doubted.  But  to  deny  that,  under  a  course  of  favorable  circumstances,  it  could  not  be  accomplished,  is  to  sup- 
pose the  human  character  under  the  influence  of  such  stubborn  habits  as  to  be  incapable  of  melioration  or  change — a 
supposition  entirely  contradicted  by  the  progress  of  society,  from  the  barbarous  ages  to  its  present  degree  of  perfection. 
vVhile  it  is  contended  that  the  object  is  practicable,  under  a  proper  system,  it  is  admitted,  in  the  fullest  force,  to 
be  impracticable,  according  to  the  ordinary  course  of  things,  ami  that  it  could  not  be  effected  in  a  short  period. 

Were  it  possible  to  introduce  among  the  Indian  tribes  a  love  for  exclusive  property,  it  would  be  a  nappy  com- 
mencement of  the  business. 

8  •  ^  V- 

54  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789, 

This  might  be  brought  about  by  making  presents,  from  time  to  time,  to  the  chiefs  or  their  wives,  of  sheep  and 
other  domestic  animals;  and  it,  in  the  first  instance,  persons  were  appointed  to  take  charge,  and  teach  the  use  of  them, 
a  considerable  part  ot  the  difficulty  would  be  surmounted. 

In  the  administration  of  the  Indians,  every  proper  expedient  that  can  be  devised  to  gain  their  affections,  and  attach 
them  to  the  interest  of  the  Union,  should  be  adopted.  The  British  Government  had  the  practice  of  making  the 
Indians  presents  of  silver  medals  and  gorgets,  uniform  clothing,  and  a  sort  of  military  commission.  The  possessors 
retained  an  exclusive  property  to  these  articles;  and  the  Southern  Indians  are  exceedingly  desirous  of^ receiving 
similar  gifts  from  the  United  States,  for  which  they  would  willingly  resign  those  received  from  the  British  officers. 
The  policy  of  gratifying  them  cannot  be  doubtctl. 

Missionaries,  of  excellent  moral  character,  should  be  appointed  to  reside  in  their  nation,  who  should  be  well  sup- 
plied with  all  the  implements  of  husbandry,  and  the  necessary  stock  for  a  farm. 

These  men  should  be  made  the  instruments  to  work  on  the  Indians;  presents  should  commonly  pass  through  their 
hands,  or  by  their  recommendations.  They  should,  in  no  degree,  be  concerned  in  trade,  or  the  purchase  of  lands, 
to  rouse  the  jealousy  of  the  Indians.    They  should  be  their  friends  and  fathers. 

Such  a  plan,  although  it  might  not  fully  effect  the  civilization  of  the  Indians,  would  most  probably  be  attended 
with  the  salutary  effect  of  attaching  them  to  the  interest  of  the  United  States. 

It  is  particularly  important  that  something  of  this  nature  should  be  attempted  with  the  Southern  nations  of  Indians, 
M'hose  confined  situation  might  render  them  proper  subjects  for  the  experiment. 

The  expense  of  such  a  conciliatory  system  may  be  considered  as  a  sufficient  reason  for  rejecting  it; 

But,  when  this  shall  be  compared  with  a  system  of  coercion,  it  would  be  found  the  highest  economy  to  adopt  it. 

The  commanding  officers  of  the  troops  on  the  frontiers  of  the  Southern  and  Northern  districts,  as  they  possess  the 
sword,  should  be  the  Indian  agents,  and  for  which  they  should  have  a  consideration. 

Every  article  given  to  the  Indians  should  be  accounted  for,  and  witnessed  by  two  commissioned  officers. 

The  commanding  officer  should  not  receive  any  presents  from  the  Indians,  but,  in  every  respect,  conduct  towards 
them  in  the  most  friendly  and  just  manner. 

All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States.  H.  KNOX. 

War  Office,  ,/w/?/ 7,  1789.  , 

1st  Congress.]  "  '    ■     '     '  AJq^  3_  [1st  Session. 


COMMUNICATED   TO  THE    SENATE    AUGUST    12,    1789. 

The  committee  to  whom  was  referred  the  message  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  of  the  25th  of  May,  1789, 
with  the  Indian  treaties,  and  papers  accompanying  the  same,  report: 

That  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory,  on  the  9th  day  of  January,  1789,  at  fort  Harmar,  entered  into 
two  treaties;  one  with  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Six  Nations,  the  Mohawks  excepted,  the  other  with  the 
sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  Chippewa,  Pattawatima,  and  Sac  Nations;  that  those 
treaties  were  made  in  pursuance  of  the  powers  and  instructions  heretofore  given  to  the  said  Governor  by  the  late 
Congress,  and  are  a  confirmation  of  the  treaties  of  fort  Stanvvix,  in  October,  1784,  and  of  fort  Mcintosh,  in  January, 
1785,  and  contain  a  more  formal  and  regular  conveyance  to  the  United  States,  of  the  Indian  claims  to  the  lands 
yielded  to  these  States  by  the  said  treaties  of  1784  and  1785. 

Your  committee,  therefore,  submit  the  following  resolution,  to  wit: 

That  the  treaties  concluded  at  fort  Harmar,  on  the  9th  day  of  January,  1789,  between  Arthur  St  Clair,  Esq. 
Governor  of  the  Western  territory,  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Six 
Nations,  (the  Mohawks  excepted)  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  Ottawa,  Chippewa, 
Pattawatima,  and  Sac  Nations,  be  accepted,  and  that  the  President  of  the  United  States  be  advised  to  execute  and 
enjoin  an  observance  of  the  same. 

1st  Congress.]  J^O^    4        '  [1st  Session. 


COMMUNICATED   TO   THE    SENATE    AUGUST   22,    1789. 

The  President  of  the  United  States  came  into  the  Senate  Chamber,  attended  by  General  Knox,  and  laid  be- 
fore the  Senate  the  following  statement  of  facts,  with  the  questions  thereto  annexed,  for  their  advice  and  con- 

To  conciliate  the  powerful  tribes  of  Indians  in  the  Southern  district,  amounting  probably  to  fourteen  thousand 
fighting  men,  and  to  attach  them  firmly  to  the  United  States,  may  be  regarded  as  highly  worthy  of  the  serious  atten- 
tion of  Government. 

The  measure  includes,  not  only  peace  and  security  to  the  whole  southern  frontier,  but  is  calculated  to  form  a 
barrier  against  the  colonies  of  an  European  Power,  which,  in  the  mutations  of  policy,  may  one  day  become  the  ene- 
my of  the  United  States.  The  fate  of  the  Southern  States,  therefore,  or  the  neighboring  colonies,  may  principally 
depend  on  the  present  measures  of  the  Union  towards  the  Southern  Indians. 

By  the  papers  which  have  been  laid  before  the  Senate,  it  will  appear,  that,  in  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1 785,  and 
the  beginning  of  1786,  treaties  were  formed  by  the  United  States  with  the  Cherokees,  the  Chickasaws,  and  Choctaws. 
The  report  of  the  commissioners  will  show  the  reasons  why  a  treaty  was  not  formed  at  the  same  time  with  the 

It  will  also  appear  by  the  papers,  that  the  States  of  North  Carolina  and  Georgia  protested  against  said  treaties, 
as  infringing  their  legislative  rights,  and  being  contrary  to  the  confederation.  It  will  further  appear  by  the  said 
papers,  tnat  the  treaty  with  the  Cherokees  has  been  entirely  violated  by  the  disorderly  white  people  on  the  frontiers 
of  North  Carolina. 

1789.]  THE   SOUTHERN   TRIBES.  55 

The  opinion  of  the  late  Congress  respecting  the  said  violation,  will  sufficiently  appear  by  the  proclamation  which 
they  caused  to  be  issued  on  the  first  of  September,  1788. 

By  the  public  newspapers  it  appears,  that,  on  the  16th  of  June  last,  a  truce  was  concluded  with  the  Cherokees, 
by  Mr.  John  Steele,  on  behalf  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  in  which  it  was  stipulated  that  a  treaty  should  be  held 
as  soon  as  possible,  and  that,  in  the  mean  time,  all  hostilities  should  cease  on  either  side. 

As  the  Cherokees  reside  principally  within  the  territory  claimed  by  North  Carolina,  and  as  that  State  is  not  a 
member  of  the  present  Union,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  any  efficient  measures  in  favor  of  the  Cherokees  could  be 
immediately  adopted  by  the  General  Government. 

The  commissioners  tor  negotiating  with  the  Southern  Indians  may  be  instructed  to  transmit  a  message  to  the 
Cherokees,  stating  to  them,  as  far  as  may  be  proper,  the  difficulties  arising  from  the  local  claims  of  North  Carolina, 
and  to  assure  them  that  the  United  States  are  not  unmindfiil  of  the  treaty  at  Hopewell;  and  as  soon  as  the  difficulties 
which  are  at  present  opposed  to  the  measure,  shall  be  removed,  the  Government  will  do  full  justice  to  the  Cherokees. 

The  distance  of  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws  from  the  frontier  settlements,  seem  to  have  prevented  these  tribes  * 
from  being  involved  in  similar  difficulties  with  the  Cherokees. 

The  commissioners  may  be  inslriicted  to  transmit  messages  to  the  said  tribes,  containing  assurances  of  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  friendship  of  the  United  States,  and  that  measures  will  soon  be  taken  for  extending  a  trade  to  them 
agreeably  to  the  treaties  of  Hopewell. 

The  commissioners  may  also  be  directed  to' report  a  plan  for  tbe  execution  of  the  said  treaties  respecting  trade. 

But  the  case  of  the  Creek  nation  is  of  the  highest  importance,  and  requires  an  immediate  decision.    The  cause 

of  the  hostilities  between  Georgia  and  the  Creeks,  is  stated  to  be  a  ditter.Mce  in  judgment  concernitig  three  treaties 

made  between  the  said  parties,  to  wit;  at  Augusta,  in  1783;  at  GalphintJii,  in  1785;  and  at  Shoulderbone,  in  1786. 

The  State  of  Georgia  assert,  and  the  Creeks  deny,  the  validity  of  the  said  treaties. 

Hence  arises  the  indispensable  necessity  of  having  all  the  circumstances  respecting  the  said  treaties  critically  in-' 
vestigated  by  commissioners  of  the  United  States,  so  that  the  further  measures  of  Government  may  be  formed  on 
a  full  knowledge  of  the  case. 

In  order  that  the  investigation  be  conducted  with  the  highest  impartiality,  it  will  be  proper,  in  addition  to  the 
evidence  of  the  documents  in  the  public  possession,  tliat  Georgia  should  be  represented  at  this  part  of  the  proposed 
treaty  with  the  Creek  nation. 

It  is,  however,  to  be  observed,  in  any  issue  of  the  inquiry,  that  it  would  be  highly  embarrassing  to  Georgia  to  re- 
linquish that  part  of  the  lands,  stated  to  have  been  ceded  by  tiie  Creeks,  lying  between  the  Ogeeche  ancf  Oconee 
rivers,  that  State  having  surveyed  and  divided  the  same  among  certain  descriptions  of  its  citizens,  who  settled  and 
planted  thereon  until  dispossessed  by  the  Indians. 

In  case,  therefore,  the  issue  of  the  investigation  should  be  unfavorable  to  the  claims  of  Georgia,  the  commission- 
ers should  be  instructed  to  use  their  best  endeavors  to  negotiate  with  the  Creeks  a  solemn  conveyance  of  the  said 
lands  to  Georgia. 

By  the  report  of  the  commissioners,  who  were  appointed,  under  certain  acts  of  the  late  Congress,  by  South  Ca- 
rolina and  Georgia,  it  apneais  that  they  have  agreed  to  meet  the  Creeks  on  the  15th  of  September  ensuing.  As  it  is 
with  great  difficulty  the  Indians  are  collected  together  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year,  it  is  important  that  the  above 
occasion  should  be  embraced,  if  piissible,  on  the  part  of  the  present  Government,  to  form  a  treaty  with  the  Creeks. 
As  the  proposed  treaty  is  of  great  importance  to  the  future  tranquillity  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  as  well  as  of  the 
United  States,  it  has  been  thought  proper  that  it  slioiild  be  conducted,  on  the  part  of  the  General  Government,  by 
commissioners  whose  local  situations  inav  free  them  liom  the  imputation  of  prejudice  on  this  subject. 

As  it  is  necessary  that  certain  principles  should  be  fixed  previously  to  forming  instructions  for  the  commissioners, 
the  following  questions,  arising  out  of  the  foregoing  communications,  are  stated  by  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  and  the  advice  of  the  Senate  requested  thereon: 

1st.  In  the  present  state  of  affiiirs  between  North  Carolina  and  the  United  States,  will  it  be  proper  to  take  any 
other  measures  for  redressing  the  injuries  of  the  Cherokees,  than  the  one  herein  suggested.^ 

2d.  Shall  the  commissioners  be  instructed  to  pursue  any  other  measures  respecting  the  Chickasaws  and  Choc- 
taws than  those  herein  suggested? 

3d.  If  the  commissioners  shall  adjudge  that  the  Creek  nation  was  fully  represented  at  the  three  treaties  with 
Georgia,  and  that  the  cessions  of  land  were  obtained  with  the  full  understanding  and  free  consent  of  the  acknow- 
ledged proprietors,  and  that  the  said  treaties  ought  to  be  considered  as  just  and  equit-able:  in  this  case  shall  the  Com- 
missioners be  instructed  to  insist  on  a  formal  renewal  and  confirmation  thereof?  And.  in  case  of  a  refusal,  shall 
they  be  instructed  to  inform  the  Creeks  that  the  arms  of  tlie  Union  shall  be  employed  to  compel  them  to  acknow- 
ledge the  justice  of  the  said  cessions? 

4th.  But,  if  the  commissioners  shall  adjudge  that  the  said  treaties  were  formed  with  an  inadequate,  or  unautho- 
rized representation  of  the  Creek  nation;  or  that  the  treaties  «ere  held  under  circumstances  of  constraint  or  un- 
fairness of  any  sort,  so  that  the  United  States  could  tK)t,  with  justice  and  dignity,  request,  or  urge,  a  confirmation 
thereof:  in  this  case,  shall  the  Conmissioners,  considering  the  importance  of  the  Oconee  lands  to  Georgia,  be  instruct- 
ed to  use  their  highest  exertions  to  obtain  a  cession  of  said  lands?  If  so,  shall  the  Commissioners  be  instructed  if 
they  cannot  obtain  the  said  cessions  on  better  terms,  to  offer  for  the  same,  and  for  the  further  great  object  of  attach- 
ing the  Creeks  to  the  Governmetit  o(  the  United  States,  the  followiii<;  conditions: 

1st.  A  compensation  in  money  or  goods  to  the  aniiiunt  of dollars,   the  said  amount  to  be  stipulated  to  be  '' 

paid  by  Georgia,  at  the  period  which  shall  be  fixed,  or  in  (ailure  thereof,  by  the  United  States. 

2d.  A  secure  port  on  the  Altamaha,  or  St.  Mary's  rivers,  or  at  any  other  place  between  the  same,  as  may  be 
mutually  agreed  to  by  the  commissioners  and  the  Creeks. 

3d.  Certain  pecuniary  considerations  to  some,  and  honorary  military  distinctions  to  other  influential  chiefs    on 
their  taking  oaths  of  allegiance  to  the  United  States.  ' 

4th.  A  solemn  guarantee,  by  the  United  States,  to  the  Creeks,  of  their  remaining  territory,  and  to  maintain  the  • ' 
same,  if  necessary,  by  a  line  of  military  posts. 

5th.  But,  if  all  otters  should  fail  to  induce  the  Creeks  to  make  the  desired  cessions  to  Georgia,  shall  the  commis- 
sioners make  it  an  ultimatum? 

6th.  If  the  said  cessions  shall  not  be  made  an  ultimatum,  shall  the  commissioners  proceed  and  make  a  treaty 
and  include  the  disputed  lands  within  the  limits  which  shall  be  assigned  to  the  Creeks?  If  not,  shall  a  temporary 
boundary  be  marked,  making  the  Oconee  the  line,  and  the  other  parts  of  the  treaty  be  concluded.^ 

In  this  case,  shall  a  secure  port  be  stipulated,  and  the  pecuniary  and  honorary  considerations  granted? 
In  other  general  objects,  shall  the  treaties  formed  at  Hopewell,  with  the  Cherokees,  Chickasaws,  and  Choctaws 
be  the  basis  of  a  treaty  with  the  Creeks?  ' 

7th.  Shall  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars,  appropriated  to  Indian  expenses  and  treaties,  be  wholly  applied 
if  necessary,  to  a  treaty  with  the  Creeks?    If  not,  what  proportion?  ' 

„  Richmond,  Jiugust  5th,  1789. 


Two  chiefs  of  the  Cherokee  nation  of  Indians  airived  here  a  few  days  ago,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Bennet 
Ballew,  who  has  full  powers  from  a  number  of  towns,  to  lay  before  you  their  grievances,  and  to  make  some  pro- 
posals, which  may  eventually  preseiTe  harmony  between  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  the  Indians,  and 
perhaps  be  productive  of  considerable  advantages  to  both  parties.  It  is  at  the  particular  request  of  these  unfortunate 
people,  that  I  introduce  them  to  you.  They  appear  to  me  to  have  been  much  oppressed;  should  you  view  them  in 
this  light,  your  well  known  regard  to  public,  as  well  as  private  justice,  will  ensure  to  them  every  exertion  of  your 

56  '  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1789. 


power  in  their  behalf.     I  am  unacquainted  with  Mr.  Ballew,  but  I  think  I  owe  it  to  him  to  inform  you,  that  he  is 

^tronMy  recommended  to  me  by  the  honorable  William  Fleming,  as  an  honest,  upright,  intelligent 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  the  highest  respect, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

To  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

To  the  President  of  the  United  Slates  of  America. 

The  memorial  of  Bennet  Ballew,  agent  plenipotentiary  from  the  chiefs  and  head  warriors  of  the  Cherokee  nation, 
resident  and  living  in  the  towns  of  Chotii,  Toquoh,  Cotties,  Little  Telliquo,  Timotly,  Nioh  or  the  Tassel's  town, 
Coettee,  Chilhowah,  Tallassee,  Big  Tilliquo,  Big  Highwassa,  Cheestowa,  Eastanolee,  Chatanuga,  Chickamaugah, 
Stickoee,  Ottilletaraconohali,  Cafatogah,  Nicogachee,  Tuskeegah,  and  Cheesoheeha,  lying  on  and  being  on  the 
great  rivers  Tenasee,  Telliquo,  Highwassa,  Ammoah,  &c.  respectfully  sheweth: 

That  your  memorialist,  sensible  of  your  past  exertions,  and  pleased  with  the  thoughts  of  your  continued  efforts, 
for  the  welfare  and  happiness  of  tlie  United  States  in  particular,  and  of  mankind  in  general,  and  that  nothing  which 
concerns  them  will  be  thought  beneath  your  attention;  your  memorialist  is  encouraged  to  lay  before  you  a  brief 
account  of  the  present  unhappy  and  distressed  situation  of  the  Cherokee  Indians,  notwithstanding  his  want  of 
abilities  to  do  justice  to  a  cause  of  such  difficulty  and  importance.  From  his  long  residence  among  them,  and  other 
Indian  nations,  on  the  southwestern  frontiers  of  tlie  United  States,  he  hadi  in  some  measure  become  acquainted 
with  their  language,  manners,  and  politics;  and  more  particulariy,  with  their  hardships  and  sufferings,  from  the 
tarighteous  and  cruel  war  lately  waged  against  them.  Your  memorialist,  being  importuned  by  the  distressed  chiefs 
of  the  nation,  to  lay  their  grievances  before  the  beloved  President  of  the  United  States,  and  solicit  redress,  being 
deeply  impressed  with  compassion  for  their  sufferings,  and  impelled  by  the  apparent  advantages  that  must  accrue  to 
the  United  States,  should  a  firm  and  lasting  peace  and  union  be  effected,  he  was,  from  these  considerations,  induced 
to  undertake  the  arduous  though  pleasing  task,  relying  chiefly  on  the  providential  influence  of  the  Supreme  Ruler  of 
the  Universe;  on  the  justice  and  energy  of  the  Federal  Government;  and  on  the  magnanimity  and  benevolence  of  its 
first  magistrate,  for  success  in  his  feeble,  though  earnest  endeavors,  to  rescue  a  nation  from  the  deepest  imaginable 
distress,  and  to  make  them  a  prosperous  and  a  happy  people. 

They  thought  that  they  had  a  well  grounded  hope,  that  they  might  quietly  and  peaceably  have  enjoyed  all  their 
/    lands  within  the  boundary  lines  established  by  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  in  the  year  1785;  but,  to  their  great  morti- 
fication and  distress,  the  white  people,  chiefly  from  North  Carolina,  have  made  daily  encroachments  upon  them: 
and  there  are  now  upwards  of  three  thousand  families  settled  within  those  bounilary  lines.    After  receiving  reiterated 
i     insults  and  injuries  from  some  of  those  settlers,  a  few  of  the  young  warriors  killed  a  family  of  white  people  within 
\   those  boundaries,  and  soon  after,  the  nation  in  general  experienced  tlie  most  dreadful  calamities  that  refined  cruelty 
■   could  devise,  or  the  vindictive  arm  of  vengeance  inflict.    Their  flourishing  fields  of  corn  and  pulse  were  destroyed 
and  laid  Avaste;  some  of  their  wives  and  children  were  burnt  alive  in  their  town  houses,  with  the  most  unrelenting 
barbarity;  and  to  fill  up  the  measure  of  deception  and  cruelty,  some  of  their  chiefs,  who  were  ever  disposed  to  peace 
with  the  white  people,  were  decoyed,  unarmed,  into  their  camp,  by  the  hoisting  a  white  flag,  and  by  repeated  decla- 
rations of  friendship  and  kindness,  and  there  massacred  in  cold  blood.    Among  these,  were  the  old  Tassel  and  his 
son,  who  were  characterised  by  their  kind  offices  to  the  white  people,  and  veneration  for  the  American  flag,  inso- 
much that,  for  many  years,  it  was  constantly  flying  at  their  door. 

When  your  memorialist  came  to  French  Broad  river,  in  January  last,  he  found  that  part  of  the  countrv  in  great 
confusion,  and  the  war  carried  on  with  all  its  horrors,  between  a  party  of  the  North  Carolinians  and  the  Cherokees; 
the  former,  as  it  would  appear,  were  determined  to  extirpate  the  Indians,  and  to  claim  the  sole  property  in  their 
lands.  Many  prisoners  being  taken  on  both  sides,  and  an  exchange  being  earnestly  wished  for  by  the  Carolinians 
i  concerned,  they  chose  your  memorialist,  as  a  neutral  person,  and  one  who  was  formerly  acquainted  with  that  nation, 
\j  (having  lived  long  among  them  as  a  prisoner,  during  part  of  our  war  with  the  British)  to  bi-ing  about  the  exchange. 
Your  memorialist  cheerfully  undertook,  and  happily  effected  it,  although  strongly  opposed  by  Messrs.  Dromgoole 
and  Martin,  of  North  Carolina,  whose  scheme  was  apparently  to  draw  the  Indians  into  a  treaty,  with  a  view  to 
extort  their  lands  from  them,  though  expressly  contrary  to  a  proclamation  of  Congress. 

The  Carolinians,  to  give  a  color  to  the  war,  allege  that  the  Cherokees  broke  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  in  1785; 
but  this  the  Cherokees  positively  deny,  and  declare  tiiat  their  intention,  even  since  that  time,  has  uniformly  been 
to  preserve  peace  and  a  good  understanding  with  the  white  people;  and  which  they  earnestly  have  once 
more  restored:  and  after  engaging  your  memorialist  to  assist  them  with  his  best  endeavors,  as  far  as  is  consistent 
with  his,  duty  as  a  citizen  ot  the  tJnited  States,  they  in  a  grand  council  of  the  nation,  after  long  and  mature  delibe- 
ration, came  to  the  following  resolutions: 

"  1st.  That  we  will  immediately  treat  with  all  nations  with  whom  we  are  at  war,  and  procure  peace  and  recon- 
ciliation, if  possible."    Which  has  been  iiappily  effected. 

"  2d.  That  we  will  petition  Congress  to  obtain  a  mutual,  perfect,  and  strict  alliance  with  the  United  States,  and 
abide  by  their  instructions  in  all  matters  of  peace  and  war,  provided  they  secure  to  us  the  lands  of  our  forefathers, 
as  bounded  by  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  in  the  year  1785. 

"3d.  That  the  part  of  the  nation  lying  adjacent  to  the  French  Broad  and  Holston  rivers,  be  incorporated  with 
the  white  people,  and  become  subjects  of  the  United  States,  living  under  the  same  laws  with  them." 

These  resolves,  the  Cherokee  nation  most  ardently  wish  may  be,  by  your  memorialist,  (accompanied  by  two  of 
their  cliiefs,  Nontowakee  and  Kasohanse)  laid  before  you  sir,  as  chief  Magistrate  of  the  United  States,  and  through 
you,  communicated  to  tlie  Congress;  as  some  acts  of  the  Legislature  may  perhaps  be  necessary  to  carry  their  system 
mto  full  effect,  and  complete  their  wishes. 

If  your  memorialist  can  be,  but  in  a  small  degi-ee,  instrumental  in  obtaining  for  those  unfortunate  people,  and 
their  posterity,  the  inestimable  blessings  of  peace,  liberty,  and  safety,  he  will  feel  himself  one  of  the  happiest  of 

•"'^"''•'"*"  ■  BENNET  BALLEW. 

New  York,  22rf  August,  1789. 

We,  the  warriors,  chiefs,  and  representatives,  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  resident  and  living  in  the  following  towns 
of  Chota,  Toquoh,  Cettico,  Little  Telliquo,  Timotly,  Nioh  or  the  Tassel's  town,  Coettee,  Chilhowah,  Tallassee, 
Great  Telliquo,  Big  Highwassa,  Cheestowa,  Eastanora,  Chatanugah,  Chickamaugah,  Stickhoe,  Ottilletaraconahah, 
Catatogah,  Nicogachee,  Tuskeegah,  and  Cheesoheeha,  our  said  towns,  lying  and  being  on  the  great  nvers  of  Tenasee, 
Telliquo,  Highwassa,  Ammoah,  &c. 

We,  the  said  warriors,  representatives,  and  chiefs,  being  met  at  our  ancient  and  beloved  town  of  Chota  on  Tena- 
see, at  our  councd  fire,  having  considered  the  nature  and  circumstance  of  our  country  and  nation,  are  sorry  to  inform 
our  elder  brother.  General  Washington,  and  the  great  council  of  the  United  States,  that,  from  the  bad  conduct  of 
some  of  our  young  and  inconsiderate  men,  too  much  encouraged  by  bad  white  men,  who  too  often  frequent  our  nation 
under  pretensions  of  doing  us  good  service,  and  keeping  peace  between  us  and  our  elder  brothers,  the  Americans, 
have  darkened  our  land  with  war,  and  stained  our  white  chain  of  friendship  with  blood;  but  to  our  great  joy  the 
Great  Spirit  above  has  removed  the  cloud,  and  permits  the  sun  to  shine  again  in  friendship  upon  each  party,  though 
the  darkness  has  lasted  so  long  that  our  country  and  towns  have  been  spoded,  ourselves  become  naked,  and  suffer 
much  with  hunger. 

1789.]  THE  WABASH   TRIBES.  57 



We  now  make  known  to  the  great  Congress  of  America,  that  our  desire  and  intention  is  to  live  in  the  most 
perfect  and  strict  friendship  and  alliance  with  our  elder  brothers,  the  Americans;  tliat  we  shall  forever  listen  to,  and 
abide  by,  their  mstructions,  advice,  and  determination,  placing  the  strongest  confidence  that  the  great  council 
composed  ot  such  who  have  eyes  ot  pity  and  hearts  ot  humanity  and  compassion  ;  that  they  will  not  divest  us  of 
rights  and  possessions,  which  our  ancient  lathers  and  predecessors  have  enjoyed  time  out  of  mind. 

We  still  remember  and  abide  by  the  tre;ity  lield  with  your  commissioners  in  South  Carolina  in  the  year  1785; 
and  though  our  hunting  grounds  and  to\vns  north  ot  Tennessee  and  Holston  rivers  is  sold  unto  white  people  for  to 
settle  upon  wthout  our  consent,  we  still  hope  Congress  will  have  mercy  upon  us:  for  if  our  country  is  all  taken 
from  us,  we  shall  not  be  able  to  raise  our  children,  neither  is  tliere  any  place  left  for  us  to  remove  to 

We  rejoice  much  to  hear  that  the  great  Congress  have  got  new  powers,  and  have  become  strong.  '  We  now  hope 
that  whatever  is  done  hereafter  by  the  great  council  will  no  more  be  destroyed  and  made  small  by  any  State 

We  shall  always  be  ready  to  listen,  with  open  ears  and  willing  hearts,  to  you  or  any  one  joined  with  you,  and 
to  no  other,  tor  protection,  and  regulating  all  matters. 

We  beg  leave  to  make  it  known  to  your  great  and  beloved  council,  that  we  have  appointed  and  constituted  our 
beloved  brother,  Bennet  Ballew,  to  be  our  chief  and  representative  in  and  over  all  that  part  of  the  Cherokee  nation 
comprehending  the  towns  lying  on  the  aforesaid  rivers  Tenasee,  Highwassa,  Telliquo,  and  Ammoah,  and  all  lyin-^ 
north  and  nortiiwest  of  said  rivers  and  towns';  that  we  have  given  and  granted  unto  the  said  Bennet  Ballew  full 
powers  and  authonties  to  transact  and  negotiate  all  manner  of  things  in  aiiy  wise  touching,  appertaining,  or  relating 
to  the  aforesaid  towns  and  that  part  of  our  nation,  in  our  behalf,  and  in  our  name  and  stead,  in  the  same  manner  and 
form  as  though  we  were  personally  present  ourselves,  111  as  full  and  ample  manner,  to  all  intents  and  purposes;  and 
in  testimony  of  which  we  have  sent  our  great  and  beloved  warrior  and  chief,  the  Rising  Fawn  Keenuhteetah  of  Great 
Highwassa,  to  accompany  our  beloved  chief  and  representative,  Bennet  Ballew,  to  Congress,  then  and  there  to  make 
known  to  your  great  beloved  council  the  truth  and  sincerity  of  this  our  instrument  and  writing,  touching  the  pre- 
mises, and  to  do  whatever  the  said  Bennet  Ballew  may  think  for  the  good,  tranquillity,  and  safety  of  our  nation, 
trusting  that  the  great  council  and  elder  brothers  will  do  us  justice,  quiet  us  in  our  possessions,  particularly  our 
lands  lying  north  of  the  nver  iennessee  and  Holston;  it  is  our  hunting  grounds,  and  we  have  no  other  to  get  our 
living  on. 

Done  in  Council,  at  Chota,  the  19th  day  of  May,  1789. 
Signed  and  acknowledged  before  us. 

[  Here  are  added  the  signatures  of  twenty-four  Indians.  ] 

At  a  great  talk  held  by  the  warriors  and  chiefs  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  assembled  in  council  at  the  great  and  beloved 
town  of  Chota,  the  19th  day  of  May,  1789,  addressed  to  his  Excellency  the  President  of  the  United  States: 

■^  Great  Brother:  The  great  Being  above  has  directed  our  hearts  to  listen  to  the  talks  of  peace,  and  sorry  that 
ever  any  misunderstanding  arose  between  us  and  our  white  brothers.  Our  last  troubles  have  been  occasioned  by  our 
rash  inconsiderate  young  men,  who,  we  doubt,  have  been  too  much  encouraged  by  white  men  in  our  towns,  that 
pretend  you  have  sent  tliein  among  us  to  do  us  justice  and  to  direct  our  nation  how  to  manage. 

There  are  a  great  many  towns  of  us  that  live  on  Tennessee,  Higliwassee,  Telliquo,  and  Ammoah,  who  are  near 
neighbours  to  the  white  people,  and  we  wish  to  live  in  peace  with  them. 

We  hope  that  Congress  has  not  forgot  the  treatv  last  held  at  Hopewell,  South  Carolina.  We  intend  to  abide  by 
it,  and  hope  Congress  will  do  us  justice,  as  we  look  un  to  them  for  it,  and  intend  to  hear  their  good  talks,  and  also 
the  talks  of  all  them  that  are  joined  with  tiieni,  but  will  not  listen  to  any  otiiers. 

Brothku:  At  our  last  treaty,  held  in  South  Carolina,  we  gave  up  to  our  wiiite  brothers  all  the  land  we  could  any 
how  spare,  and  have  but  little  left  to  raise  our  women  and  children  unoii,  and  we  iiope  you  wont  let  any  people  take 
any  more  from  us  without  our  consent.  We  are  neither  birds  nor  fish;  we  can  neither  fly  in  the  air,  nor  live  under 
water;  therefore  we  hope  pity  will  be  extended  towards  us.  We  are  made  by  the  same  hand,  ami  in  same  shape 
with  yourselves. 

We  send  some  of  (mr  head-men  and  warriors  to  you  with  talk,  and  to  represent  the  case  and  circumstance  of  our 
nation;  and  we  hope  you  will  settle  matters  with  them  to  all  our  satisfaction,  and  that  they  may  return  home  to  our 
country  with  good  tidings  of  peace  and  friendship;  and  any  thing  done  by  Congress  and  our  representatives  will  be 
held  sate  by  us,  and  fast  by  us. 

We  hear  that  Congress  have  got  strong  powers  now,  and  nothing  can  be  spoiled  that  you  undertake  to  do;  this 
we  hear  from  our  elder  brother,  John  Sevier,  which  makes  us  glad  and  rejoice  at  the  news. 

We  wish  you  to  appoint  some  good  man  to  do  the  business  between  us  and  our  elder  brothers.  Let  us  have  a 
man  that  don't  speak  with  two  tongues,  nor  one  that  will  encourage  mischief  or  blood  to  be  spilt.  Let  tiiere  be  a  good 
man  appointed,  and  war  will  never  happen  between  us.  Such  a  one  we  will  listen  to;  but  such  as  have  been  sent 
among  us,  we  shall  not  hear,  as  they  have  already  caused  our  nation  to  be  ruined,  and  come  almost  to  nothing. 


l8t  Congress.]  '       No.  5.  list  Session. 



Gentlemen  qf  the  Senate: 

'The  Governor  of  the  Western  territory  has  made  a  statement  to  me  of  the  reciprocal  hostilities  of  the 
Wabash  Indians,  and  the  people  inhabiting  the  frontiers  bordering  on  the  river  Ohio,  which  I  herewith  lay  before 

The  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  by  their  acts  of  the  21st  dajr  of  July,  1787,  and  of  the  12th  of 
August,  1788,  made  a  provisional  arrangement  for  calling  forth  the  militia  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  in  tlie 
proportions  therein  specified. 

As  the  circumstances  which  occasioned  the  said  arrangement  continue  nearly  the  same,  I  think  proper  to  suggest 
to  your  ccmsideration,  the  expediency  of  making  some  temporary  provision  for  calling  forth  the  militia  of  the  United 
States,  for  the  purposes  stated  in  the  constitution,  which  would  embrace  the  cases  apprehended  by  the  Governor  of 
the  Western  territory. 


September  16(/i,  1789. 


INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1789. 


New  Yob K,  September  14,  1789. 

The  constant  hostilities  between  the  Indians  who  live  upon  the  river  Wabash,  and  tlie  people  of  Kentucky, 
must  necessarily  be  attended  with  sucli  embarrassing  circumstances  to  the  Government  ot  the  Western  territory, 
that  I  am  induced  to  request  you  will  be  pleased  to  take  the  matter  into  consideration,  and  give  me  the  orders  you 

"^\  is  not'to''bTexpected,  sir,  that  the  Kentucky  people  will,  or  can,  submit  patiently  to  the  cruelties  and  depre- 
dations of  those  savages;  they  are  in  the  habits  of  retaliation,  perhaps  without  attending  precisely  to  the  nations  from 
which  the  injuries  are  received.  They  will  continue  to  retaliate,  or  they  will  apply  to  the  Governor  ot  the  Western 
country  (through  which  the  Indians  must  pass  to  attack  them)  for  redress;  it  he  cannot  redress  them,  (and  in  pre- 
sent circumstances  he  cannot)  they  also  will  march  through  that  country,  to  redress  themselves,  and  the  Govern- 
ment will  be  laid  prostrate.  The  United  States,  on  the  other  hand,  are  at  peace  with  several  of  the  nations;  and, 
should  the  resentment  of  those  people  tall  upon  any  of  them,  which  it  is  likely  enough  may  happen,  very  bad  conse- 
quences will  follow  :  for  it  must  appear  to  them  tliat  the  United  States  eitiier  pay  no  regard  to  their  treaties,  or 
that  they  are  unable  or  unwilling  to  carry  their  engagements  into  effect.  Remonstrances  will  probably  be  made  by 
them  also  to  the  Governor,  and  he  will  be  found  in  a  situation,  from  which  he  can  neither  redress  the  one,  nor  pro- 
tect the  other.    They  will  unite  with  the  hostile  nations,  prudently  preferring  open  war  to  a  delusive  and  uncertain 


By  a  resolution  of  the  late  Congress,  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory  had  power,  in  case  of  hostilities,  to 
call  upon  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  for  a  number  of  men  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  continental  troops,  and 
carry  war  into  the  Indian  settlements.  That  resolution,  it  is  now  supposed,  is  no  longer  in  force;  the  revival  of  it 
mi-'ht  be  of  use,  as  it  would  tend  to  conciliate  the  Western  People,  by  shewing  them  that  they  were  not  unattended 
to;°and  would,  in  some  measure,  justify  me  in  holding  a  language  to  the  Indians  which  might  obviate  the  necessity 
of  employing  force  against  them.  The  handful  of  troops,  sir,  that  are  scattered  in  that  country,  though  they  may 
afford  protection  to  some  settlements,  cannot  possibly  act  offensively  by  themselves. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  , 

Your  obedient  and  most  humble  servant,  ' , 

The  President  of  the  United  States..  AR.  ST.  CLAIR. 

1st  Congress.]  .      -''.'      /         No.  6.  .    '  '    '  [1st  Session. 



Gentlemen  of  the  Senate: 

It  doubtless  is  important  that  all  treaties  and  compacts,  formed  by  the  United  States  with  other  nations, 
whether  civilized  or  not,  should  be  made  with  caution,  and  executed  with  fidelity. 

It  is  said  to  be  the  general  understanding  and  practice  ot  nations,  as  a  check  on  the  mistakes  and  indiscretions 
of  ministers  or  commissioners,  not  to  consider  any  treaty,  negotiated  and  signed  by  such  officers,  as  final  and  con- 
clusive, until  ratified  by  the  Sovereign  or  Government  from  whom  they  derive  their  powers.  This  practice  has  been 
adopted  by  the  United  States,  respecting  their  treaties  with  European  nations,  and  I  am  inclined  to  think  it  would 
be  advisable  to  observe  it  in  the  conduct  of  our  treaties  with  the  Indians:  for  though  such  treaties,  being  on  their 
part  made  by  their  chiefs  or  rulers,  needj  not  be  ratified  by  them,  yet,  being  formed  on  our  part,  by  the  agency  of 
subordinate  officers,  it  seems  to  be  both  prudent  and  reasonable,  that  their  acts  should  not  be  binding  on  the  nation, 
until  approved  and  ratified  by  the  Government.  .  ...... 

It  strikes  me  that  this  point  should  be  well  considered  and  settled,  so  that  our  national  proceedings  m  this 
respect  may  become  uniform,  and  be  directed  by  fixed  and  stable  principles. 

The  treaties  with  certain  Indian  nations,  v/hich  were  laid  before  you  with  my  message  of  the  25th  May  last, 
suggested  two  questions  to  my  mind,  viz:  1st.  Whether  those  treaties  were  to  be  considered  as  perfected,  and  con- 
sequently as  obligatory,  without  being  ratified;  if  not,  then  2d ly.  Whether  both,  or  either,  and  wJiich  of  them  ought 
to  be  ratified;  on  these  questions,  I  request  your  opinion  and  advice.  •  ,     ,       ^r       ,        ■, 

You  have  indeed  advised  me  '■'■  to  execute  and  enjoin  an  observance  of "  the  treaty  with  the  Wyandots,  &c. 
You,  gentlemen,  doubtless,  intended  to  be  clear  and  explicit,  and  yet,  without  further  explanation,  I  fear  I  may 
misunderstand  your  meaning;  for  if,  by  my  executing  tiiat  treaty,  you  mean  that  I  should  make  it  (in  a  more  par- 
ticular and  immediate  manner  than  it  now  is)  the  act  of  Government,  then  it  follows,  that  I  am  to  ratify  it  If  you 
mean  by  my  executing-  it,  that  I  am  to  see  that  it  be  carried  into  effect  and  operation,  then  I  am  led  to  conclude, 
either  that  you  consider  it  as  being  perfect  and  obligatory  in  its  present  state,  and,  therefore,  to  be  executed  and 
observed;  or,  that  you  consider  it  as  to  derive  its  completion  and  obligation  from  the  silent  approbation  and  ratifica- 
tion which  my  proclamation  may  be  construed  to  imply.  Although  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  latter  is  your 
intention,  yet  it  certainly  is  best  that  all  doubts  respecting  it  be  removed. 

Permit  me  to  observe,  that  it  will  be  proper  for  me  to  be  informed  of  your  sentiments  relative  to  the  treaty  with 
the  Six  Nations,  previous  to  the  departure  of  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory;  and,  therefore,  I  recommend 
it  to  your  early  consideration.  GEO.  WASHINGTON. 

September  17th,  1789.  ■-■■  "       '  i- .       ,,    '  -    ; 

JSi ' 

1790.]  THE   SOUTHERN  TRIBES.  59 

1st  Congress.]  Nq.    7.  -  IstSi 

INDIAN  TREATIES.  '.  .  '  '* 


Mr.  Carroll,  to  whom  was  referred  a  message  from  the  President  of  the  United  States  of  the  17th  of  Septembei-, 

1789,  made  the  following  report: 

That  the  signature  of  treaties  %vith  the  Indian  nations  has  ever  been  considered  as  a  full  completion  thereof;  and 
that  such  treaties  have  never  been  solemnly  ratified  by  either  of  the  contracting  parties,  as  hath  been  commonly 
practised  among  the  civilized  nations  of  Europe:  wherefore,  the  committee  are  of  opinion,  that  the  formal  ratifica- 
tion of  the  treaty  concluded  at  fort  Harmar,  on  the  9th  day  of  January,  1789,  between  Arthur  St.  Clair,  Governor 
of  the  Western  territory,  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  and  the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot,  Dela- 
ware, Ottawa,  Chippewa,  Pattiwatima,  and  Sac  Nations,  is  not  expedient  or  necessary;  and  that  the  lesolve  of  the 
Senate,  of  the  8th  September,  1789,  respecting  the  said  treaty,  authorizes  the  President  to  enjoin  a  due  observance 

That,  as  to  the  treaty  made  at  fort  Harmar,  on  the  9th  of  January,  1789,  between  the  said  Arthur  St.  Clair,  and 
the  sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Six  Nations,  (except  the  Mohawks)  from  particular  circumstances  aftecting  a  part 
of  the  ceded  lands,  the  Senate  did  not  judge  it  expedient  to  pass  any  act  concerning  tlie  same. 

1st  Congress.]  No.    8.  [2d  Session. 


COMMUNICATED   TO   THE    SENATE   JAM  ART    11,   1790.  '  ^ 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate: 

Having  advised  with  you  upon  the  terms  of  a  treaty  to  be  offered  to  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  I  think  it 
proper  you  should  be  informed  ot  the  result  of  that  business,  previous  to  its  coming  before  you  in  your  legislative 

I  have  therefore  directed  the  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  War  to  lay  before  you  my  instructions*  to  the 
commissioners,  aiui  their  report  in  consequence  thereof 

The  apparently  critical  state  of  the  soutiiern  frontier  will  render  it  expedient  for  me  to  communicate  to  both 
Houses  of  Congress,  with  other  papers,  the  whole  of  the  transactions  relative  to  the  Creeks,  in  order  that  they  may 
be  enabled  to  form  a  judgment  of  the  measures  which  the  case  may  require. 


United  States,  January  lllh,  1790.  '         ■ 

1st  Congress.]  JVo.    9.  [2d  Session. 


COMMUNICATED    TO    CONGRESS    JANUARY    12,    1790. 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate 

and  of  the  House  of  Representatives: 
I  lay  before  you  a  statement  of  tiie  Southwestern  frontiers,  and  of  the  Indian  Department,  which  have  been 
submitted  to  me  by  the  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  War. 

I  conceive  that  an  unreserved,  but  confidenlial  communication  of  all  the  papers  relative  to  the  recent  negotiations 
with  some  of  the  Southern  tribes  of  Indians,  is  indispensably  requisite,  for  the  information  of  Congress.  I  am  per- 
suaded that  they  will  effectually  prevent  eitlier  transcripts  or  publications  of  all  such  circumstances  as  might  be 
injurious  to  the  public  interests. 

United  States,  January  12,  1790. 

TTie  Secretary  of  War  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

War  Office,  January  4th,  1790. 

I  humbly  beg  leave  to  submit  to  your  consideration,  a  general  statement  of  the  Indian  Department,  and  of  the 
Southwestern  frontiers,  the  same  being  intimately  blended  together. 

The  invitation  of  the  United  States  to  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  to  treat  of  peace  on  terms  of  mutual  advan- 
tages, has  not  been  accepted. 

The  report  of  the  commissioners,  A,  will  fully  shew  the  precarious  state  of  this  business. 

The  assurances,  given  by  some  of  the  chiefs,  of  the  peaceable  intentions  of  the  Creek  nation,  are  too  uncertain 
in  their  nature,  even  if  sincere,  for  the  United  States  to  rely  upon. 

The  case  seems  to  require  an  adequate  provisional  arrangement,  which,  on  the  commission  of  any  further  depre- 
dations by  the  Creeks,  should  be  called  into  activity.  After  the  solemn  offer  of  peace  whicli  has  been  made,  and 
refused,  it  is  incumbent  on  the  United  States  to  be  in  a  situation  to  punish  all  unprovoked  aggressions. 

♦  For  these  instructions  and  the  report  of  the  Commissioners,  see  Document  No.  9. 

60  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

■      In  case  the  conduct  of  the  Creeks  should  render  coercion  indispensably  necessary,  policy  requires  that  it  should 
^  be  undertaken  with  a  force  adequate  to  the  speedy  accomplishment  of  the  object. 

An  army  of  sufficient  strength  should  be  raised  to  march  into  their  country,  and  destroy  their  towns,  unless  they 
should  submit  to  an  equitable  peace. 
j  The  warriors  of  tlie  Creeks  have  been  stated  at  various  numbers,  from  four  to  six  thousand,  and  are  said  to  be 

\     .generally  well  armed,  and  furnished  with  ammunition. 

i  To  march  into  tlie  country  of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Creeks,  so  as  to  be  superior  to  all  opposition,  would  require 

I     an  army  to  be  raised  of  five  thousand  men.     This  number,  after  making  the  necessary  deductions,  for  sickness, 
;     establishment  of  posts  of  communication,  and  convoys  of  provision,  would  probably  be  reduced  to  three  thousand 
'i     five  hundred  eftectives. 
\  The  troops  to  be  employed  on  this  service  ought  to  be  enlisted  for  the  occasion,  subject,  however,  to  be  sooner 

discharged, if  necessary. 
j  I  have  formed  an  estimate  of  the  expense  of  such  an  army,  which  is  hereunto  annexed,  marked  No.  l,on  the  sup- 

■    position  that  the  pay  of  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  may  be  reduced  to  the  sums  therein  specified. 
But,  in  either  event  of  peace  or  war,  with  the  Creeks,  the  establishment  of  a  line  of  military  posts  on  the  South- 
western frontier,  appears  to  be  highly  requisite.    No  peace  with  the  Indians  can  be  preserved,  unless  by  a  military 
force.  .  . 

The  lawless  whites,  as  well  as  Indians,  wdl  be  deterred  from  the  commission  of  murders  when  they  shall  be 

-^ -convinced  that  punishment  will  ultimately  follow  detection. 

The  situation  of  the  Cherokee  nation,  looking  up  to  the  United  States  for  protection,  in  consequence  of  the  treaty 
of  Hopewell,  demands  attention. 

Although  existing  circumstances  may  require  that  the  boundaries  stated  in  the  said  treaty  should  be  more 
JkJ  J  accommodated  to  the  inhabitants  who  cannot  be  removed,  yet,  the  other  general  principles  thereof  ought  to  be  pre- 
served, and  particularly  the  stipulated  protection  of  the  United  States.     This  cannot  be  afforded  but  by  troops. 
The  fnendship  of  the  Chickasaws  and  Choctaws  cannot  be  cultivated,  and  the  trade  stipulated  by  treaty  cannot  be 
extended  to  them  but  by  means  of  the  protection  of  troops. 

The  present  military  arrangement  of  the  United  States  consists  of  one  battalion  of  artilleiy,  of  two  hundred  and 
forty  non-commissioned  and  privates;  and  one  regiment  of  infantry,  of  five  hundred  and  sixty  non-commissioned 
and  privates.  This  force,  for  the  following  objects,  is  utterly  inadequate:  to  prevent  the  usurpation  of  the  lands  of 
the  United  States;  to  facilitate  the  surveying  and  selling  the  same,  for  the  purpose  of  reducing  the  public  debt;  and 
for  the  protection  of  the  frontiers,  from  Georgia  to  lake  Erie.  If  it  should  be  decided  to  erect  a  line  of  posts  of  that 
extent,  and  to  leave  small  guards  for  the  public  arsenal,  the  following  establishment  would  be  required: 

A  battalion  of  artillery,  of  two  hundred  and  forty  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  and  two  regiments  of 
infantry,  of  seven  hundred  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  each. 

The  total  of  the  artillery  and  infantry  amounting  to  sixteen  hundred  and  forty  non-commissioned  officers  and 

The  estimate  hereunto  annexed,  marked  No.  2,  will  exhibit  the  annual  expense  of  such  an  establishment.  It  is 
to  be  observed,  that  tlie  estimate  is  formed  on  the  principle,  that  the  present  pay  of  the  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates  may  be  considerably  reduced.  But  the  pay  of  a  lleutenant-colonel-commandant  is  enlarged  from  fifty 
to  seventy-five  dollars  per  month,  and  tiie  pay  of  the  major-commandant  of  artillery  to  fifty  dollars  per  month. 
This  occasions  an  increase  for  the  lieutenant-colonels  and  major-commandant  of  sixty  dollars  per  month. 

When  the  duty  and  expense  of  a  commanding  officer  of  a  regiment  or  battalion  be  considered,  it  is  presumed  that 
the  proposed  additional  pay  in  these  instances  will  promote  the  economy  and  good  of  the  service.  Although  the 
proposed  reduction  of  tlie  pay  cannot  affect  the  existing  stipulations  to  the  troops  now  in  service,  yet,  as  they  are 
liable  to  be  discharged,  at  any  period,  it  is  highly  probable  that,  in  preference  thereto,  they  would  accept  the  re- 
duced pay. 

The  several  representations  herewith  submitted,  marked  B,  of  the  depredations  committed  by  the  Indians,  on  the 

feople  along  the  south  of  the  Ohio,  and  upon  Cumberland  river,  show  the  exposed  situation  of  those  settlements. 
t  seems  the  posts  northwest  of  the  Ohio  do  not  afford  the    necessary  protection,  and  the  people  claim  the  em- 
/vj         ;    ployment  of  their  own  militia,  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States — a  similar  ai-rangement  having  been  in  operation 
^  s)    \  untd  the  organization  of  the  General  Government,  at  the  expense  of  Virginia. 

If  it  shall  be  decided  to  afford  the  protection  requested,  the  propriety  of  employing  the  militia  of  the  country  for 
that  purpose  may  be  doubted. 

The  economy  of  disciplined  troops  is  always  superior  to  militia,  while  their  efficacy  is  at  least  equal;  hence,  if 
troops  are  employed  witliin  the  district  of  Kentucky,  as  patrols  or  otherwise,  they  ought  to  be  detachments  from 
the  regular  troops  of  the  United  States,  under  the  orders  of  the  commanding  officer  on  tiie  Ohio.  About  four  com- 
panies, acting  as  patrols  or  scouts,  would  afford  all  the  satisfaction  to  the  settlements  which  could  be  derived  from 
defensive  measures;  but  it  is  only  from  offensive  measures  that  full  security  could  be  obtained.   • 

The  various  tribes  seated  on  the  Wabash  river,  extending  up  to  the  Miami  village,  and  the  several  branches  of 
that  river,  are  the  Indians  from  whom  the  settlements  of  Kentucky  principally  receive  injury. 

But  these  depredations,  althougii  perhaps  effected  with  impunity  as  to  tiie  actual  perpetrators,  are  not  so  to  the 
Indians  generally:  for.  the  whites  frequently  make  incursions  into  the  Wabash  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  an<i 
it  is  probable  that  indiscriminate  revenge  is  wreaked  on  all  bearing  the  name  of  Indians. 

Hence  a  difficulty  arises  on  the  part  of  tlie  United  States,  whidi  requires  a  serious  consideration. 
That  the  people  of  Kentucky  are  entitled  to  be  defended,  there  can  be  no  doubt.    But,  as  there  seems  to  have 
been  such  a  prevalence  of  hostilities  as  to  render  it  uncertain  who  are  right  or  who  are  wrong,  the  principles  of 
justice,  which  ought  to  dictate  the  conduct  of  every  nation,  seems  to  iorbid  the  idea  of  attempting  to  extirpate 
the  Wabash  Indians,  uutil  it  shall  appear  that  they  cannot  be  brought  to  treat  on  reasonable  terms. 

If,  after  a  treaty  should  be  effected  with  them,  it  should  be  violated,  or,  after  an  inyifafion  to  a  treaty,  it  should 
be  refusedj  and  followed  by  hostilities,  the  United  States  will  clearly  have  the  right  to  inflict  that  degree  of  punish- 
ment win  en  may  be  necessaiy  to  deter  the  Indians  from  any  future  unprovoked  aggressions. 

If  this  statement  be  just,  it  would  follow  that  the  Governor  of  the  Western  ten-itory  should  be  instructed  to 
attempt  to  effect  a  general  treaty  with  the  said  Wabash  tribes,  on  terms  of  mutual  advantage.  If  they  should  refuse, 
and  continue,  or  suffer  a  continuance,  from  any  of  their  neighboring  tribes,  of  the  depredations  upon  the  district 
of  Kentucky,  the  arms  of  tlxj  Union  ou^ht  to  be  exerted  to  chastise  them. 

The  statement  hereunto  annexed.  No.  3,  will  shew  the  application  of  the  sum  appropriated  during  the  last  session 
of  Congress  to  Indiairtreaties  and  Indian  expenses;  the  sum  remaining  unexpended  might  be  applied  to  a  ti-eaty 
with  the  Wabash  Indians. 

Provisions  must  be  furnished  the  Indians  during  the  treaty.  Whether  any  presents  shall  be  added  thereto,  will 
depend  on  the  decision  of  Congi-ess. 

It  seems  to  have  been  the  custom  of  barbarous  nations,  in  all  ages,  to  expect  and  receive  presents  from  those  more 
civilized,  and  the  custom  seems  confirmed  by  modern  Europe,  wiUi  respect  to  Morocco,  Algiers,  Tunis,  and  Tripoli. 
The  practice  of  the  Bsritish  government  and  its  colonies,  of  giving  presents  to  the  Indians  of  North  America,  is 
well  known. 

They  seem  to  have  been  convinced  that  it  was  the  cheapest  and  most  effectual  mode  of  managing  the  Indians. 
The  idea  of  fear,  or  purchasing  a  peace,  is  not  to  be  admitted,  in  the  cases  above  stated,  but  tlie  conduct  appears 
to  have  been    dictated  by  wise  policy.    A  comparative   view  of  the  expenses  of  a  hostile  or  conciliatory  system 
towards  the  Indians,  will  evince  the  infinite  economy  of  the  latter  over  the  former. 
The  question  then,  on  the  point  of  presents,  must  be  simply  this: 




Is  the  situation  of  the  United  States  such,  with  respect  to  the  neighboring  European  colonies,  as  to  render  it 
good  policy  at  this  time  to  anniliilate  the  Indian  customs,  and  expectations  ot  receiving  presents,  and  thereby  dis- 
gusting thein  in  such  a  manner  as  to  induce  them  to  coimect  themselves  more  closely  with  the  said  colonies.' 

If  it  should  be  decided  to  the  contrary,  the  estimate  of  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory  for  the  object  of 
the  Wabash  Indians,  No.  4,  would  shew  the  sum  required,  from  which,  however,  must  be'  deducted  the  balance 
remaining  from  the  appropriation  of  the  last  year. 

Althougli  the  information  is  not  sufficiently  accurate  whereon  to  form  a  decided  opinion  of  the  number  of  tlie 
Indian  warriors  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  yet  the  evidence  seems  sufficient  to  warrant  the  supposition 
that  they  amount  nearly  to  twenty  thousand.  If  to  this  number  we  should  add,  foi> every  wariior,  three  old  men 
women  and  children,  the  total  number  would  be  eighty  thousand  . 

Since'  the  United  States  became  a  nation,  tlieir  conduct,  and  some  of  the  States,  towards  the  Indians,  seems  to 
have  resulted  from  the  impulses  of  the  moment.  Until  the  treaty  effected  at  fort  Harinar  in  January.  ir89,'it  seemed 
a  prevailing  opinion  that  the  Treaty  of  Peace  with  Great  Britain,  instead  of  tlie  pre-emption  only,  actually  invested 
the  United  States  with  the  absolute  right  to  the  Indian  territory,  and  in  pursuance  of  this  idea,  treaties  were  made  and 
boundaries  allotted  to  the  Indians.  But,  by  the  directions  of  Congress,  of  the  2nd  of  July,  1788,  to  the  Governor 
of  theWestern  territory,  to  extinguish  the  Indian  claims  to  lands  they  had  ceded  to  the  United  States,  and  to 
obtain  regular  conveyances  ot  the  same,  it  would  appear,  that  they  conceded  the  Indian  right  to  the  soil. 

The  various  opinions  whicii  exist  on  the  proper  mode  of  treating  tlie  Indians,  require  that  some  system  should 
be  established  on  the  subject. 

That  the  Indians  possess  the  natural  rights  of  man,  and  that  theyought  not  wantonly  to  be  divested  thereof,  cannot 
be  well  denied. 

Were  these  rights  ascertained  and  declared  by  law;  w  ere  it  enacted  that  the  Indians  possess  the  right  to  all  their 
territory  which  they  have  not  fairly  conveyed,  and  that  they  should  not  be  divested  thereof,  but  in  consequence  of 
open  treaties,  made  under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  the  foundation  of  peace  and  justice  would  be  laid. 

The  individual  States  claiming  or  possessing  the  right  of  pre-emption  to  territory,  inhabited  by  Indians,  would  not 
be  materially  injured  by  such  a  declarative  law;  the  exercise  of  their  right  would  be  restrained  only  when  it  should 
interfere  with  the  general  interests. 

Should  any  State,  having  the  right  of  pre-emption,  desire  to  puichase  territory,  which  the  Indians  should  be  ] 
willing  to  relinquish,  it  would  have  to  request  the  General  Government  to  direct  a  treaty  for  that  purpose,  at  the  ' 
expense,  however,  of  the  individual  State  requesting  the  same. 

But  as  Indian  wars  almost  invariably  arise  in  consequence  of  disputes  relative  to  boundaries  or  trade,  and  as  the 
rights  of  declaring  war,  making  treaties,  and  regulating  commerce,  are  vested  in  the  United  States,  it  is  highly  proper 
they  should  have  the  sole  direction  of  all  measures  for  the  consequences  of  which  tliey  are  responsible. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  widi  the  highest  respect,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

H.  KNOX, 

_,     ^  ,     ^,  .  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  TVar. 

The  President  of  the  United  States.  . 

No.  1.  ' 

,9n  estimate  of  the  expenses  of  an  ,^rmy  for  one  year,  including  the  general  staff,  field  and  company  officers,  and 
five  thousand  and  forty  non-commissioned  officers  and  pnvates. 


1  Major  General. 

2  Aides-de-Cainp, 

2  Brigadier  Generals. 

2  Aides-de-Camp. 

1  Adjutant  Geiieial. 

1  Deputy  Adjutant  General. 

1  Inspector  General. 

1  Deputy  Inspector. 

1  Quartermaster  General. 

2  Deputy  Quartermasters. 

1  Chief  Physician  and  Director. 
9  * 



Per  year 






























































'  ■ 



















Pay,  40      80 

Subsistence,      20      40 
Forage,  12      24 












1  Chief  Surgeon. 

1  Apothecary  and  Purveyor. 

.f<  ii  ■ . 

1  Chaplain. 








Per  month. 








Per  year. 





For  six  regiments  of  Infantry,  one  regiment  of  Cavalry,  and  two  companies  qf  Artillery. 


7  Lieutenant  Colonels  Commandant.      .-  - 

Per  month. 

Pay,  75    525 

Subsistence,      32    224 
Forage,  18    126 

Per  vear. 

1   ■•}   ■■>■ 

14  Majors. 

7  Paymasters.        .  .  -•  -  -  -'       , 

7  Adjutants.  ...-.- 

7  Quartermasters.  .  .  .  .  - 

For  the  above,  twenty -one  rations  of  forage  per  month, 
7  Surgeons.  -  -  -  -  - 

14  Surgeon's  Mates.  -  -  -  -  - 

72  Captains.  •  - 

74  Lieutenants.      -  -  - 

70  Ensigns  and  Cornets. 

875        10,500 














































.\ '. 


Pay,               35  2,520 

Subsistence,  12  864 

Pay,               26  1,924 

Subsistence,     8  592 

Pay,               20  1,400 

Subsistence.    8  560 




Two  companies  of  Artillery. 

8  Sergeants. 
8  Corporals. 
4  Musicians. 
120  Privates. 

40  Sergeants. 
40  Corporals. 
20  Musicians. 
600  Privates. 

240  Sergeants. 
240  Corporals. 
120  Musicians. 
3600  Privates. 


One  regiment  of  Cavalry. 












Six  regiments  of  Infantry. 


5  1,200 

4  960 

3  360 

3  10,800 



: 2,220        26,640 

-13,320     159,840 

From  which  deduct  one  dollar  and  twenty -five  cents  from  each  sergeant  and  corporal  per  month, 
for  clothing,  and  ten  cents  from  each,  for  hospital  stores;  also,  90  cents  from  each  musician 
and  private,  for  clothing,  and  ten  cents  from  each  for  hospital  stores,  which  will,  for  cloth- 
ing, amount  to  -  -  -  -  -  -  --  -  -        46,044 

And  tor  hospital  stores,  -  -  -  -  -  v  ■:        -  -  -         6,048 


Rations  for  5,040  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  365  days,  one  ration  per  day,  is 

1,839,600  rations,  at  twelve  cents  per  ration,         ...-.-  220,752 

Clothing— 5MQ  suits,  at  20  dollars  each,       -------  100,800 

Hospital  Department,       -----.--..  6,000 

Horses.— YoY  the  cavalry,  700,  at  75  dollars  each,       ------        52,500 

Forage  for  700  horses,  at  5  dollars  each  per  month,  for  one  year,      -  -  -  -        42,000 

Horse-furniture  and  equipments,  at  20  dollars,  -..-..        14,000 





Quartermaster'' s  Department, 

Tents,  axes,  camp-kettles,  wagons,  horses,  pack-horses,  boats,  and  every  means  for  the  trans- 
portation of  the  army,  may  be  rated  at        ------  .  300,000 

The  artillery,  arms,  ammunition,  and  accoutrements,  are  not  particularly  estimated,  they  being 

generally  in  the  public  possession,  but  may  be  rated  at     -----  120000 

Total,        $1,152,836 

War  Office,  December  31s/.  1789. 

H.   KNOX,  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  War. 

No.  2. 

^n  estimate  of  the  annual  expense  of  a  corps,  to  consist  of  two  regimerits  of  Infantry,  of  ten  companies  each,  and 
one  battalion  of  .irhllery  of  four  companies,  each  company  to  be  composed  of  four  sergeants,  four  corporals, 
two  musicians,  and  sixty  privates,  amounting  in  the  whole  to  one  thousand  six  hundred  and  eighty  non-com- 
missioned  officers  and  privates. 

1  Brigadier  General.  -  - 

2  Lieutenant  Colonels  Commandant. 

4  Majors.    - 

1  Major  Commandant  of  Artillery. 

2  Paymasters,  2  Adjutants,  2  Quartermasters 
2  Surgeons.  .  .  .  . 

5  Mates. 

20  Captains  of  Infantry. 

20  Lieutenants. 

20  Ensigns. 

4  Captains  of  .\rtillery. 

8  TJeuteiiants  of  diltd. 

Two  regiments  of  Infantry. 

80  Sergeants. 
80  Corporals. 
40  Musicians. 
1200  Privates. 

16  Sergeants. 
16  Corporals. 
8  Musicians. 
240  Privates. 

One  battalion  of  Artillery. 

Per  month. 

Per  year. 







































Pay  $10,  forage  $6  each. 

is  96 































































































trom  which  deduct  one  dollar  and  twenty-five  cents  from  each  sergeant  and  corporal's  pay  per 
month,  tor  clothing,  and  ten  cents  per  month  from  each,  for  hospital  stores;  and  also,  ninety 
centsper  month,  from  the  pay  ot  each  musician  and  private,  for  clothing,  and  ten  cents 
trom  each,  per  month,  tor  hospital  stores,  which  will,  for  clothing,  amount  to  18,749 

And  tor  hospital  stores,  to  -  -  -  .  .  .  .  2  016 



CZo/Am.§-.— 1.680  suits,  at  20  dollars,         -  -  -  . 

Rations.— I  fim  rations  per  day.  for  365  days.  613,200,  at  12  cents. 




6|  '  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

The  annual  expense  of  the  present  establishment,-  pay,  subsistence,  and  forage,  to  the  officers,  and  pay  to  840  non- 
commissioned officers  and  privates,  viz:  To  sergeants  six,  corporals  and  musicians  five,  and  to  privates  four 
dollars  per  month,  and  clothing  annually,    -------     $90,164 

Rations  annually,  -  -  .,.-,.-  -  -  -  -  -        36,792 

The  annual  expense  of  the  proposed  esiabMahmeut;  the  pay,  subsistence,  and  forage  to  officers, 
and  pay  to  1,680  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  as  reduced,  viz.:  sergeants  five, 
corporals  four,  musicians  and  privates  three  dollars  per  month,  from  which  is  to  be  de- 
ducted the  sums  already  noted  for  clothing  and  hospital  stores,  and  their  clothing  animally,  $  1 12,923 

Rations  annually,  .--------.  73,584 

$  126,956 


The  difference  is  -  -  ^  -  -        $59,55100 

Note.  The  relative  value  of  a  Colonel,  in  a  tariff  for  the  exchange  of  prisoners  during  the  late  war,  being  much 
higher  than  a  Lieutenant  Colonel,  and  there  being  but  few  of  the  rank  of  Colonel  in  the  British  army  employed  in 
America,  occasioned  the  present  arrangement  of  field  officers  to  a  regiment,  consisting  of  a  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Commandant  and  two  Majors. 

But,  as  the  troops  on  the  frontiers  may  act  with  militia  commanded  by  Colonels,  the  Lieutenant  Colonels  may 
be  superseded  in  their  command  by  militia  officers,  to  the  exti'eme  prejudice  of  the  service. 

The  idea,  therefore,  is  submitted,  to  recur  to  tlie  former  arrangement  of  field  officers  to  a  regiment,  to  wit:  a 
Colonel,  a  Lieutenant  Colonel,  and  a  Major. 

The  only  difference  of  expense  will  be  fourteen  dollars  per  month  to  the  Lieutenant  Colonel,  in  addition  to  the 
pay  and  emoluments  of  a  major,  as  the  Lieutenant  Colonels  Commandant  were  entitled  to  the  pay  and  emoluments 
of  a  full  Colonel. 

H.  KNOX, 

War  Office,  Z)ecpmier  31s<,  1789.      ■        '■  '  .  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  TVar. 

,      '  .,.;■■,  No.  3.  ■ '    ■ 

Statement  o/$  20,000  appropriated  by  Congress  on  the  20th  August,  1789,  for  the  expense  of  negotiations  with 

the  Indian  tribes. 

Expended  by  the  commissioners,  as  per  their  statement  rendered  the  Auditor,  .       -           -           -  $5,842  95 

♦Provisions  and  Indian  goods  deposited  by  the  commissioners  in  Georgia,  and  the  expenses  thereon,  8,280  14 

Advanced  the  superintendent  of  the  northern  department,  for  the  uses  thereof,          -            -            ;  500  00 

Expenses  incurred  in  equipping  George  M.  White  Eyes,  an  Indian  youth  of  the  Delaware  tribe,  in  .                  .;.. 
order  to  return  to  liis  own  country,  he  having  been  educated  by  order,  and  at  the  expense  of 

the  United  States,       -       .    -      .     -     .      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -  425  51 

v.-  ■  ■     '■      ■  ■  ■  $15,048  60 

*'^' '-'' #    '.''■       -—-        ,  ,  _  Balance  unexpended,.  -  -  4,951  40 

$  20,000  00 

'    '        ■'■'  •■"','•:■  ■'         '     .  H.  KNOX, 

War  Office,  31s/;  Z)ecem6cr,  1789.  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  TVar. 

'      ,  ■■>..  .  .Vli  i  .      ■  " 

')-'.'      "!     ;'.w..  ■'  '(•('-:  ■  ■ 

,  ,  -  „,4^  No.    4. 

Estimate  of  the  expense  with  which  a  Treaty  with  the  Indians  of  the  Wabash  and  Miami  rivers  ivould  probably 
be  attended.     Their  numbers  are  supposed  to  be  from  twelve  to  fifteen  hundred  men. 

Indian  goods,  assorted,  to  the  value  of-  -  -  -  : 

Stores  and  necessaries,  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 

Transportation,  -.--.------ 

Messengers  and  interpreters,      ---------- 

Storekeepers,       ------------ 

Commissioner's  wages,         >,      -  -- 

Contingencies,     -  -.,.-  --.-  --- 

The  provisions  cannot  be  estimated  at  less  than  thirty  thousand  rations,  which,  at  contract  piice,  will 
amount  to        -  -  -  -  -  -  ,  ,  ,   r   .  v.,   -  -  -  -  - 

Many  circumstances  may  occur  to  occasion  the  expenditure  of  a  larger  quantity  of  provisions; 
a  lesser  quantity  ought  not  to  be  reckoned  upon.  y.  . 

June  14,  1789. 

Balanceunexpendedof  the  appropriation  of  the  20th  August,  1789,  .-    .        t  -  -        $4,95140 

The  sum,  in  case  of  a  treaty,  would  be  required,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -       $11,199  60 

n.  K'SOX,  Secretai-y  of  JVar. 

*  The  commissioners  stored  the  Indian  goods  in  Georgia,  in  order  that  they  might  be  ready  if  a  treaty  should  be  held  in  the 
spring.  The  provisions,  and  otli'er  articles  liable  to  waste  and  damage,  were  directed  to  be  sold,  and  the  whole  accounted  for, 
and  subject  to  the  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War. 

$6,000  00 
650  00 
2,500  00 
1,000  00 
300  00 
500  00 
200  00 

$11,150  00 
5,000  00 

$16,150  00 

1790.]  THE   SOUTHERN    TRIBES.  55 

lnslructio}is  to  the  Commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Southern  Indians. 
To  Benjamin  Lincoln,  Cyrus  Griffin,  and  David  Humphreys.  Esq'rs. 

ComraissioiiPl-s  Pieiiipotei\tiury  for  iiegoliatin»  aad  concludiug;  iieaties  of  ptacc  with  the  iudfpeuilunt  trlhcs  oi-  nations  of 
Indians  within  the  lijnics  of  the  United  States,  south  cf  the  rii-er  Ohio. 


The"  United  States  consider  it  as  an  object  of  high  national  importance,  not  onlj-  to  be  at  peace  with  die 
poNverful  tribes  or  nations  of  Indians  south  of  tlie  Ohio,  but,  if  possible,  by  a  just  and  liberal  system  of  policy,  to 
conciliate  and  attach  them  to  the  interests  of  the  Union. 

In  order,  therefore,  that  you  may  be  possessed  of  all  the  information  relative  to  the  Southern  Indians  contained 
in  the  public  documents,  you  have  herewith  delivered  to  you.  copies  of  the  following  papers,  to  wit: 

The  several  statements  which  have  been  made  on  the  subject  from  the  war  office,  to  which  are  added,  copies  of 
the  treaties  which  have  been  made  by  the  United  States  with  the  Cherokees,  Chickasaws,  and  Choctaw^^  and  the 
commissioners'  reports  thereon;  the  proceedings  and  reports  of  James  White,  Esq.  superintendent  for  the  Southern 
district;  the  reports  of  Messrs.  Winn  and  Martni,  temporary  superintendents;  the  resolves  of  Congress,  under  which 
commissioners  have  been  appointed  by  the  States  of  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  and  Georgia,  and  the  said 
commissioners'  reports;  and,  also,  certain  papers  transmitted  by  Georgia  against  J.jseph  Martin,  one  of  the  aforesaid 
temporary  commissioners. 

The  first  great  object  of  your  mission  is  to  negotiate  and  estabiisii  j)eace  between  the  State  of  Georgia  and  the 
Creek  nation.  Tlie  whole  nation  nmst  be  fully  represented,  and  sulemnly  acknowledged  ty  be  so  by  "the  Creeks 

You  will  find  the  ostensible,  and  probably  the  real  cause  of  hostilities  between  Georgia  and  the  Creeks,  to  con- 
sist in  a  difference  of  judgment  of  three  treaties,  stated  to  have  been  made  between  the  said  paities,  to  wit:  At 
Augusta,  in  1783;  at  Galphinton,  in  1785;  and  at  Shouldeiboiie.  in  1786:  copies  of  wliich  you  have  iierewith 
<lelivereu  to  you. 

It  is  a  circumstance  of  the  highest  consequence,  to  investigate  thoroughly. all  the  facts  under  whicli  tJie  said  treaties  ■ 
were  made.    The  official  papers  will  afibrd  you  great  information  on  this  subject. 

On  the  one  side,  the  objections  against  the  justice  of  said  treaties,  are  stated  in  the  several  communications  of 
Mr.  McGillivray,  and  the  connnunications  of  the  Lower  Creeks  to  Mr.  V.'hite,  the  sujierintendent. 

On  the  otlier  side,  the  statement  made  by  tlie  Legislature  of  Georgia,  contains  the  reasons  in  support  of  the  treaties. 
The  opinion  of  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  the  treaty  of  Galphinton,  is  contained  in  their  reports; 
and  tlie  communications  of  James  White,  Esq.  the  superintendent,  will  show  Ids  judgment  on  the  case. 

But,  in  addition  to  all  these  written  evidences,  it  may  be  pro[)er,  in  order  that  the  investigation  be  conducted  witli 
the  most  perfect  impartiality,  to  have  such  viva  voce  testimony  as  can  lie  obtained. 

For  this  purpose,  you  will  request  the  Governor  :ind  Legislature  of  Georgiaj  if  in  session,  to  authoiize  such  person 
or  persons  to  attend  the  treaty  as  he  or  they  may  think  proper,  in  order  to  give  you  such  information  as  you  may 
request,  from  time  to  time,  of  the  transactions  relative  to  said  treaties. 

You  will  also  endeavor  to  ascertain  the  liicts  relative  to  the  said  treaties,  from  the  Creeks. 
And  you  will  further  endeavor  to  obtain  information,  on  oath,  of  the  manner  in  wliich  the  said  treaties  were  held, 
from  such  unprejudiced  respectable  private  characters,  who  were  present  at  the  saiil  treaties,  as  you  shall  be  able  to 

The  main  points  to  be  ascertained,  are — 

1st.  ^^'hetner  all  the  lands  belonging  to  the  Upper  and  Lower  Creeks  are  the  common  property  of  the  whole 
nation.'    Or, 

2d.  Were  the  lands  stated  to  have  been  ceded  to  Georgia  by  the  tliree  treaties,  or  either  of  tiieni,  acknowledged 
by  the  Upper  Creeks  to  be  the  sole  properly  of  the  Lower  Creeks.' 

3d.  Uere  the  acknowledged  proprietors  of  the  lands,  stated  to  have  been  ceded  to  Georgia,  present,  or  fully 
i-epresented,  at  the  said  three  treaties? 

4tJi.  I)i<l  the  Creeks,  present  at  the  said  treaties,  act  with  a  full  understanding  of  the  cessions  they  are  stated  to 
have  made.'' 

5th.  Were  the  said  treaties  and  cessions  freely  made  on  the  part  of  the  Creeks,  uninfluenced  by  any  threats  or 
iuiplication  of  force? 

These  circumstance?!,  and  all  others  connected  therein,  must  be  critically  examined  into,  in  order  that  you  may 
foi'm  your  judgment  on  the  said  treaties  with  the  greatest  accuracy. 

If  the  result  of  your  investigation  should  be,  that  the  said  three  treaties,  and  the  cessions  of  land  therein  contained, 
were  made  by  a  full  and  authori/.ed  representation  of  the  Creek  nation,  or  that  the  cessions  of  land  was  obtained 
with  the  full  uiiiieistanding  and  free  consent  of  the  ackimwjedged  proprietors,  and  that  iheie  were  no  circumstances 

■^      '  •       '  j^  (,.jgp  ppg. 

rts  thereof 

.         .  ,_.       .  .,  --    --~ ^s,  so  far  as 

the  same  may  respect  the  confirmation  of  such  i)arts  of  the  cessions  of  land  contained  tiierein,  as  you  shall  have 
adjudged  just  and  equitable,  should  obstinately  refuse  to  confirm  the  same  to  Georgia,  then  you  are  to  inform  them 
that  the  arms  of  the  Union  will  be  called  forth  for  the  protection  of  Georgia,  in  the  peaceable  antl  just  possession  of 
said  lands;  and  in  case  the  Creeks  attempt  any  molestation  or  injury  to  Georgia,  that  they  will  be  deemed  tlie  ene- 
mies of  the  United  States,  and  punished  accordingly. 

But  if  it  should  result  from  your  inquiries,  that  the  said  treaties  and  cessions  were  obtained,  on  the  part  of  Geor- 
gia, under  such  circumsUmces  as  to  preclude  the  interference  of  the  United  States,  consistently  with  their  justice  and 
dignity,  you  are  not  to  urge  or  persuade  the  Creeks  to  a  renewal  or  confirmation  thereof. 

It  IS,  liowever,  to  be  observed,  that  Georgia  has  proceeded  on  the  principle  that  the  cession  stated  to  have  been 
made  at  Augusta,  in  1783,  was  fiiirly  obtained;  and  that  the  said  State  has  surveyed  and  divided  the  lands  between 
the  Ogechee  and  Oconee  among  certain  descriptions  of  its  citiy.ens;  that  the  said  citizens  have  settled  and  planted 
on  said  lands  in  great  numbers.  Should,  therefore,  the  result  of  your  investigation  be  unfavorable  to  the  claims  of 
Georgia,  it  wouUfbe  highly  embarrassing  to  that  Slate  to  relinquish  the  said  lantis  to  the  Creeks. 

Hence  it  will  be  an  impjrlant  accommodation  to  Georgia  to  obtain  from  the  Creeks  a  regular  conveyance  of  the 
said  lands  lying  between  the  Ogechee  and  Oconee. 

To  accomplish  this  object,  therefore,  you  are  specially  required  to  use  your  highest  exertions  ^ith  the  Creeks. 
On  your  success  materially  depends  the  internal  peace  of  Georgia,  and  probably  its  attachment  to  the  General  Go- 
vernment of  the  United  States. 

If  the  prejudices  of  the  Creeks  against  the  United  States  are  not  too  deeply  rooted,  it  is  presumed  that  such 
advantages  to  that  nation  can  be  stipulated  as  to  induce  them  not  only  to  relinquish  to  Georgia  the  lands  in  question, 
but  to  attach  them  sincerely  and  permanently  to  the  United  States. 

The  disputed  lands  being  entirely  despoiled  of  their  game  bv  the  settlements,  are  therefiire  no  longer  valuable 
to  the  Creeks  as  hunting  grounds.  If  they  have  not  been  fairly  purchased  of  the  real  proprietors  by  Georgia,  it 
ought  to  be  done.  In  case  the  Creeks,  therefore,  would  be  willing  to  make  a  proper  conveyance  for  a  given  sum, 
you  will  stipulate  that  the  same  shall  be  paid  by  Georgia  at  a  certain  period,  or,  in  case  of  failure,  by  the  United 

While  negotiating  the  price  to  be  given  for  the  said  land,  you  will  have  due  regard  to  the  sums  which  Georgia 
actually  paid  at  the  treaty  of  Augusta,  to  the  present  value  of  the  lands  as  hunting  grounds,  and  to  the  other  con- 
siderations hereafter  specified. 

In  this  part  of  the  negotiation,  it  would  be  desirable  that  the  persons  who  may  be  appointed  by  the  Governor  or 
Legislature  of  Georgia  to  attend  the  treaty,  should  concur  widi  you  as  to  the  sum  which,  in  case  of  purchase,  shall 
be  stipulated  to  be  given. 

wiiu  tne  lull  uiiileistanding  ana  tree  consent  ot  tlie  acknowledged  proprietors,  and  that  there  were  nocircui 
r)f  unfairness  or  constraint  of  any  sort,  used  to  induce  the  Creeks  to  make  the  cessitms  to  Georgia,  in  this  ( 
cisely,  you  are  to  insist  011  a  formal  renewal  and  confirmation  of  the  said  cessions  to  Georgia,  or  such  part 
as  you  shall  find  just.     If  the  Creeks,  after  hearing  all  your  arguments  for  (he  renewal  of  the  said  treaties. 


66  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1790, 

In  addition  to  the  purchase  money  for  the  lands,  and  for  the  further  great  purpose  of  attaching  the  Creeks  to  the 
United  States,  provided  the  same,  in  your  mature  judgments,  siiould  be  necessary,  you  are  hereby  empowered  to 
make  the  following  stipulations: 

1st.  A  secure  port  to  the  Creeks,  or  their  head  men,  [on  the  Altamaha,  St.  Mary's,  or  any  place  between  the 
said  rivers,  into  which,  or  from  which,  the  Creeks  may  import  or  export  the  articles  of  merchandise  necessary  to 
,  /    the  Indian  commerce,  on  the  same  terms  as  the  citizens  of  the  United  States.    The  number  of  arms  and  quantity  of 
/     ammunition,  however,  to  be  regulated  by  the  quantity  that  shall  be  regarded  as  necessary  for  the  hunters. 

If  any  apprehension  should  be  entertained  on  the  part  of  the  Creeks  on  account  of  the  safety  of  the  goods  which 
^  they  might  so  import  or  export,  it  may  be  stipulated  that  the  same  should  be  protected  by  a  company  ot  the  regular 
(>■   troops  of  the  United  States. 

Ihe  trade  of  tlie  Creeks  is  said  at  present  to  be  engrossed  by  a  company  of  British  merchants,  stationed  at  one 
of  the  Bahama  islands,  who  have  connected  Mr.  McGillivray  with  them  as  a  partner.  The  Spaniards  have  permitted 
some  of  the  livers  which  empty  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  be  the  cliannel  ot  this  trade  for  a  certain  number  of  years. 
I  Some  impediments  or  impositions  of  duties  appear  to  have  disgusted  Mr.  McGillivray  with  the  Spaniards,  or  with 
i  the  communication,  and  renders  him  desirous  of  a  port  in  the  United  States.  If  these  circumstances  could  be  the 
means  of  breaking  his  connexion  with  the  Spanish  colonies,  it  would  be  wise  policy  to  afford  the  Creeks  a  port,  and 
to  protect  them  in  every  thing  relative  thereto. 

2ndly.  Gifts  in  goocls,  or  money  to  some,  and,  if  necessary,  honorary  military  distinctions  to  others,  of  the  influ- 
ential chiefs. 

The  presents  will  be  regulated  by  your  judgment.  The  idea  of  military  distinction  arises  from  the  information 
that  Mr.  McGillivray  possesses  ii  commission  of  Colonel  or  Lieutenant  Colonel  from  the  King  of  Spain. 

If  he  could  be  induced  lo  resign  that  commission  by  the  offer  of  one  a  grade  higher,  the  offer  ought  to  be  made 
and  substantiated,  cm  his  taking  a  solemn  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  United  States. 

Mr.  McGillivray  is  stated  to  possess  gi-eat  abilities,  an  unlimited  influence  over  the  Creek  nation,  and  part  of 
the  Cherokees.    It  is  an  object  worthy  of  considerable  exertion  to  attach  him  warmly  to  the  United  States. 

The  measure  could  be  attempted  and  urged  with  great  propriety,  as  it  respects  his  fidelity  to  the  Creeks,  and 
the  continuance  of  his  own  importance  in  that  nation. 

The.  United  States  do  not  want  the  Creek  lands ;  they  desire  only  to  be  friends  and  protectors  of  the  Creeks, 
and  to  treat  them  with  humanity  and  justice. 

In  case  you  should  be  satisfied  of  his  compliance  with  your  desires,  you  will  deliver  him  the  presents  which  are 
particularly  designated  for  him,  and  also  give  him  assurances  of  such  pecuniary  rewards  from  tl\e  United  States  as 
\      you  may  think  reasonable,  consequent  on  the  evidence  of  his  future  favorable  conduct. 

Srdly.  If  you  should  find  the  measure  necessary,  in  order  to  accomplish  the  before  recited  objects,  you  will  fur- 
ther stipulate  a  solemn  guarantee  of  the  United  States  to  the  Creeks  of  their  remaining  territory,  to  be  supported, 
if  necessary,  by  a  line  ot  military  posts. 

This  measure  will,  most  probably,  be  highly  satisfactory  to  the  Creeks^  as  it  will  entirely  prevent  any  attempts  to 
purchase  any  part  of  tlieir  lands,  and  it  will,  at  the  same  time,  impress  tliem  with  the  moderation  and  justice  of  the 
General  Government. 

If  these  offers,  with  all  the  benefits  resulting  therefrom,  should  be  insufficient  to  induce  the  Creeks  to  agree, 
■voluntarily,  to  relinquish  the  disputed  lands  between  the  Ogeechee  and  Oconee  rivers,  you  cannot,  with  propriety, 
make  a  tender  of  more  favorable  conditions. 

In  this  event,  however,  you  may  endeavor  to  conclude  a  treaty,  and  establish  therein  a  temporary  boundary, 
making  the  Oconee  the  line — to  stipulate  the  secure  port,  and  the  pecuniary  and  honorary  considerations  before 

You  will  establish  the  principle,  in  case  of  concluding  a  treaty,  that  the  Creeks,  who  are  within  the  limits  of  the 
United  States,  acknowledge  themselves  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  of  no  other 
sovereign  whosoever  ;  and,  also,  that  they  are  not  to  hold  any  treaty  with  an  individual  State,  nor  with  individuals 
of  any  fetate. 

You  will  also  endeavor,  without  making  it  an  ultimatum,  to  est;iblish  such  direct  trade  as  the  Government  of  the 
Union  shall  authorize.  Tliis  point,  however,  is  to  be  managed  with  the  greatest  delicacy,  for  the  before  recited 

In  the  general  objects  of  the  restoration  of  prisoners,  negroes,  &c.  you  will  conform  to  the  treaties  of  Hopewell 
with  the  Cherokees,  Chlckasaws,  and  Choctaws. 

You  will,  also,  endeavor  to  obtain  a  stipulation  for  certain  missionaries,  to  reside  in  the  nation,  provided  the 
General  Government  should  think  proper  to  adopt  the  measure.  These  men  to  be  precluded  from  trade,  or  attempt- 
ing to  purchase  any  lands,  but  to  have  a  certain  reasonable  quantity,  per  head,  allowed  for  the  purpose  of  cultivation. 
The  object  of  this  establishment  would  be  the  happiness  of  the  Indians,  teaching  them  the  great  duties  of  religion 
and  morality,  and  to  inculcate  a  friendship  and  attachment  to  the  United  States. 

If,  alter  you   have  made   your   communications  to  the  Creeks,  and   you  are  persuaded  that  you   are   fully 
understood  by  them,  they  should  refuse  to  treat  and  conclude  a  peace,  on  the  terms  you  propose,  it  may  be  concluded 
,  that  they  are  decided  on  a  continuance  of  acts  of  hostility,  and  that  they  ought  to  be  guarded  against  as  the  determine^ 
enemies  of  the  United  States. 

In  this  case,  you  will  report  such  plans,  botli  for  defensive  and  offensive  measures,  so  as  best  to  protect  the 
citizens  of  the  United  States  on  the  frontiers,  from  any  acts  of  injury  or  hostility  of  the  Creeks.  Although  the 
policy  of  attaching  influential  cliiefs  by  pecuniary  or  honorary  considerations,  may  not  be  doubted,  yet  it  has  been 
otherwise,  with  respect  to  making  presents  to  the  commonalty  among  the  Indians.  In  case,  therefore,  you  find 
that  the  Creeks  are  willing  to  relinquish  the  land  between  the  Ogecliee  and  Oconee,  on  further  payments  for  the 
same,  you  will  endeavor  to  stipulate,  that  the  mass  of  the  goods  you  have  in  charge  for  the  treaty,  should  be  receiveil 
by  the  Indians  as  part,  or  the  whole  of  the  consideration  for  the  conveyance  ot  the  said  lands,  as  you  shall  judge 

Messrs.  Osborne  and  Pickens  have,  in  their  report  of  the  30th  June  last,  stated,  that  they  have  agreed  to  hold  a 
general  treaty  with  the  Creeks  at  the  Rock  Landing,  on  the  Oconee  river,  in  tlie  State  of  Georgia,  on  the  15th 
of  September  next  ensuing:  you  will  make  every  exertion  to  be  there  at  that  time.  Immediately  on  your  arrival  at 
Savannah  you  will  arrange  the  transportation  by  land  or  water,  of  the  goods  and  provisions  under  your  direction, 
to  the  place  of  treaty,  or  towards  the  same,  so  as  to  arrive  with  all  possible  expedition.  At  the  same  time,  you  will 
despatch  expresses  to  the  Governor,  notifying  him  of  your  commission  and  arrival,  and  also  to  Messrs.  Osborne  and 
Pickens;  and  as  soon  after  as  possible,  you  will  repair  to  the  place  aflixed  for  treating.  The  troops  and  the  goods 
may  follow  agreeably  to  your  directions.  Periiaps  you  may  change  the  place  of  treaty,  to  some  place  to'"Which 
your  goods  might  be  transported  with  greater  facility  than  the  Rock  Landing  on  the  Oconee  river. 

But,  notwithstanding  your  greatest  exertions,  it  may  happen  that  your  arrival  maybe  so  retarded,  that  Messrs. 
Pickens  and  Osborne  may  have  held  a  treaty,. and  the  Indians  may  have  departed  to  their  own  country. 

In  this  case  you  will  carefully  enquire,  whether  there  were  present  at  the  treaty,  a  full  representation  of  the 
whole  Creek  nation,  and  particularly  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  whether  the  treaty  was  made  under  such  circumstances 
as  to  be  consistent  with  the  justice  of  the  United  States,  and  conformable  to  the  spirit  of  their  instructions.  If  so. 
you  will  confirm  and  ratify  the  same,  in  as  full  a  manner  as  if  you  had  been  actually  present.  But,  if  an  inadequate 
representation  only  should  have  been  present,  or  any  circumstances  should  have  been  adopted,  ot  which  the  United 
States  could  not  with  justice  and  dignity  approve,  in  this  case  you  will  use  your  best  endeavors  to  persuade  the 
Creeks  to  attend  a  new  treaty,  at  sucli  place  and  at  such  time  as  you  may  judge  proper.  You  will  observe  the  same 
conduct  to  collect  the  Creeks,  in  case  it  should  appear  that  they,  from  anv  circumstances,  are  disinclined  to  attend 
generally  the  treaty  on  the  15th  of  September,  or  provided  your  arrival  should  be  posterior  to  that  peiiod,and  you 
shall  learn  they  did  not  attend,  agreeably  to  the  imitation  o!'  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne. 

1790.]  •  THE   SOUTHERN   TRIBES.  qj 

Dunns  your  negotiations  with  the  Creeks,  you  will  endeavor  to  ascertain  the  following  points: 

1st.  The  number  ot  warriors  in  the  whole  nation,  including  Upper  and  Lower  Creeks  and  Seniinoles. 

2d.  \\  hether  they  are  armed  with  common  and  rifle  muskets,  or  in  any  other  manner,  and  how  furnished  with 

Sd.  The  number  of  each  division  of  Upper  Creeks,  Lower  Creeks,  and  Seminoles. 

4th.  The  number  of  women  and  children  and  old  men  in  each  district. 

5th.  The  number  of  towns  in  each  district. 

6th.  The  names,  characters,  and  residence,  of  the  most  influential  chiefs:  and.  as  far  as  the  same  may  be.  their 
grades  ot  influence. 

rth.  The  kinds  of  government,  if  any,  of  the  towns,  districts,  and  nations. 

8th.  Whether  they  are  hunters  only,  or  whether  they  cultivate  and  possess  cattle,  if  so,  the  degree  of  cultivation 
and  number  ot  cattle. 

9th.  The  usual  hunting  grounds  of  the  whole  nation  and  their  distncts. 

10th.  The  kinds  and  value  of  furs  taken  annually,  and  how  disposed  of. 

11th.  The  amount  of  the  European  goods  annually  consumed. 

12th.  Whetherginseng  abounds  in  that  country;  iV  so.  whether  it  is  gathered  in  any  considerable  quantities. 

13th.  lo  ascertain  the  nature  ot  the  country  west  from  Georgia  to  the  Mississippi:  whetiier  mountainous,  hilly, 
level,  or  abounding  with  low  grounds  and  morasses — the  nature  of  the  soil  and  growth 

14th.  To  ascertain  particularly,  how  iiir  northward  the  waters  of  the  Mobile,''Apalachicola,  and  Altamaha  rivers, 
are  navigable  tor  boats,  and  the  nearest  and  portages  from  the  northern  navigable  streams  of  said  rivers,  to  the 
southern  navigable  waters  or  streams  of  the  Tennessee  river. 

The  accurate  knowledge  of  this  subject  is  of  considerable  importance,  but  the  inquiries  thereto  should  be  circui- 
tously  conducted. 

15th.  To  ascertain  with  great  precision  the  nature  of  the  connexion  of  the  Creeks  with  the  Spaniards,  and.  if 
practicable,  to  obtain  copies  ol  any  treaties  between  them;  whether  the  predominating  prejudices  of  the  Creeks  are 
m  favor,  or  against  the  Spaniards,  and  particularly  the  state  of  Mr.  McGillivray "s  mind  on  this  subject 

16th.  You  will  endeavor,  as  far  as  your  opportunities  will  admit,  to  ascertain  similar  facts  relative  to  the 
Cherokees,  Chickasaws,  and  Choctaws,  as  are  contained  in  the  before  recited  requests  relative  to  the  Creeks 

In  case  of  your  concluding  a  treaty  with  the  Creeks,  and  it  should  be  your  judgment  that  a  line  of  military  posts 
would  be  necessary  to  the  due  observance  thereof,  and  also  as  a  security  of  the  peace  of  the  Cherokees,  you  will 
report  a  plan  tor  the  stations  which  should  be  taken,  and  the  number  of  troops  which  should  occupy  each. 

The  people  who  are  settled  on  Cumberland  river  have  just  cause  of  complaints  against  the  Creeks,  who  have 
during  the  present  year,  murdered  several  families  within  that  district.     The  Creeks  can  have  no  cause  of  complaint 
against  that  settlement. 

This  circumstance  is  to  be  strongly  stated  to  the  Creeks,  and  in  case  of  a  continuance  of  their  murders,  the 
vengeance  of  the  Lnion  is  to  be  denounced  against  them. 

The  peculiar  case  of  the  Cherokees  seems  to  require  the  immediate  interposition  of  the  justice  of  the  United 
States.  But  as  that  nation  of  Indians  are  principally  resident  within  the  territory  claimed  by  North  Carolina, 
which  IS  not  a  member  ot  the  present  Union,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  any  eflicient  measures  in  favor  of  the 
Cherokees  could  be  adopted  immediately. 

By  the  public  newspapers  it  appears,  that,  on  the  I6tli  June  last,  a  truce  was  concluded  with  the  Cherokees  bv 
Mr.  John  Steele,  on  behalt  of  the  State  ot  North  Carolina.  In  this  truce  a  treaty  was  stipulated  to  be  held  as  sooii 
as  possible;  and  in  the  mean  time,  all  hostilities  should  cease  <m  both  sides. 

In  the  event  of  North  Carolina  adopting  the  constitution  of  the  United  States,  it  will  be  incumbent  on  the 
General  Government  to  take  eveiy  wise  measure  to  carry  into  eftect  the  substance  ot  the  treaty  of  Hopewell:  in  the 
mean  time,  you  will  send  a  message  to  the  Cherokees.  stating  to  them  the  difticulties  arising  from  the  locaf  claims 
of  North  Carolina,  as  tar  as  the  same  may  be  proper.  That,  when  these  shall  be  removed,  the  United  States  will  con- 
vince the  Cherokees  ot  their  justice  and  friendship. 

You  will  also  transmit  a^message  to  the  vvhites  inthe  neighborhood  of  the  Cherokees,  enjoining  an  observance  of 





the  truce  made  by  Mr.  Steele,  until  ageneral  treaty  shall  take  place,  when  justice  shall  be  administered  to  all  parti 

The  two  Cherokees  who  have  lately  come  to  this  city,  with  their  conductor,  Mr.  Bennet  Ballew,are  to  go  un( 
your  direction  to  the  place  ot  treaty.     Good  policy  requires  that  they  should  be  kindly  treated,  although  there 
suspicions  that  the  conduct  of  Bennet  Ballew  has  not  been  very  proper  with  respect  to  the   lands  of  the  Cherok^e- 
You  will  endeavor  to  ascertain  his  real  character  and  designs,  and  make  such  use  of  him  as  you  shall  think  proper 
You  have  delivered  to  you  copies  of  the  papers  which  Mr.  Ballew  presented  from  the  Cherokees. 

The  treaties  with  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws  will  inform  you  of  the  stipulations  of  the  United  States  to  extend 
trade  to  those  nations.  Y  ou  will  report  a  plan  tor  carrying  into  eftect  the  said  stipulations,  and  you  will  also  trans- 
mit to  the  said  nations  messages  containing  assurances  ot  the  continuance  of  the  friendship  of  the  United  States 
and  ot  the  intentions  of  the  General  Government  of  extending  the  trade  to  them,  agreeably  to  the  treaties  of  Hope- 
well. You  will  have  regular  invoices  of  all  articles  delivered  to  you  for  the  proposed  treaty,  and  you  will  keen  fair 
accounts  of  all  your  disbursements,  which  you  will  regulariy  settle  at  the  treasury  of  the  United  States. 

And  in  all  cases  where  the  same  may  be  proper,  consistently  with  the  secrecv  necessary  to  be  observed  the 
delivery  ot  the  goods  ought  to  be  attested  by  the  commissioned  officers  of  the  troops^  who  should  attend  the  commis- 

You  will  also  keep  a  regular  journal  of  your  transactions,  and  report  the  same. 

It  is  presumed  that  you  will  conduct  all  your  disbursements  by  that  proper  economy  so  necessary  to  be  observed 
in  all  transactions  of  the  General  Government.  You  will  learn,  by  the  papers  delivered  to  you,  that  certain  "oods 
were  left  by  the  commissioners  after  the  treaties  at  Hopewell,  in  the  commencement  of  the  year  1786.  It  is  probable 
that  these  goods  may  have  been  delivered  to  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne;  you  will,  therefore,  apply  to  said  ''entle- 
men  for  regular  invoices  pf  all  the  goods  in  their  possession,  for  the  treaty,  distinguishing  the  means  by  which  thev 
became  possessed  thereof.  ^ 

You  will  also  request  of  them  an  account  of  the  moneys  or  goods  they  may  have  received  of  the  States  of  South 
Carolina  and  Georgia,  in  consequence  of  the  resolves  of  Congress,  of  the  26th  October.  1787.  and  August  14   1788 

As  the  said  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne  will  most  probably  be  at  the  proposed  place  of  treaty,  with  the  expecta- 
tion of  conducting  the  same,  you  will  deliver  them  the  letter  containing  the  reasons  of  Government  for  appointin<^ 
new  commissioners.  *' 

Were  there  any  services  at  the  treaty,  in  which  you  could  employ  them,  it  might  be  proper  so  to  do. 

You  vfiW  endeavor  to  avail  yourselves,  as  far  as  may  be,  of  any  arrangements  which  may  have  been  taken  bv 
Georgia,  for  the  supplies  of  provisions  during  the  holding  of  the  treaty,  or  for  furnishing  the  means  of  transporta- 
tion, for  which  the  said  State  will  have  credit  on  the  before  recited  requisitions  of  Congress,  of  the  26th  October 
1787,  and  the  14th  of  August,  1788.  *  '-'ouei. 

You  will  please  to  observe,  that  the  whole  sum  that  can  be  constitutionally  expended  for  the  proposed  treatv 
with  the  Creeks,  shall  not  exceed  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars— the  goods  and  money  which  have  been 
delivered  to  you,  and  the  expenses  which  will  arise,  by  the  removal  and  return  of  the  troops,  and  your  own  pay 
will  amount  to .  ^  ^ ' 

You  will,  therefore,  see  the  necessity  of  economizing  your  means,  and  that  the  same  cannot  be  extended 

It  IS,  however,  to  be  observed,  that  the  sums  you  shall  think  proper  to  stipulate  to  the  Creeks,  for  the  cessions  of 
the  lands  between  the  Ogechee  and  Oconee,  is  to  be  considered  additional  to  the  said  twenty  thousand  dollars 

You  will,  from  time  to  time,  communicate  your  progress  to  the  Secretary  of  the  War  Department,  and  receive 
such  lurther  directions  from  him,  as  the  case  may  require. 

The  company  of  artillery,  commaniled  by  Captain  Burbeck,  will  accompany  you  to  the  place  of  treaty,  and  be 
under  your  orders.     As  soon  as  the  treaty  shall  be  finished,  you  will  take  the  proper  measures  for  the  return  of  the  . 

58  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1:90. 

company  to  ihi9,  place,  as  tlie  time  of  service  will  soon  expire.  The  company  will  receive  one  month  and  a  half's 
pay,  and  be  furnislied  with  three  months'  rations,  whicii  you  will  cause  to  be  transported  as  the  service  may.  require. 
These  instructions  will  be  the  governing  principles  of  your  conduct,  and  they  are  to  be  regarded  as  secret. 
But  many  circumstances  may  arise,  >vhich  mav  render  some  degree  of  modification  necessary.  In  every  event, 
however,  you  will  please  to  remember,  that  the  Government  of  the  United  States  are  determined,  that  their  adminis- 
tration of  Indian  attairs  shall  be  directed  entirely  by  the  great  principles  of  justice  and  humanity. 

As  soon  as  ycsu  have  concluded  your  negotiations  with  the  Creeks,  and  forwarded  your  messages  as  herein 
directed,  you  will  return  to  tliis  place,  and  make  a  full  report  of  all  your  transactions  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Wai- 
Department.  ,      ,  . 

Given  under  my  hand,  at  tiie  city  of  New  York,  this  29th  of  August,  1789.  otttxt^t-.^x- 

By  command  of  the  President  of  the  United  States: 
'  H.  KNOX. 

.  .  •  ■         '    A.  ■ 

, ; .(  Report  of  the  Commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Southern  Indians. 

New  York,  \7th  November,  1789. 

We  have  kept  a  regular  journal  of  our  negotiations  with  the  Creek  nation,  and  now  make  a  full  report  of  the 
mission  to  vou,  as  Secretary  of  the  War  Department. 

We  arej  sir,  with  great  respect,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

,,  ,,  B.  LINCOLN, 


D.  HUMPHREYS.  .  j. 
To  the  Honorable  Henry  Knox,  Esq, 

A  report  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  America,  for  restoring  and  establishing 
peace  and  amity,  between  the  United  States  and  all  nations  of  Indians  situated  within  the  limits  of  the  said 
States,  southward  of  the  river  Ohio. 

On  the  31st  day  of  August  last,  we  sailed  from  New  York,  and  arrived  at  Savannah  in  the  night  of  tlie  10th  of 

In  conformity  to  our  instructions  on  the  11th,  we  wrote  the  following  letters,  to  tlie  Governor  of  the  State  of 
Georgia,  and  to  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne,  the  commissioners  then  at  the  Rock  Landing. 

"Savannah,  llth  September,  1789. 


W'e  have  been  honored  by  the  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States,  with  the  appointment  of  commis 
sioners  plenipotentiary  for  negotiating  and  concluding  a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  independent  tribes  or  nations  of 
Indians,  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  south  of  the  river  Ohio;  and  in  consequence  thereof,  it  becomes  our 
duty,  by  the  earliest  opportunity,  to  communicate  this  infoniiatiou  to  your  honor.  In  our  negotiations,  many  sub- 
jects important  to  the  interests  of  tiie  State  of  Georgia  will  probably  be  discussed.  Your  honor  will,  therefore,  if 
you  should  think  the  measure  necessary,  appoint  some  person  or  persons,  the  best  informed  in  the  nature  of  our 
business,  to  attend  the  commissioners,  that  they  may,  from  time  to  time,  receive  from  them  such  information  as 
may  be  necessary  on  tiie  subject  of  their  negotiations.  The  commissioners  expect  to  leave  tllis  town  on  the  morrow, 
and  to  be  at  Augusta  with  all  possible  despatch. 

In  expectation  that  a  large  number  of  the  natives  would  be  at  the  Rock  Landing,  and  lest  there  miglit  not  be  a  full 
supply  ot  provisions  to  be  obtained  in  the  vicinity  thereof,  a  veiy  considerable  quantity  of  salted  provisions  and 
flour  were  put  on  board  of  our  vessels,  the  transportation  of  which,  we  find  will  be  attended  with  great  delay  and 

expense.  ^ .   ,  .,  ,         ,       .  .  ,    ,  ,     , 

We  shall,  therefore,  store  a  considerable  proportion  of  it  here,  until  your  honor  s  opinion  can  be  known,  whethei- 
there  are  liigh  degrees  of  proljability  that  fresh  beef  and  Indian  corn  can  be  had  at,  or  convenient  to,  the  Rock 
Landing,  sufficient  to  answer  the  great  demands  which,  it  is  very  certain,  will  be  made  for  those  articles.  If  such  a 
probabiPity  siiall  not  exist  which  shall  fully  satisfy  your  honor,  the  commissioners  in  that  case  have  to  beg,  that  an 
express  may  be  immediately  forwarded  to  Major  Habersham,  requesting  him  to  forward  the  whole  of  the  flour  in 
his  hands,  or  such  parts  as  you  may  think  necessary,  by  water,  to  Augusta. 

As  it  is  important  that  we  should,  as  soon  as  possible,  know  the  state  of  the  supplies  on  which  we  are  to  rely 
while  on  the  negotiation,  and  as  we  have  been  taught  to  expect  that  we  should  be  aided  essentially  by  this  State, 
we  must  beg  that  your  honor  would  order  to  be  made  out,  for  our  own  use,  an  invoice  of  such  stores,  the  property  of 
Georgia,  as  will  be  placed  in  our  hands. 

W  e  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  honor's  most  obedient  servants, 



His  honor  the  Governor  of  the  5'<a<e  o/ Georgia." 

.  "Savannah,  llth  September,  1789. 


Having  been  appointed  commissioners  plenipotentiary  by  the  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  for  concluding  treaties  of  peace  and  amity  witii  the  Indian  nations,  south  of  the  Ohio,  we  thought  proper 
to  give  you  the  earliest  possible  notice  of  our  appointment.  The  reasons  why  it  was  deemed  necessary  tliat  the 
characters  employed  in  the  execution  of  this  business  should  not  belong  to  any  of  the  States  bordering  on  those 
tribes  of  Indians  with  whom  the  treaties  are  proposed  to  be  formed,  will  be  fully,  and,  we  trust,  satisfactorily 
explained  to  you  by  the  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  War,  which  we  shall  have  the  honor  of  delivering  into  your  hands. 
We  have  also  to  inform  you  that  we  shall  set  off  from  this  place  as  early  as  we  can  possibly  make  the  necessary 
arrangements,  and  reach  you  as  soon  as  may  be.  In  the  mean  time,  we  earnestly  hope  and  expect  that  you  will  not 
remit  your  endeavors  to  have  every  thing  in  readiness  to  give  despatch  and  success  to  the  negotiations;  and  you 
will  please  to  communicate  every  necessary  information  to  the  Creek  nation  on  the  subject.  We  are  convinced 
this  will  be  the  case,  because  the  interest  and  happiness  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  not  less  than  the  dignity  and  honor 
of  the  United  States,  seem  to  require  it. 

On  our  part,  you  will  be  assured,  gentlemen,  that  we  shall  always  take  a  particular  pleasure  in  doing  justice  to 
your  merits  by  making  the  most  favorable  representations  of  your  public  services. 

Being,  with  tlie  greatest  respect  and  esteem,  gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 



The  Honorable  Andrew  Pickens  and  H.  Osborne,  Esquires,  Rock  Landing. 

1790.]  -  THE   SOUTHERN   TRIBES.  69 

Immediately  after  writing  these  letters,  we  proceeded  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements  relative  to  the  trans- 
portation of  ourselves,  and  also  a  part  of  the  goods  and  provisions  under  our  direction,  to  the  place  of  treaty.  A^'e 
then- despatched  the  subsequent  communication  to  the  Secretaiy  of  War:  .         -, 

"  Savannah,  12//j  September,  1789. 
"Sir:  .  ,     •  '  .  : 

"We  arrived  here  the  night  before  last,  after  an  unusually  rough  passage:  the  transport  with  the  troops  (all  well) 
had  been  in  port  nearly  two  days.  We  learned  upon  our  arrival,  tliat  Mr.  McGiUjvray  was  actually  on  his  way  to 
the  place  for  holding  the  treaty,  and  on  the  second  day  of  this  month,  at  a  short  distance  from  it.  The  number  of 
the  Indians  who  attend  him,  is  said  to  be  between  three  and  four  thousand. 

Our  first  care  was  to  send  an  express  to  the  Governor  and  the  late  commissioners,  announcing  our  mission,  and 
suggesting  such  arrangements  as  we  deemed  indispensable:  particularly,  we  gave  information  to  the  Governor,  that, 
from  the  difficulty  of  procuring  the  means  of  transportation,  we  should  leave  the  greatest  part  of  tlie  provisions  which 
we  had  brought  with  us,  at  this  place,  unless  in  his  judgment  tliey  should  be  absolutely  necessary  for  supporting  the 
Indians  duiing  the  continuance  of  the  treaty;  in  this  case,  lie  was  requested  to  send  back  an  express  to  Major  Haber- 
sham, that  consequent  measures  migiit  be  taken  instantaneously. 

We  found  it  impossible  to  hire  horses,  and,- therefore,  have  been  obliged  to  purchase  five  to  carry  us  forward.  It 
was  with  great  difficulty  that  we  have  obtained  a  few  poor  teams  to  transport  the  most  essentially  necessary  articles; 
with  the  troops  who  will  march  by  the  route  of  Augusta  to-morrow  morning,  the  greater  part  of  the  remaining  stores 
will  at  the  same  time  proceed  by  water  to  that  place:  for  which  place  we  shall  also  commence  our  journey  early 
in  the  morning. 

Mr.  Ballew.  and  the  Indians  with  him,  having  expressed  an  earnest  inclination  of  returning  to  their  own  country 
from  hence,  and  as  it  would  save  a  travel  of  at  least  two  hundred  miles,  we  liave  furnished  them  with  the  means  of 
doing  it,  and  have  sent  friendly  messages  to  the  Chickasaws,Choctaws,  and  Cherokees,  by  them.  \\"e  have  like- 
wise sent  an  address  to  the  white  people  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  bordering  on  the  country  inhabited  by  the 
latter.  .  . 

The  captains  of  the  sloops  which  came  witii  us  to  tliis  place  having  insisted  upon  receiving  their  money  here,  we 
have  accordingly  paid  them.  .  , 

We  have  the  honor  to  be.  sir,  your  obedient  humble  servants. 

The  Honorable  the  Secretary  of  JFar.'"' 




From  Savannah  we  transmitted  friendly  talks  to  the  Cherokees,   Chickasaws,  and  Choctaws,  expressed  in 

the  following  words: 

"  A  message  to  the  Cherokee  nation  of  Indians,  from  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  for  restoring  and  esta- 
blishing peace  and  amity  between  the  United  Slates  of  America  and  all  the  Indian  nations  situated  within 
the  limits  of  the  said  States,  soutlnvurd  of  the  river  Ohio:  •     '       '  .    ' 

Brothers  or  the  Cherokee  nation! 

We  have  been  made  very  liappy,  by  receiving  infoi-mation  from  the  public  newspapers,  thatj  on  the  16th  of 
June  last,  a  truce  was  ccmcluded  with  your  nation  by  the  commissioner  of  North  ('arolina,  on  behalf  of  that  State, 
and  that,  in  this  truce,  a  treaty  was  stipulated  to  be  held  as  soon  as  possible,  and  in  the  mean  time,  that  all  hostili- 
ties should  cease  on  both  sides. 

Whereupon,  we,  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  aforesaid,  do  think  proper  to  confirm  the  said  truce,  and  to 
give  the  strongest  assurances  of  the  friendly  dispositions  (if  the  United  States  towards  the  Cherokee  nation;  and  we 
have  made  the  same  known  to  all  those  whom  it  might  concern,  and  particularly  to  all  the  inhaljitants  of  the 
frontiers  bordering  on  the  Cherokee  towns  and  settlemenls;  declaring,  in  conse(iuence  of  the  full  powers  vested  in 
us  by  the  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  of  America,  that  it  is  liie  sincere  intention  of  the  said  States  to 
cultivate  a  friendly  iiitercourse  between  our  citizens  and  your  people,  and  strictly  enjoining  an  observance  of  the 
truce  aforesaid  upon  the  former. 

Head-mEn  and  warring  chiefs  of  all  the  Cherokees,  hearken  to  what  wc  have  to  say  to  you! 

Notwithstanding  tiiere  are  some  difficulties,  arising  from  the  local  claims  of  North  Carolina,  which  prevent  us  at 
present  from  writing  to  you,  so  fully  as  we  could  wish;  yet  we  would  not  omit  so  goorl  an  opportunity  to  assure  you, 
by  the  return  of  your  beloved  man  Mr.  Bennet  Ballew,  and  your  beloved  chief.  Nontowaky,  that,  when  those  diffi- 
culties shall  be  removed,  the  General  Government  of  the  United  States  will  be  desirous  of  taking  every  wise 
measure  to  carry  into  eflect  the  substance  of  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  as  well  as  to  convince  you  of  their  justice  and 
friendship.  ■ 

Now,  Brothers!  we  have  nothing  more  to  add  at  this  time,  except  that  we  wish  you  all  the  happiness  which  we 
wish  to  the  most  dear  of  our  own  feltow^citizens;  and  that  we  will  send  to  you  another  message  on  the  subject  ot 
public  aftairs,  before  we  shall  return  to  the  beloved  city  of  Congress,  from  whence  we  came. 

Done  at  Savannah,  under  our  hands  and  seals,  this  13tli  day  of  September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1789,  and  in 
the  14th  year  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

I     ,  B.  LINCOLN, 

•  C.  GRIFFIN, 


Attest,  D.  S.  Franks,  iS'ec'i/."  ' 

"^  Message  to  the  Chickasaiv  nation  of  Indians,  from  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  for  restoring  and  esla- 
blishing  peace  ajid  amity  between  the  United  States  of  Jlmerica  and  all  the  Indian  nations  situated  unlhin  the 
limits  of  the  said  Slates,  southward  of  the  river  Ohio: 

Brothers  OF  the  Chickasaw  nation:  .  •  '        .        ■      • 

AVe  are  glad,  by  the  return  of  your  beloved  man,  Mr.  Bennet  Ballew,  into  your  country,  to  assure  you  of  the 
continuance  of  the  strong  friendship  of  the  United  States  of  America  for  your  nation. 

We  hope  that  the  peace  \vliich  was  established  between  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States 
of  America  and  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  of  all  the  Chickasaws,  at  Hopewell  on  the  Keowee,  tiie  tenth  day  of 
January,  in  the  year  of  our  Lortl  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty  six,  will  last  as  long  as  the  sun  shall  shine 
in  the  Heaven,  or  the  rivers  run  into  the  ocean. 

Brothers:  We  rejoice  to  inform  you  of  many  good  things  which  have  happened  to  our  nation  since  that  treaty; 
we  have  been  fast  recovering  from  the  wounds  that  were  made  upon  us  by  the  British  in  the  late  war. 

Our  people  are  increasing  in  number  every  day.  The  white  men  in  the  other  great  continent  begin  more  and 
more  to  respect  us;  we  are  at  peace  with  all  the  world;  a  new  and  great  council  fire  is  kindled  at  our  beloved  city  of 
New  York,  where  the  old  ana  the  wise  men,  from  all  our  States,  come  to  consult  and  promote  the  i)rosperity  of  all 

10  *        •  '•  t  *       ■  •     '      • 

70  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1790, 

Our  union  is  strong:  for,  Brothers,  we  thinly  and  act  like  one  man;  our  great  warrior,  General  Waslnngton,  who, 
you  very  well  know,  drove  our  enemies  all  beyond  tiie  great  water,  is  now  the  head-man  of  all  our  councils,  and  the 
chief  of  all  our  warriors;  lie,  by  the  advice  of  his  wise  counsellors,  has  commanded  us  to  tell  you,  that  the  United 
States  regard  the  red  men  with  the  same  favorable  eye  that  they  do  the  white  men,  and  that  justice  shall  always  be 

maintained  equally  between  them.  ,■  .     ^       .  w         *u  4i     r.i    tt  •      r 

Now,  HEAD-MEN  AND  WARRING  CHIEFS  OF  ALL  THE  Lhickasaws,  listen  to  usI  VV  e  avc  the  mouth  01  the  Union  for 
you,  and'say  that  we  are  perfectly  satisfied  witii  your  conduct  since  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  and  trust  we  have  given  you 
reason  to  be  satisfied  with  ours.  All  that  remains  lor  both  nations,  is  to  continue  to  act  the  same  open  and  friendly 
part.  You,  Brothers,  may  rest  assured  that  your  interests  are  always  near  to  our  hearts,  and  that,  in  conformity  to 
the  true  intent  and  meaning  of  tiie  eighth  article  of  the  said  treaty,  the  General  Government  of  the  United  .States 
will,  as  soon  as  the  circumstances  may  conveniently  admit,  take  measures  for  extending  more  fully  to  the  Chicka- 
saws,  the  benefits  and  comforts  arising  from  a  well  regulated  and  mutually  advantageous  trade. 

Brothers,  farewell :  we  wish  you  all  tlie  happiness  and  prosperity  which  we  wish  to  our  fellow  citizens,  the  wliite 
men  of  the  United  States.  . 

Done  at  Savannah,  under  our  hands  and  seals,  this  13th  day  of  September,  in  the  year  ot  our  Lord  one  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  eighty-nine,  and  in  tlie  14th  year  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

B.  JuliN l^OljJN , 
.  C.  GRIFFIN. 

■   .  /        ,  '    .    ^  ■       .      '         D.  HUiMPHREYS. 

Attest,  David  S.  Franks,  Secretary ^  .■:■,■.- 

A  similar  message,  with  the  necessary  alterations,  was  sent  to  the  Choctaws.    •■',..: 

We  also  gave  to  Mr.  Ballew,  a  copy  of  an  address  to  the  wliite  inhabitants  contiguous  to  the  Cherokee  nation, 
accompanied  by  the  letter  which  follows  it: 

"  7^0  all  those  ivhom  it  may  concern.  •  ' 

"  The  commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  America,  for  restoring  and  establishing  peace  and  amity  between  the 
United  States  and  all  nations  of  Indians  situated  within  tl-.e  limits  of  the  said  States,  southward  of  the  river  Ohio, 
send  greeting: 

Forasmuch  as  we  have  been  given  to  understand,  that  a  truco  hath  lately  been  concluded  at  the  War-ford, 
between  the  commissioners  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  on  the  one  part,  and  the  head-men  of  the  Cherokees  on 
the  other;  in  expectation  that  a  further  negotiation  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  permanent  peace  and  tranquillity 
will  take  place,  as  soon  as  the  circumstances  may  admit:  and  whereas  we  have  sent  an  ofticial  message;to  the  Chero- 
kee nation,  with  lull  assurances  of  tlie  continuation  of  the  good  disposition  and  friendly  intentions  of  tlie  United 
States  towards  tliem: 

Now,  therefore,  we  the  commissioners  plenipotentiary  aforesaid,  do  think  proper  to  make  tlie  sanie  known  to  all 
the  inhabitants  of  the  frontiers,  bordering  on  the  tov/ns  and  settlements  ot' the  said  Cherokee  nation;  and  we  do 
declare,  in  virtue  of  the  full  powers  vested  in  us,  by  the  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  of  America,  that  it  is 
the  sincere  intention  of  thesaid  United  States  to  cultivate  a  friendly  intercourse  r.nd  perpetual  harmony  between  the 
citizens  of  the  United  States  and  the  Southern  Indians  on  their  frontiers,  upon  terms  of  perfect  equality  and  mutual 

We  therefore  enjoin  an  observance  of  tiie  truce  aforesaid,  and  further  declare,  tliat  any  infraction  of  the  tran- 
quillity now  subsisting  between  the  said  contracting  parties,  would  directly  contravene  the  manifest  intention,  and 
highly  incur  the  displeasure,  of  the  supreme  authority  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

Done  at  Savannah,  under  our  hands  and  seals,  this  13th  day  of  September,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1789,  and  in 
the  14th  year  of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  of  Am»rica. 

.  .  ,  B.  LINCOLN, 

'''".•'■  ■■  .'.  C.  GRIFFIN, 


Attest,  David  S.  Franks,  Secretary.'"' 

.  ■  "■     '  '  . 

•       .  '•''SAYxtiNAH,  13th  September,  1789. 

"Sir:  .    .  ,     .  .• 

We  have  thought  proper  to  entrust  to  your  care,  friendly  messages  from  us,  the  commissioners  pleniijotentiarr 
of  the  United  States'of  America,  for  restoring  and  establishing  peace  and  amity  between  tlv:>  United  States  and  all 
the  Indian  nations,  situated  within  the  limits  of  the  said  States,  southward  of  the  river  Ohio,  to  the  Cherokee, 
Chickasaw,  and  Choctaw  nations  of  Indians,  which  you  will  be  pleased  to  deliver  to  the  great  councds  of  their  several 
nations.  We  have  also  given  to  you,  for  the  satisfiiction  of  the  Cherokees,  a  copy  of  the  address  which  we  propose 
to  transmit  to  the  white  inhabitants  contiguous  to  the  Cherokee  nation.  Relying  upon  your  diligence  and  zeal  to 
execute,  with  de.spatch  and  fidelity,  the  business  that  we  have  committed  to  you,  we  wish  you  a  prosperous  journey, 
and  are,  with  due  consideration, 

Sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants 




Mr.  Bennet  Bai.lew." 

On  the  13th  we  left  Savannah,  and  on  the  ITth  arrived  at  Augusta.  We  announced  our  arrival  to  the  Gover- 
nor the  same  evening,  and  the  next  morning  addressed  to  liim  the  following  note: 

"■  '      -  '       •' '  .  '       '■'        ,         ,  '^  AvGvsTA,  18th  September,  17S9. 

Sir:  '  •        ' 

We  are  extremely  unhappy  to  find  that  your  honor  was  so  much  indisposed  as  to  prevent  you  from  receiving 
company  at  the  time  of  our  arrival  last  evening.  We  did  not,  therefore,  trouble  you  with  the  letters  we  had  in 
charge  for  your  honor,  until  this  morning.  We  now  take  the  earliest  moment  of  laying  them  before  you,  with  our 
best  wishes  for  the  re-establishment  of  your  health. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  sentiments  of  the  highest  consideration  and  esteem. 

Sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 



His  Honor  the  Governor  of  the  State  of  Georgia." 

To  which  his  Honor  was  pleased  to  reply:  .  •  ,  „  , 

.■■.:,  ^' AvGvsTA,  18th  September,  1789, 


i  am  happy  that  you  are  arrived  thus  far  on  the  business  with  which  you  are  charged.  Whilst  we  had  iiater- 
ing  expectations  that  the  proposed  treaty  would  have  taken  place  with  the  Creeks,  we  feel  an  additional  consolation 
in  your  appointment,  from  the  knowledge  you  will  derive,  by  the  incidents  of  your  negotiations,  of  all  the  causes  of 
our  complaints.  -  . 

1790.]  .  THE   SOUTHERN   TRIBES.  7I 

Not  having  recently  heard  from  the  Rock  Landing;,  I  could  not  farther  act  on  that  part  of  your  despatcli  of  (he 
11th,  respecting  provisions,  than  by  sending  for  the  State  agent  to  meet  you  at  this  place,  whose  arrival  I  expect 
every  moment. 

Upon  the  otiier  parts  of  that,  and  the  whole  of  those  of  this  morning,  I  shall  be  happy  to  see  you  before  I  go  inti) 
council;^  and,  as  far  as  lies  in  my  power,  and  I  may  respond  for  the  Executive  council,  you  may  rely  on  the  support 
of  the  Government,  in  the  accomplishment  of  the  objects  of  your  mission. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sirs,  with  mucli  consideration,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 


The  Honorable  the  Commissioners  Plcmpolentiary  for 
negotiating  icith  the  Indians  south  of  the  Ohio.  *' 

After  a  free  conversation  with  the  Governor,  ontlie  objects  of  the  mission,  he  wrote  us  a  note,  enclosing  an  act 
of  the  Council  of  tlie  same  date. 

"Augusta,  18//z  September,  1789. 
"  Sirs:  •  ' 

I  do  myself  the  honor  of  enclosing  to  you  a  proceeding  of  the  Executive  authoi-ity  of  this  day.  Tiiose  details. 
which  it  shall  be  necessary  to  go  into  on  thescfme  ground,  shall  be  communicated  to  you  by  express,  through, 

Sirs,  your  most  obedient  servant, 


TTie  Honorable  the  Commissioners  for  Indmn  Affairs. "  ■  ■ 

..  ■  .  ''l^Covscih,  Augusta,  \%th  September.  ^T&'S. 

"  The  letter  of  the  honorable  the  commissioners  for  negotiating  treaties  with  the  Indians  south  of  the  Ohio,  of 
the  Ilth  instant,  dated  at  Savannah,  being  taken  up,  and  another  letter  of  the  18th,  announcing  their  arrival  at 
Augusta,  and  enclosing  a  despatch  from  the  War  Office,  of  the  29th  of  August  last,  being  read  ancf  considered : 

It  is  ordered,  that  tiie  said  commissioners  be  assured,  that  every  assistance  in  the  p3wer  of  the  State  shall  be 
given,  which  may  be  necessarj-  to  give  facility  and  effect  to  their  negotiations  with  the  Creek  Indians. 

Extract  from  the  minutes. 

J.  MERIWETHER,  Scc'ij  E.  C." 

An  answer  to  our  letter  of  the  1 1th,  to  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne,  was  received  at  this  place: 

"Rock  Landing,  16//i  Sept.  1789. 

We  had,  this  day,  the  honor  to  receive  your  joint  letter  of  the  11th  instant.  Every  arrangement  that  was 
in  our  power  to  make,  preparative  to  the  treaty,  has  been  completed  for  two  weeks  past,  and  the  Indians  have  been 
encamped  at  the  distance  directed  by  the  Secretaiy  of  War,  during  the  same  period. 

We  have  used  e\  ery  exertion  to  keep  the  Indians  together,  and  in  good  humor,  which  has  hitherto  been  done 
with  great  difficulty.  The  same  zeal  and  industry  shall  be  continued  on  our  part,  for  their  continuance,  but  at  the 
same  time  it  is  necessary  to  give  you_the  earliest  information,  that  the  Indians  will  not  remain  after  Friday  next, 
urdess  you  arrive  here  before  the  expiration  of  that  day;  tliis  Mr.  McGillivray  informed  us  yesterday,  though  it  is 
his  wish  to  remain  longer. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  gentlemen,  with  due  respect,  your  obedient  servants, 

The  Hon.  B.  LiNcotx,  C.  Griffin,  D.  Humphreys,  Esqrs.*' 

To  which  we  made  the  following  reply: 

^^^  "Augusta,  18th  September,  1789. 


We  have  just  been  honored  by  the  receipt  of  the  letter  which  you  addressed  to  us  on  the  1 6th  instant,  and  are  ' 
inexpressibly  astonished  at  the  inforimilion  which  you  have  given,  as  it  is  so  diametrically  contrary  to  the  ideas  which  ' 
ms  honor  the  Governor  of  this  State  had  a  lew  moments  before  held  out  to  us. 

Trusting,  gentlemen,  that  you  will  still  continue  your  utmost  exertions  to  keep  the  Indians  together,  and  diat,  in 
all  events,  you  will  have  the  goodness  to  forward  the  letter  which  accompanies  this  to  Mr.  McGdlivray,  with  the 
utmost  despatch, 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect,  gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

.     •  C.  GRIFFIN, 

•r    Xf  T>  n  n    LT      ,■      ^,  D.  HUMPHREYS. 

lo  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne,  Itock  Landing.  ' 

By  the  same  express  we  wrote  to  Mr.  McGillivray: 

"  AvGvsTA,  September  I8th,  1789. 

We  left  New  York  eigliteen  days  ago,  invested  with  full  powers,  from  the  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United 
States  of  Amenca,  to  conclude  a  treaty  of  peace  and  amity  with  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians.  For  the  accomplish- 
ment ot  an  object  of  so  much  importance,  we  have  pressed  our  journey  with  uncommon  expedition.  We  arrived 
here  last  evening,  and,  alter  making  the  necessary  arrangements  tor  our  luggage  to  follow,  we  propose  departing  from 
this  place  lor  the  Rock  Landing  tiiis  afternoon. 

Being  this  moment  greatly  astonished  by  information  from  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne,  that  the  Indians  would 
certainly  disperse,  unless  we  should  arrive  wtihiii  three  days  after  the  very  day  which  was  originally  appointed  foe 
the  meeting,  we  shall  accelerate  our  journey  as  much  as  possible.  We  therefore  send  an  express  with  this  letter,  to 
letyou  know  that  we  shall  be  at  the  Rock  Landing  the  day  after  to-morrow,  and  to  assure  you,  that,  if  a  lastiii" 
peace  and  friendship  shall  not  be  established,  between  the  United  States  and  the  Creeks,  it  will  not  be  owing  to  the 
want  of  the  best  dispositions  on  the  part  of  the  fonner. 

.  We  are,  sir,  with  due  respect,  your  obedient  humble  servants, 

The  Hon.  Alexander  McGillivray,  Esq.*' 




4U  ^nJi^^  afternoon  of  the  18th  we  pursued  our  journey,  and  two  of  the  commissioners  reached  the  Lock  Handing  on 
Ihejoth,  at  evening,  the  other  being  unavoidably  detained  on  the  road  The  following  note  was  immediately  sent 
to  Mr.  McGillivray,  to  which  he  replied  early  the  next  morning: 

-JO  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

"  Rock  Landing,  20<A  September,  1789. 

"  The  commissioners  present  their  most  respectful  compliments  to  Mr.  Alexander  McGilliyray,  chie.f  ot  the 
Creek  Nation,  and  have  the  pleasure  to  announce  tliat  a  majority  ot  them,  a  lew  moments  since,  ai-rived  at  this  place, 
and  tha't,  without  delay,  they  shall  be  ready  to  proceed  to  business. 

Alexander  McGiLLivRAY  Esq.  Grea/ CAie/ 0/ «^^ '^*«  ^»'«f^*' <^c-" 

•  , '  .  ,  "  September  20th',  1789. 


"  Alexander  McGillivray,  and  the  rest  of  the  chiefs,  are  very  glad  to  hear  of  flie  arrival  of  the  honorable  the 
commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  America  at  the  Rock  Landing.  A  few  principal  chiefs  intend  to  visit 
them  this  forenoon. 

The  Honorable  the  Commissioners  ,     -r.    7   r      7-      „ 

of  the  United  States  of  America,  at  the  Rdck  Landing. "  .         . 

About  11  o'clock,  the  following  note  from  Mr.  McGillivray  was  received:  ■       >  ■ 


Some  of  the  principal  cliiefs,  accompanied  by  an  interpreter,  named  Derezeau,  go  over  to  pay  you  a  visit  this 
/  forenoon.  I  beg  leave  to  suggest  to  you,  that  a  private  conversation  between  us  will  be  necessary,  previous  to  the 
openin"  of  the  treaty;  and  this  camp  I  think  the  most  convenient  place  for  the  purpose.  I  could  therefore  wish  to  be 
honoreil  with  the  company  of  one  or  two  of  you  this  evening.  In  suggesting  this  measure,  I  intreat,  gentlemen,  that 
you  will  not  consider  it  as  proceeding  from  a  want  of  the  proper  attention  in  me,  which  is  due'to  the  very  respect- 
able characters  that  compose  the  present  commission. 

I  am,  very  respectlully,  gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  servant, 


The  Cussetah  king,  the  Tallasee  king,  and  the  Hallowing  king,  attended  the  commissioners  accordingly,  as  a 
deputation  from  the  whole  nation,  to  congratulate  them  on  their  arrival.  ,.  ,      ,      .  .       , 

After  the  customary  ceremony,  they  all  expressed  the  most  ardent  wishes  to  establish  a  lagtmg .  peace  with  tlie 
United  States,  and  declared  their  extreine  joy  that  the  diiy  was  come,  wliich  aftbrded  a  fair  opportunity  for  accom- 
plishing an  object  so  interesting  and  desirable  to  their  nation. 

Soon  after  tliis  interview,  the  following  talk  was  sent  to  the  Indian  camp: 
"  To  the  Hon.  Alexander  Mc  Gillivray,  great  chief,  and  all  the  other  head  7nen  and  warring  chiefs  of  the  Creek  Nation: 
"■  Brothers:  . 

Having  been  honored  with  a  commission  by  tlie  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  of  America,  to  con- 
clude a  treaty  of  peace  and  amity  with  your  nation,  v/e  think  it  expedient,  in  the  first  instance,  to  show  you  our  full 
powers;  on  the  other  part,  we  desire  to  be  favored,  by  you,  with  such  evidence  as  the  nature  of  the  case  may  admit, 
of  the  fullness  and  autlienticity  of  the  representation  of  the  Creek  nation  which  is  now  present. 

These  preliminaries  being  satisfactorily  settled,  so  that  hereafter  there  may  be  no  complaints  ot  partial  or  defec- 
tive representations,  we  shaU  be  ready  to  make  our  further  communications,  as  soon  as  the  Honorable  Mr.  Griffin, 
our  colleague,  shall  arrive,  which  will  probably  be  to-morrow.  ^^^^^^  t^t 


Zlst  September,  1789."  •      •  ' 

Much  conversation  was  had  \vlth  Mr.  McGillivray  upon  the  subjects  of  our  negotiation,  at  the  camp  of  the 
Indians,  on  tiie  evening  of  tiie  21st,  and  at  the  quarters  of  the  coimnissioners,  the  22nd,  where  Mi'-  McGillivray  and 
a  number  of  the  other  chiefs  passed  the  day.  -,^  ^.■„.  j  ..     ,  1       1  u    ^l 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  23d,  a  letter  was  sent  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  the  day  was  employed  by  the  com- 
missioners in  completing  the  draugiit  of.  a  treaty,  and  other  communications  to  be  laid,  before  the  great  council  of 
the  nation. 

"Rock  Landing,  23fZ  September,  1789. 

"  Sir* 

We  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  the  honorable  Mr.  Griffin  arrived  here  the  last  evening.  We  are  now 
engaged  in  preparing  the  communications  we  intend  to  make  to  your  nation,  which,  it  agreeable  to  you,  will  be  de- 
livered to-morrow  morning.  General  Lincoln  and  General  Pickens  will  have  the  pleasure  of  attending  this  lore- 
noon  at  your  black  drink.  ,,-    ,        xl    i  ^   u     c 

W  e  have  the  honor  to  be,  &.c. 

Alex.  McGillivray,  Esq.  CAie/o/;Ae  CrceA:?ia<20?2."  y^  " 

At  the  conference  between  General  Lincoln  and  Mr.  McGillivray,  it  was  agreed  that  the  Creeks  should  attend 
the  commissioners  the  next  day  at  11  o'clock,  to  hear  what  they  had  to  communicate.  However,  late  in  the  same 
evening,  it  was  understood  that  it  would  be  a  matter  of  convenience  for  the  Indians  to  receive  the  talks  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Oconee,  and  the  commissioners  accordingly  wrote  the  subsequent  letter: 

"Rock  Landing,  23d  iSep^emfter,  1789. 

"  Sir:  ".'•.. 

As  we  are  disposed  to  do  every  thing  in  our  power  to  accomplish  the  objects  of  our  mission,  without  an  undue 
regard  to  matters  of  form,  and  as  we  understand  it  would  be  a  matter  of  convenience  for  your  people,  that  we  should 
attend  on  your  ground  for  the  purpose  of  making  our  communications  to-morrow,  we  have  no  objections  to  passing 
the  river  to  your  camp  upon  that  occasion.  You  will  therefore  be  pleased  to  consider  this  letter  as  designed  to  take 
away  all  cause  of  jealousy,  and  to  put  it  in  your  option  to  arrange  the  time  and  place  ot  conference  m  such  manner  ats 
shall  be  most  satisfactory  to  the  Creeks.     We  shall  expect  your  answer  by  the  bearer,  and,  in  the  mean  time,  we 

have  the  honor  to  be, 

Sir,  your  obedient  servants, 

'  B.  LINCOLN, 

AxEX.  McGillivray,  Esq.  CAie/o/</ie  Creeft  waft'on." 

1790.]  THE   SOUTHERN  TRIBES.  73 

To  which  Mr.  McGillivray  replied  the  next  morning: 

''■IsDiAJiCxyiP,  Oconee  Biver,  24th  Si'pten7ber.  1789. 
"  Gentlemen:  , 

I  have  tliis  morning  received  your  letter,  which  I  explained  to  the  chiefs,  who  appear  satisfied  to  find  that 
.  you  are  disposed  to  make  your  communications  to  them  on  this  side  of  the  river.     They  therefore  desire  that  they 
may  be  favored  with  your  company  this  morning,  at  the  ceremonyof  their  black  drink;  when  that  is  over,  they  wish 
immediately  to  proceed  to  business  with  you. 

I  liave  the  lionor  to  be,  &c. 


The  Hon.  the  Comnmsioncrs  of  the  United  States  o/.^menca,  ^-c.  ^-c.  Bock  Landing.^'' 

At  the  time  appointed,  the  commissioners  attended  the  ceremony  of  black  drink,  and  were  conducted  to  the 
gi-eat  square  of  the  encampment  by  all  the  kings,  chiefs,  and,  in  solemn  psmip,  and  much  apparent  ftiendship. 
The  commissioners  then  proceeded  to  businfess,,  and  having  read  and  explained  their  commission,  gave  the  followins; 
talk:  ,        "^  . 

"  Kings,  Head-men,  and  Warriors  of  the  Creek  nation:  This  parclnnent  which  we  iiold  in  our  hands,  and 
a  copy  ot  which  we  now  deliver,  has  informed  you  that  we  are  appointeif  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  with  the  advice  of  his  old  counsellors,  commissioners  plenipotentiary  for  restoring  an(l  establishing  peace 
and  amity  between  the  United  States  and  all  the  nations  of  Indians  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  south- 
ward of  the  river  Ohio. 

Brothers  of  the  Creek  nation,  aitexdI  "We  trust  that  the  great  master  of  breath  who  formed  us  all  bro- 
thers, whetlier  white  men  or  red  men,  has  created  this  day  to  be  the  time  for  preventing  our  people  and  your  people 
fi-onv  taking away^diat  breath  \\W\ch  none  but  he  can  give,  or  should  take  away.  We  appeal  to  you.  and  ask,  are  not 
the  pains  and  the  misefies  of  the  human  race  natural Ty  severe  enough,  whithout  their  endeavoring,  by  unkindness,  to 
increase  the  portion  of  bitterness  and  sorrow  \\liich  must,  of  necessity,  fall  to  the  l«t  of  man.-  Let  us  try  to  make 
each  other  happy,  and  not  wretched.  It  is  in  this  way  that  the  General  Go\  eminent  of  the  United  States  of  Anife- 
lica  intend  to  act  with  all  the  world. 

Friends  and  Brothers:  We  will  first  speak  of  the  present  state  and  policy  of  our  nation:  and  we  will  speak 
nextof  the  reasons  whicli  ought  to  induce  you  to  be  in  alliance  with  us,  rather  than  with  any  other  people  whatever. 

Although,  Brothers,  we  cannot  entirely  forget  the  calamities  we  sufi'ered  in  the  late  war  with  Great  Britain,  yet 
we  have  buried  all  resentments  for  the  part  whicli  the  allies  of  Britain  acted  in  that  bloody  scene.  That  war  left  many 
of  our  cities,  villages,  and  towns,  in  a  ruinous  condition;  but  we  obtained  liberly  and  independence.  Our  country 
has  recovered  from  desolation.  We  are  at  peace  with  all  the  nations  of  the  world.  We  are  increasing  every  day  in 
numbers.  We  have  the  means  of  happiness  in  onr  power,  and  wish  to  communicate  them  to  you.  Our  lands  are  so 
extensive  that  they  enjov  all  seasons,  and  yield  all  productions.  ( )ur  great  ships  are  made  to  go  in  every  part  of  the 
world,  where  goods  and  merchanise  can  be  (ibtained.  Our  Union,  v.hich  was  a  child,  is  grown  up  to  manhood;  so 
that  it  can  speak  with  a  louder  voice,  and  strike  with  a  stnmger  arm,  than  ever  it  has  done  before:  for  you  must 
know,  that  a  happy  ciiange  has  taken  place  in  our  iiational  Government.  One  great  council  is  established,  with  full 
powers  to  promote  the  public  good.  General  Washington,  who  led  our  armies  to  con(|uest  wherever  he  turned  his  face, 
IS  now  the  head-man  of  all  our  councils,  and  chief  of  all  our  warriors.  You  know  him.  and  he  never  speaks  the  thing 
which  is  not.  He  has  commanded  us  to  tell  you.  thai,  while  the  General  Government  of  confederated  America  will 
\in(licate  the  light  of  every  member  of  the  Union,  it  will  also  see  that  justice  shall  lie  done  to  the  nations  ot  Indians 
situate<l  within  the  limits  of  the  United  States.  And  we  are  authorized  lo  declare  and  make  known,  that  the  United 
States  will  guaranty  and  defend  to  you,  all  the  lands  of  your  nation  within  the  limits  aforesaid,  and  which  shall  not 
be  clearly  ceded  to  any  part  of  the  iTiion. 

Friends  and  Bkoiiieus  of  ihe  ('reek  nation:  A  few  words  only  are  necessary  to  ni-ove  to  you,  that  it  will  be 
more  natural  for  you  to  be  allied  w  ith  us,  than  with  any  other  peo|)le.  You  are  under  the  necessity  of  being  con- 
nected with  the  w  liite  men.  because  you  want  their  goods  and  merchandise.  \>'e  can  make  a  reasonable  profit,  by  your 
articles  of  export,  and  aft"ord  such  imports  as  you  may  want,  at  rates  cheaper  tlian  they  can  be  obtained, in  any  other 
place.  A  secure  port  in  our  country  will  be  much  more  convenient  for  you  than  a  port  in  any  other  country.  Thus 
both  of  us  will  be  gainers  by  being  fi'iends.  Tlie  promotion  of  our  mutual  interest  will  promote  our  mutual  friendship. 
This  will  be  found  the  only  sure  method  to  make  a  peace  happy  and  lasting. 

Brothers:  AVe  have  nothing  more  to  say  to  you  at  present;  but,  if  you  like  this  talk,  and  are  possessed  of  the 
same  good  disnosition  for  us  which  we  entertain  in  good  faith  for  you,  we  are  ready  to  propose  to  yon  the  draught  of 
a  treaty,  which  we  think  ipay  be  the  foundation  of  a  permanent  treaty  of  peace  and  amity." 

The  talk  having  been  received  with  strong  marks  of  approbation,  the  commissioners  then  presented  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  nation  the  draught  of  a  treaty,  as  follows: 

^'  .irticles  of  peace  and  amity  agreed  upon  hctween  Ihe  President  of  the  United  States  of  .America,  in  behalf  of  the 
said  States,  by  the  underwritlen  commissioners  plenipotentiary,  o}i  the  one  part,  and  the  undersigned  kings, 
head-men,  ana  warriors,  of  all  the  Creeks,  in  behcdf  of  themselves,  and  the  Creek  nation,  on  the  other. 

Article  I.  There  shall  be  a  perpetual  peace  and  friendship  between  all  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  and_  all  the  towns,  tribes,  and  individuals,  of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Creeks. 

Art.  2.  The  boundary  between  the  citizens  of  the  said  United  States  and  the  Creeks,  is,  and  shall  be,  from 
where  the  former  line  strikes  the  river  Savannah;  thence,  up  the  said  river,  to  a  place  on  the  most  northern  branch  of 
the  same,  commonly  called  the  Keeowec,  where  a  northeast  line,  to  be  drawn  from  the  top  of  the  Occunna  moun- 
tain, shall  intersect;  thence,  alongthe  said  line,  in  a  southwest  direction,  to  Tugaloe  river:  thence  to  the  top  of  the 
Currahee  mountain ;  thence,  to  the  head  of  the  most  southern  branch  of  the  Oconee  river,  that  is  to  say,  the  river  Apa- 
lachy,  including  all  the  waters  of  the  same:  thence,  down  the  said  river,  to  the  confluence  of  the  Oakmulgee:  thence, 
on  a  southwest  direction,  to  the  most  southern  part  of  the  river  St.  Mary;  thence,  down  the  said  river,  to  the  old  line. 

Art.  3.  The  Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  solemnly  guaranties  to  the  Creeks  all  their  remaining 
territory,  against  all  aggression  or  unjust  usurpation  whatever,  and  vv'ill  support  the  said  guarantee,  if  necessary,  by 
a  line  of  military  posts. 

Art.  4.  The  said,  Indian  chiefs,  for  themselves,  and  their  respective  towns  and  tribes  within  the  limits  of  the 
United  States,  do  acknowledge  the  Creeks  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  supreme  authority  of  the  United  States, 
and  of  no  other  sovereign  whosoever;  and,  also,  that  they  are  not  to  hold  any  treaty  with  an  individual  State,  or 
with  individuals  of  any  State. 

Art.  5.  If  any  citizen  or  citizens  of  the  Unifed  States  shall  presume  to  settle  upon  the  lands  guarantied  to  the 
Creek  nation  by  this  ti-eaty,  he  or  they  shall  be  put  out  of  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  ancfthe  Creeks  may 
punish  him  or  them  if  they  shall  think  proper. 

Art.  6.  For  the  mutual  advantage  of  the  contracting  parties,  it  is  stipulated,  that  a  free  trade  and  friendly  inter- 
course shall  always  be  maintained  between  them;  ancl,  for  the  particular  benefit  of  the  said  Creek  nation,  it  is 
farther  stipulated,  that  a  secure  post  shall  be  established,  at  a  place  known  by  the  name  of  Beard's  Bluft",  on  the 
liver  Altamaha,  or,  if  that  shall  be  found  inconvenient,  at  such  otVier  place  as  shall  hereafter  be  agreed  upon;  into 
Avliich,  or  from  which,  the  Creeks  may  import  or  export  all  the  articles  of  goods  and  merchandise  necessary  to  the 
Indian  commerce,  on  the  same  terms  as  the  citizens  of  the  United  States:  Provided,  That  the  number  of  arms,  and 
quantity  of  ammunition,  shall  not  exceed  their  annual  necessary  supply  for  hunting.  And  if  any  just  apprehension 
should  be  entertained  by  the  Creeks,  for  the  safety  of  the  goods  and  merchandise,  so  imported  or  exported,  the 

74  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

Supreme  Executive  of  the  United  States  will  take  efiectual  measures  for  protecting  the  same,  by  stationing  a  body 
of  regular  troops  at  the  said  post. 

Art.  7.  The  General  Government  of  the  United  States  haying  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  of  regulating  the 
trade  between  their  citizens  and  the  Indians,  within  the  limits  of  their  territories,  will,  as  soon  as  may  be,  adopt  an 
equitable  system  for  the  prevention  of  injuries  and  oppressions  on  the  citizens  or  Indians;  and,  in  the  mean  time, 
all  traders,  citizens  of  the  United  States,  shall  have  liberty  to  go  to  any  towns  or  tribes  of  the  Creeks  to  trade  with 
them,  and  they  sliall  be  protected  in  their  persons  and  property,  and  kmdiy  treated. 

Art.  8.  It  any  Indian  or  Indians,  or  persons  residing  among  the  Creeks,  or  wlio  shall  take  refuge  in  their  nation, 
shall  commit  a  robbery  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  on  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  of  America,  or  person 
under  their  protection,  the  tribe  to  which  such  offender  may  belong,  or  the  nation,  shall  be  bound  to  deliver  him  or 
them,  to  be  punished  according  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States :  Provided,  The  punishment  shall  not  be 
greater  than  if  the  robbery  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  had  been  committed  by  a  citizen  on  a  citizen. 

Art.  9.  And  if  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  of  America,  or  person  under  llieir  protection,  shall  commit  a 
robbery  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  on  any  Indian,  such  offender  shall  be  punished  in  the  same  manner  as  if 
the  robbery  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  had  been  committed  on  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and 
the  punishment  shall  be  in  presence  of  some  of  the  Creeks,  if  any  will  attend;  and  tliat  they  may  have  an  opportunity 
so  to  do,  proper  notice,  if  practicable,  ot  tlie  time  and  place  of  such  intended  punishment,  shall  be  sent  to  some  one 
of  the  tribes. 

Art.  10.  It  is  understood  that  the  punishment  of  the  innocent,  under  the  idea  of  retaliation,  is  unjust,  and 
shall  never  be  practised  on  either  side. 

Art.  11.  The  kings,  head-men,  and  warriors,  of  the  Creek  nation,  will  restore  to  their  liberty  all  prisoners, 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  now  in  that  nation;  and  they  will  also  restore  all  negroes,  and  all  other  property  taken 
from  citizens  of  the  United  States,  during  the  late  hostilities,  to  such  person  or  persons  as  shall  be  appointed  by  the 
Governor  of  the  State  of  Georgia  to  receive  them. 

Art.  12.  The  Creeks  shall  give  notice  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  of  any  designs  which  they  may  know, 
or  suspect  to  be  formed,  in  any  neighboring  tribe,  or  by  any  person  whosoever,  against  the  peace,  free  trade,  and 
interest,  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  13.  All  animosities  for  past  grievances  shall  henceforth  cease;  "and  the  contracting  parties  will  carry  the 
loregoing  treaty  into  full  execution,  with  all  good  faith  and  sincerity."  , 

After  some  conversation  with  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  the  other  clijefs,  upon  the  business  of  the  day,  the  commis- 
sioners returned  to  their  quarters,  and  received  the  next  morning  the  following  note,  which  was  immediately 
answered :  -.;•'..  -.y  •      '  *  ■  .       "      ■  •     .. 


The  chiefs  were  in  council  until  very  late  last  night.  The  result  appears  to  be,  that  they  are  not  entirely  satis- 
fied with  all  parts  of  your  talk;  tliey  object  principally  to  the  boundary  marked  out  in  the  talk;  however,  it  was  my 
decision  to  let  the  matter  stand  as  it  was  for  the  present — tlie  hunting  season  being  at  hand.  The  chiefs  should  take 
care  to  prevent  every  act  of  hostility  or  depredation  on  the  part  of  the  warriors  during  the  winter,  and  until  we 
heard  farther  from  you  on  the  part  of  the  United  States.  Tiiey  resolve  to  break  up  to  depart;  it  would  be  proper  to 
give  some  presents,  that,  they  may  not  complain  of  losing  their  time,  &c.  &c. 

I  liave  the  honor  to  be,  your  obedient  humble  servant, 


Hon.  the  Commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  Jlmerica,'^  .  • 

\      ■  •■  ■        •    ■  ■  '  ■     .     '  ■       "Rock  Landing,  25/A  iS'ep<e7/i6er,  1789. 

"We  have  received  your  note  of  this  morning,  informing  us  that  the  chiefs  were  in  council  until  very  late  last 
night:  that  it  appeared  they  were  not  entirely  satisfied  with  some  parts  of  our  talk;  that  tliey  principally  objected  to  the 
boundary  line  marked  out  in  it;  that,  however,  it  was  your  decision  to  let  tlie  matter  stand  as  it  was  for  the  present, 
establisliing,  in  the  mean  time,  a  certain  kind  of  a  truce,  until  you  should  hear  farther  from  us  on  the  part  of  the  United 
.States.  As  the  chiefs  object  to  some  part  of  our  propositions,  we  have  to  ask,  that  tliey  will  give  us  in  writing  the 
only  terms  upon  which  they  will  enter  into  a  ti-eaty  with  us.  We  hope  and  trust  that  they,  will  not  separate  without 
affording  us  this  satisfaction,  since  we  are  as  well  prepared  for  concluding  a  treaty  now,  as  we  shall  be  at  any  other 
time.  It  is  by  no  means  probable,  that  the  United  States  will  send  another  commission  to  them.  We  are  not 
authorized  to  make  any  presents  whatever,  unless  a  treaty  of  peace  shall  be  concluded. 

,.  We  have  the  honor  to  be,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

.     -  C.  GRIFFIN, 

The  Hon.  A.  McGillivray,  Chief  of  the  Creek  Nation.''  D.  HUMPHREYS. 

During  this  stage  of  the  business,  Mr.  McGillivray  solemnly  promised  that  he  would  pass  the  Oconee,  and  have 
a  full  and  free  conference  with  the  commissioners  upon  the  subject  of  the  negotiations;  and  not  more  than  an  hour 
before  his  abrupt  departure,  he  repeated  the  promise  to  one  of  them,  that  he  would  state  his  objections  to  the  draught 
of  the  treaty,  either  in  conversation  or  writing,  the  same  afternoon.  Very  soon  after  this,  he  sent  a  verbal  message, 
that  he  was  constrained  to  fall  back  four  or  five  miles,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  better  forage  for  his  hOrses;  and 
that  he  hoped  that  the  commissioners  Avould  not  misconstrue  his  intentions.  Yet,  to  their  astonishment,  they  afterwards 
found  tliat  he  had  retreated  to  a  greater  distance,  under  tlie  false  pretext  mentioned  in  his  subsequent  letter  from 
Oakmulgee.  On  the  26th,  the  following  letter  w  as  wTitten  to  Mr.  McGillivray.  The  honorable  Mr.  Few,  appointed 
by  the  Executive  of  Georgia  to  communicate  with  the  commmissioners.  General  Pickens,  and  Colonel  Saunders,  of 
Georgia,  going  at  the  same  time  to  Mr.  McGillivray's  encampment,  to  convince  him  of  his  error,  and  to  persuade 
him  to  return;  the  Hallowing  king  going  also,  on  the  part  of  the  Indians. 

"•Rock  Landing,  26/A  September,  \7%9. 

*'  Sir: 

We  had,  on  the  24th,  the  pleasure  of  presenting  to  you  the  sketch  of  a  treaty,  wliich  appeared  to  us  such  an 
one  as  you  could,  in  justice  to  yourselves,  all  circumstances  considered,  have  subscribed  to.  In  your  observations 
thereon,  )'0U  say,  that  tliere  are  some  parts  of  our  talk  to  wliich  you  object^principally  to  the  boundary  marked  out 
in  the  talk.  In  answer  to  these  observations,  we  informed  you  that  it  was  our  wish  you  would  give  us.  in  writing, 
the  terms  only  upon  which  you  would  enter  into  a  treaty  with  us.  And  we  requested,  at  the  same  time,  that  you 
would  not  separate  without  affording  us  the  satisfaction  of  receiving  your  final  terms.  We  waited  with  anxious 
expectation,  during  the  afternoon  of  yesterday,  hoping  we  should  be  favored  widi  them:  but.  as  they  have  not  come  to 
hand,  and  we  are  informed  that  you  have  removed  your  camp  to  the  distance  of  fifteen  miles,  without  any  intention 
of  returning,  not  remarking  on  that  conduct  of  yours,  which  has  too  much  the  appearance  of  a  studied  neglect  of  the 
eommissioners,  we  go  on  to  observe,  that,  had  you  given  us  your  objections  to  the  boundaries,  that  w;ould  have 
brought  into  discussion  the  validity  of  former  treaties;  had  it  appeared  to  us,  upon  a  full  investigation  of  this  interest- 
ing matter,  diat  all  had  not  been  right,  and  that  full  and  perfect  justice  had  not  been  done  to  the  Indians,  we  should 
have  been  disposed  to  have  adopted  such  measures  as  would  have  removed  all  reasonable  grounds  of  complaint.    If 

1790.]  THE    SOUTHERN   TRIBES.  75 

you  should  depart  without  this  inquiry  and  full  discussion  of  the  whole  business,  it  cannot  be  considered  in  any 
other  point  of  light,  than  a  refusal  to  establish  any  terms  of  peace  whatever.  1 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c. 


Tlie  Hon.  Alex.  McGillivray,                                                                                           D.  HUMPHREYS. 

Chief  of  the  Creek  nation.^- 

In  the  mean  time,  all  the  other  kings  and  head-men,  attending  at  the  quarters  of  the  commissioners,  addressed 
them  through  the  White  Bird  king,  in  the  following  talk: 

"  You  are  the  great  men  whom  we  look  upon  as  our  brothers,  and  here  are  the  great  men  of  niv  nation,  who  are 
come  to  speak  to  you.  We  have  been  here  a  long  time,  and  we  met  with  you  over  tlie  river  in  iiiendship;  but  all 
our  people  have  got  tired ;  our  horses  are  strayed,  and  a  good  many  of  our  people  are  gone;  yet  I  have  persuaded  seve- 
ral to  stay,  to  have,  once  more,  a  talk  with  you. 

All  the  men  here,  at  present,  are  come  to  take  a  peaceable  leave  of  you.  As  our  hunting  time  is  coming  on  very 
soon,  we  are  come  over  to  hear  what  you  have  to  say  to  us.  Some  of  our  people  are  gone  up  the  river  to  hunt,  in 
their  way  home.  I  have  given  orders  for  them  to  behave  themselves  well.  If  they  go  on  this  side  the  river,  not 
to  take  off  any  of  the  white  people's  horses.  I  hope  tlie  whites  will  also  behave  themselves  well,  and  not  take'  our 
horses.     If  our  people  do  not  observe  these  orders,  they  shall  be  seized  and  sent  down  to  the  whites. 

Although  nothing  should  be  done  at  this  time  about  tlie  treaty,  I  hope  that  it  may  be  done  hereafter,  and  that,  in 
the  mean  time,  peace  and  quietness  will  be  kept  on  both  sides. 

When  we  get  home,  all  our  nation  will  hear  the  talks;  and  they  will  be  peaceable  and  quiet,  for  that  is  the  wish 
of  them  all. 

I  have  little  more  to  say  at  present,  but  that  we  are  not  going  off  affronted,  but  in  peace  and  friendship. 

It  was  the  intention  of  our  people  to  do  something  for  bur  wives  and  children,  and  I  tliink  it  was  also  the  inten- 
tion of  the  white  people.  I  have  nothing  more  to  say,  but  that,  when  we  part,  I  hope  to  shake  hands  in  peace;  and 
all  our  young  people  are  come,  that  they  may  shake  hands  with  you  also." 

Then  the  Cussetah  king  arose,  and  lighting  a  pipe,  presented  it  to  the  commissioners,  and  said,  "'I  look  upon 
you  as  fathers  and  elder  brcvthers,  and  wish  to  smoKe  a  pipe  with  you." 

To  which  the  commissioners  answered:       ^  .         .,  • 

"  Friends  axd  Brothers:  In  answer  to  your  friendly  talk,  we  would  say.  that,  having  come  fiom  a  long  distance, 
we  expected  to  smoke  the  pipe  of  peace  and  friendship  with  you,  and  to  bury  the  hatchet  of  war  forever. 

We  hear  that  your  great  chief  and  beloved  man,  Mr.  McGillivray,  is  gone  from  his  former  camp,  for  which  we 
are  very  sorry. 

The  other  day  we  made  some  propositions  for  a  long  peace  and  friendship.  If  they  were  not  agreeable  to  you, 
why  did  you  not  tell  us.^  and  then  something  else  migiit  have  been  proposed. 

Friends  and  Brothers:  We  are  sent  to  make  a  peace,  whidi  shall  be  good  for  all  parties.  Persuade  your 
great  chief  and  beloved  man,  Mr.  McGillivray.  to  come  back  and  hear  us  again,  tiiat  all  things  may  be  explained. 
VVe  thank  you  tor  your  good  talk,  and  we  hope  you  will  not  return  to  your  nation  until  we  have  taken  each  other 
by  the  hand,  and  concluded  a  lasting  peace  with  all  our  people,  in  fiiendship  and  good  faith.  We  have  no  more  to 
say  to  you  at  present." 

On  the  27th,  we  received  the  following  ansvver  from  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  on  the  next  day  we  wrote  him  our  last 

•  '.  ■    '  '■  Cami',  Oakmu^gee  river,  27//t  «S'ep/e/nier,  1789. 


I  am  favored  witii  your  letter  of  yesterday,  by  Weathorford.  I  beg  to  assure  you,  that  my  retreat  from  my 
former  camp,  on  the  Oconee,  was  entirely  owing  to  the  want  of  food  for  our  horses,  and  at  tlie  earnest  entreaty  of  our 
chiefs.  Colonel  Humj)hieys  and  myself,  at  dlHerent  interviews,  entered  minutely  and  deeply  into  the  subject  of  con- 
test between  our  nation  and  tlie  State  of  Georgia.  I  observed  to  him,  that  we  expected  ample  and  full  justice 
should  be  given  us,  in  restoring  to  us  the  encroachments  we  complained  of,  in  which  the  Oconee  lands  are  included; 
but  finding  that  there  was  no  such  intention,  and  that  a  restitution  of  territory  hunting  grounds  was  not  to  be  the 
basis  ot  a  treaty  of  peace  between  us.  I  resolved  to  return  to  the  nation,  referring  the  matter,  in  full  peace,  till  next 
spring.  Many  of  the  principals  having  gone  hunting,  nothing  farther  can  now  be  d(me.  I  am  very  unwell,  and 
cannot  return.  We  sincerely  desire  a  peace,  but  we  cannot  sacrifice  much  to  obtain  it.  As  for  a  statement  of  our 
disputes,  the  honorable  Congress  has  long  ago  been  in  possession  of,  and  has  declared  that  they  would  decide  on 
them  in  the  principles  of  justice  and  humanity.     'Tis  that  we  expect. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c. 

,„,     „        ,  ALEX.  McGILLIVRAY. 

rhe  Hon.  the  Commissioners  of  the  United  States  of  America,  Rock  Landing.'''' 

*'•  .^         ,     '  ^ 

"  Rock  Landing,  28//i  lyeptoiif/-,  1789. 
"Sir:  • 

We  arc  extremely  sorry  that  you  would  neither  give  us  your  objections  to  our  propositions  for  forming  a 
treaty,  nor  propose  such  terms  as  ^lould  be  acceptable  to  the  Creek  nation,  if  acceded  to  by  us.  Colonel  Hum-  . 
phreys  asserts,  that  he  neither  told,  nor  intimated  to  you,  that  we  had  offered  any  articles  in  our  project  of  a  treaty,  ! 
as  an  ultimatum:  all  our  proceedings  evince  the  same  thing.  You  could  not  avoid  having  understood,  from  our  letter 
of  the  25th,  (which  you  received  previous  to  your  departure  from  the  Oconee,  and  which  you  have  not  yet  answer- 
ed) that  we  were  desirous  of  receiving  the  terms  upon  which  you  and  the  cliiefs  of  the  Creek  nation  would  enter 
into  a  treaty  with  us;  you  will  also  be  pleased  to  recollect,  that  we  expressed,  at  the  same  time,  an  earnest  hope 
and  expectation,  that  they  would  not  separate  without  giving  us  this  satisfaction. 

These  overtures  on  our  part  clearly  indicated  that  we  were  disposed  to  make  a  peace  upon  any  conditions  not 
incompatible  with  the  dignity  and  justice  of  the  United  States.  Our  last  letter  to  you,  of  the  26th,  explained  oui 
ideas  and  wishes,  if  possible,  still  more  unequivocally,  and  informed  you  that,  if  you  should  depart  without  our  having 
an  opportunity  of  inquiring  into  the  validity  of  former  treaties,  and  fully  discussing  the  whole  business,  it  could  not 
be  considered  in  any  other  point  of  light  than  a  refusal  to  establish  peace  upon  any  terms  whatever. 

Your  not  having  done  this,  leaves  it  only  in  our  power  to  return  and  report  a  state  of  facts  to  the  Supreme  Execu- 
tive of  the  United  States.  To  obtain  still  further  information,  we  shall  remain  till  Monday  of  next  week,  at  Augusta, 
to  which  place  we  invite  vou  to  repair,  either  in  person,  or  by  some  agent  or  agents  of  the  Creek  nation,  in  order  to 
be  present  at  the  time  when  we  shall  attempt  to  procure  farther  documents,  for  establishing  facts,  as  well  as  to 
give,  on  your  part,  all  such  intelligence,  relative  to  past  transactions,  as  shall  be  deemed  expedient.  We  pledge 
our  public  faith  and  sacred  honor  for  the  safe  conduct  of  yourself,  or  such  agent  or  agents  as  may  be  employed  by 
your  nation,  to  and  from  the  proposed  place  of  conference.  Should  you  conclude  to  come  yourself,  or  send  an  agent 
or  agents  to  the  conference  at  Augusta,  the  person  or  persons  under  that  description  will  be  pleasetl  to  apply  lor  a 
saleguard  to  the  commanding  officer  at  the  Rock  Landing,  who  has  our  instructions  on  the  subject.    In  the  mean  time. 



INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  '  [1790. 

we  have  to  inform  the  Creeks,  that  the  people  settled  on  Cumberland  river  have  just  cause  of  complaint  against 
them,  because  some  of  them  have,  during  the  present  year,  murdered  several  iamilies  within  that  distiict;  and  as 
the  Creeks  can  have  no  cause  of  complaint  against  tliat  settlement,  we  insist  that  eftectual  measures  should  be  taken, 
on  your  part,  to  prevent  all  acts  of  hostility  and  plunder  in  that  quarter. 

With  due  consideration,  we  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servants, 



The  Honorable  Alexander  McGillivray,  Chief  of  the  Creek  nation.'''' 

On  the  28th,  we  gave  a  short  account  of  our  ptoceedings  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

•  '     '  "Rock  Landing,  28<A  iSep^emSer,  1789. 

"Sir:-  ,  ,     .,        . 

-We  have  the  mortification  to  inform  you  that  tlie  parties  have  separated  without  forming  a  treaty.  The  terms 
which  were  offered  by  lis  at  the  commencement  of  the  negotiation,  were  not  agreeable  to  Mr.  McGillivray,  but  neither 
would  he  come  forward  with  written  objections,  or  propose  any  conditions  of  his  own.  His  verbal  communications 
were  inadmissible,  upon  the  spirit  or  words  ot  our  instructions. 

W^e  shall  have  the  honor  of  stating  this  business  very  fully  at  a  future  day,  and  are,  with  the  greatest  respect 
and  esteem,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants,  .'        , 

s  .  .  .     .  B.LINCOLN, 

••       ,  ,:.     .     .,      --      ;.    ■■■      ••    ••       ■  •  C.  GRIFFIN, 

•      .  ■   ''  V    ^'  .  D.HUMPHREYS. 

The  Honorable  the  Secretary  of  War,  New  York.''''  ..';.."■       •. ..    ' 

Having  made  all  the  necessary  arrangements  concerning  the  goods  and  stores  belonging  to  the  public,  we  departed 
from  tlie  Rock  Landing,  and  arrived  at  Augusta  on  the  2d  of  October.  The  same  evening,  and  early  tlie  next  day, 
we  wrote  the  following  letter  to  the  Governor  of  the  State  of  Georgia: 

.  .      •  '  .'  .  .  ■'  .  '■  "Augusta,  2d  October,  1789. 

"Sir:  •  '   ■  "        ''."    .    •  •'     .  •     • 

We  make  use  of  the  first  tnoment  after  our  arrival  to  acquaint  your  honor  that  we  have  not  been  able  to  con- 
clude a  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  and  the  Creek  nation.  However,  positive  and  repeated  assuran- 
ces were  given  to  us  by  Mr.  McGillivray,  and  all  the  chiefs  of  the  Creeks  present,  that  the  tranquillity  which  now 
Erevails,  shall  be  inviolably  preser^'ed  on  the  part  of  their  people.  Being  much  fatigued  with  our  journey,  we  cannot 
ave  the  lionoi-  of  waitingupon  you  imtil  to-morrow  morning,  when  we  shall  do  ourselves  the  pleasure  of  stating 
such  further,  particulars  as  may  be  interesting  to  the  State  over  which  you  preside. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servants, 

...  B.  LINCOLN, 

.••,.••  ••.".€.  GRIFFIN, 

-  .      .  •        .    ••  ••..■':         ../D.  HUMPHREYS. 

His  Honor  the  Governor  of  Georgia.''''  ,•   i'.      -,     -.,.■"'  " 

•  ^'        ■^-  ■  ■  ••■..'•.*  ."Augusta,  SfZOdo6er,  1789. 

"Sir:  .  .  ■    "     .  .  . 

As  a  variety  of  reports  have  been  circulated  throughout  the  United  States,  relative  to  the  cnxumstances  under 
which  the  treaties  of  Augusta,  in  1783,  at  Galphinton,  in  1785,  and  at  Shoulderbone,  in  1786,  were  formed;  and 
as  it  is  highly  important  tliat  facts  should  be  ascertained,  we  take  the  liberty  of  requesting  your  honor  that  you  will 
be  pleased  to  assist  us  in  obtaining  the  information  necessary  for  that  purpose. 

The  principal  points  to  which  our  attention  has  been  attracted,  are:  whether  all  lands  belonging  to  the  Upper  and 
Lower  Creeks  are  the  common  property  of  the  whole  nation:  or,  whether  the  lands  stated  to  have  been  ceded  to 
Georgia  by  thetliree  treaties,  or  either  of  them,  were  acknowledged  by  the  Upper  Creeks  to  be  the  sole  property  of 
the  Lower  Creeks? 

Whether  the  acknowledged  proprietors  of  the  lands  stated  to  have  been  ceded  to  Georgia  were  present  or  fully 
represented  at  the  said  treaties? 

Whether  the  Creeks  present  at  the  said  treaties  did  act  witii  a  full  understanding  of  the  cessions  they  are  stated 
to  have  made? 

And  whether  the  said  treaties  and  cessions  were  freely  made  on  the  part  of  the  Creeks,  uninfluenced  by  any 
threats  or  implication  of  force? 

It  is  also  desirable  that  any  other  interesting  circumstances  comiected  with  the  object  of  these  inquuies  should 
be  made  known  to  us:  for  example,  whether  the  Indians  did,  for  any  considerable  length  of  time,  acquiesce  quietly 
in  the  location  and  settlement  ot  the  lands  in  question? 

What  value  in  goods  has  been  given  at  the  several  treaties,  as  presents  or  compensations  for  the  cessions.'  And, 
in  effect,  whatever  other  matters  may  serve  to  place  the  conduct  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  on  this  subject,  in  its  tme 
point  of  light.  .  ,   .   ^ 

After  being  possessed  of  the  written  and  official  documents,  we  wish  to  receive  oral  information  from  private 
characters  who  were  present  at  the  several  transactions  before  alluded  to. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect,  sir,  your  most  humble  servants, 



_,      D.  HUMPHREYS. 
H'ls  Honor  the  Governor  of  Georgia.^^  '  , 

To  the  preceding  letters  tlie  Governor  Avas  pleased  to  send  the  following  answerj  also,  a  return  of  depredations 
committed  by  the  Indians,  and  other  documents: 

'  I  ;  .  "Augusta,  October  Ath,  1789. 

"  Sirs:  '  . 

The  communications  which  you  were  pleased  to  make  to  me  first  after  your  return  fiom  the  Rock  Landing,  on  the 
2d  instant,  shall  be  laid  before  Council,  and  made  the  foundation  of  a  proclamation,  the  object  of  which  shall  be  to 
meet  and  reciprocate  the  assurances  of  the  chiefs  of  the  Creek  Indians,  for  preserving  of  peace.     , 

With  respect  to  the  further  particulars  stated  in  your  favor  of  the  3d,  I  am  sorry  that  so  many  persons  who  were 
privy  to  the  transactions  to  which  they  allude,  are,  at  this  time,  engaged  in  their  attendance  on  the  general  election, 
whose  testimony,  were  they  present,  would  point  to  the  truth  of  facts,  through  all  that  variety  of  report  which  ori- 
ginated equally  from  private  speculation  and  personal  disappointment.  I  have 5  however,  directed  such  documents 
as  are  immediately  within  my  power,  to  be  made  out  for  your  present  information. 

From  all  the  evidences  whicli  have  or  sliall  be  collected,  it  will  be  found,  that  the  lands  between  the  mountains 
and  the  old  Ogeechee  line,  north  of  the  Oconee,  were  ever  equally  claimed  by  the  Cherokees  and  the  Creeks;  and 
that,  by  a  convention  had  before  the  Revolution,  the  lands  comprehended  within  the  limits  afterwards  called  the 
ceded  lands,  and  now  Wilkes  county,  were  ceded  at  the  same  time,  by  the  heads  of  the  two  nations. 

That,  during  the  progress  of  the  late  war,  the  State  had  been,  alternately,  attacked  by  either,  and  that,  at  the  close 
of  it,  they  were  respectively  called  upon  to  make  some  satisfaction.    Accordingly,  in  the  spring  of  1783,  the  Chero- 


kees,  attended  by  a  few  Creeks,  came  down  to  Augusta,  talked  tlie  matter  over,  avowed  tlieir  claims  to  the  lauds 
in  question;  agreed  to  and  signed  a  treaty ;  and,  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year,  the  Creeks,  chiefly  of  the  Lower 
towns,  also  came  down;  talked  their  matter' over;  avowed  their  claim;  and  agreed  to  and  signed  a  treaty  on  their 
part,  _  whereby  the  state  obtained  the  relinquishment  of  the  right,  or  claim  of  right,  of  both  nations,  to  the  lands 
therein  described  and  bounded.  These  treaties  were  laid  before  the  Legislature,  witli  all  that  order  of  business  and 
deliberation  required  by  public  and  fair  proceedings,  and  the  lands  were  divided  into  counties.  The  offices  were 
opened,  and  the  lands  surveyed,  granted,  felled,  settled,  and  cultivated,  in  perfect  peace. 

The  WTiter  was  present  at  both  these  conventions.  The  first  he  wrote  froni  principles  previously  agreed  upon, 
and  which  were  made  the  foundation  of  the  propositions  to  tlie  Creeks  in  the  fall. 

At  neither  were  there  any  men  in  arms,  or  the  smallest  coercion  used;  the  conduct  of  the  Indians  was  voluntary, 
and  while,  on  their  part,  they  were  rendering  satisfaction,  they  also  received  valuable  considerations  in  presents. 

When  the  treaties  were  over,  it  is  within  his  most  lively  recollection  that  the  commissioners,  the  chiefs,  the  citi- 
zens, and  the  Indians,  ate,  drank,  and  reciprocated  all  the  usual  marks  of  friendship,  satisfaction,  and  peace;  nor 
was  It  until  a  considerable  time  afterwards,  that  any  umbrage  was  taken  by  the  Upper  Creeks,  wheii  a  new  motive 
and  principle  of  direction  appealed  to  have  sprung  up  in  tlie  nation,  which  pretended,  for  the  first  time,  an  equal 
claim  to  the  hunting  grounds  on  the  Oconee. 

At  the  treaty  of  Galphinton,  in  the  year  1785,  it  is  said,  some  new  opinions  were  disseminated;  be  tliatas  it  may, 
tlie  ti-eaty,  and  the  testimony  respecting  tiie  conduct  of  it,  sliew  plainly,  the  good  intentions  of  the  State  upon  the 
occasion.  The  wiiter  can  say  but  little  thereupon,  as  his  engagements  were  then  in  a  difti^rent  line,  which  left  no 
surplus  attention  to  the  otiier  departments.  In  the  year  1 786,  he  was  of  the  Legislature,  when  tlie  arrangements 
took  place  for  tlie  convention  at  Shoulderbone.  To  doubt  the  validity  of  treaties,  had  become  familiar  to  the 
Indians,  as  well  as  to  think  triflingly  of  the  power  of  the  State.  To  settle  a  substantial  peace,  and  to  remove  tliese 
impressions,  formed  the  objects  of  Government.  The  commissioners  employed  were  respectable  .men,  and  the 
officers  attending  were  of  service  and  distinction.  A  sacrifice  of  tlieir  fame  was  not  to  be  expected,  and  it  evidently 
appears,  that  no  unworthy  use  was  made  of  the  force  \vhich  was  sent  upon  the  ground. 

In  the  year  1787,  their  attacks  were  renewed,  and  repeated  on  almost  all  our  frontiers.  These  we  resisted, 
and  called  upon  the  Union  for  support. 

A  superintendent  and  commissioners  were  appointed,  and  all  tlieir  endeavors  have  not  been  effectual  to  remove 
the  cause  of  the  untowardness  of  that  nation,  and  our  citiz.ens  iiave  continued  to  be  killed  and  plundered  in  the 
most  cruel  and  distressing  manner,   until  the  late  efforts  for  peace;  even  the  new  commission,  which  the  States 
themselves  so  highly  respected,  have  been  treated  with  an  indifference  which  ouglit  not  to  liave  been  expected. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sirs,  with  much  estimation,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

',.     ,     TT       T.   T  ^  TT  GEORGE  WALTON. 

10  the  Hon.  B.  Lincoln,  C.  Griffin,  I).  Humphreys,  Esqrs.  Commissioners,  ^-c." 

"  Return  of  depredations  committed  by  the  Creek  Indians  since  the  commencement  of  hostilities  in  the  State  of 


Whites  killed,            -           -            -            -           -            -  72 

Do.     wounded,       ---...  £9 

Do.     taken  prisoners,         -----  30 

Blacks  killed,             ------  10 

Do.     taken  prisoners,         -           -           -            .           .  \iq 

Horses  taken  oft',  (their  value  i£3,S95  10s.)             -           -  184 

Horses  taken  oftl  not  valued,            ....  459 

Horned  cattle  taken  oft',         -            .            .           .            .  .934 

Hogs  destroyed,          ---...  337- 

Houses  burnt,             ----..  gg 

Sundry  household  furniture,  fanning  utensils,  wearing  apparel,  &c.  desti'oyed. 

"  Office  of  Secretary  of  Councii,,  5th  October,  1789. 

"  I  do  hereby  certify,  that  the  above  estimate  of  losses  sustained  by  the  Indians,  since  the  commencement  of 
hostilities,  is  taken  from  the  returns  made  on  oatli,  and  filed  in  this  office. 

J.  MERIWETHER,  i'ecre^an/Z:.  C." 

From  Augusta,  we  sent  a  second  message  by  General  Pickens,  to  the  Cherokees,  accompanied  by  a  duplicate  of 
our  first;  we  also  torwarded  many  printed  copies  of  the  address  to  the  inhabitants  bordering  on  the  towns  and  settle- 
ments of  the  Cherokee  nation,  by  the  same  conveyance. 

"  Head-mkn  and  warriors  of  all  the  Cherokees:    We  sent  to  you  a  friendly  talk  from  Savannah,  about  one 
moon  past.    But  lest  that  should  not  have  reached  you  all,  we  now  repeat  it.     We  farther  inform  you,  that,  altliough  a      , 
formal  treaty  of  peace  has  not  been  concluded  with  the  Creek  nation,  yet  we  have  received  positive  and  repeated      ( 
assurances  from  them,  that  the  same  tranquillity  wiiich  now  prevails,  shall  be  faithfully  preserved  on  their  part.  i 

Brothers:    Had  not  the  hunting  season  commenced,  so  as  to  prevent  us  from  finding  you  at  home,  we  should       j 
have  been  happy  in  seeing  you  personally,  before  we  returneil  to  tlie  far  distant  white  town  of  Congress.    As  that       ''■ 
will  now  be  impossible,  we  conclude  by  cautioning  you  to  beware  of  listening  to  bad  men,  in  such  manner  as  to 
interrupt  the  truce  concluded  between  you  and  tlie  commissioner  of  North  Carolina. 

Now,  Brothers,  in  assuring  you  that  the  General  Government  of  the  United  States  will  always  do  you  strict 
justice,  we  bid  you  farewell. 

Done  at  Augusta,  this  5th  day  of  October,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1789,  and  in  the  14th  year  of  the  indepen- 
dence of  the  United  States  of  America. 



Attest,     D.  S.  Franks,  Secretary.''''        -                       "         • 

On  tiie  6th  of  October  we  left  Augusta,  and  arrived  at  Richmond  on  the  29th,  Avherc  we  had  the  satisfaction  to 
meet  with  Piomingo,  the  second  great  chief  of  the  Chickasaws,  attended  by  oUier  Indians.    With  Iiim  we  had  fre^ 
quent  talks,  at  which  he  gave  us  tlie  strongest  assurances  of  the  good  disposition  of  that  nation  towards  the  United      / 
States,  and  also  of  the  rooted  aversion  of  the  Chickasaws  to  the  whole  Creek  nation.     By  this  chief,  we  sent  a  dupli-    •  '-''-^ 
cate  of  our  messages  to  the  Chickasaws  and  to  the  Choctaws.    On  the  10th  of  November,  we  returned  to  New  York. 
Thus  stating  the  facts  in  a  journal  of  their  transactions. 

The  commissioners  are  decidedly  of  opinion,  that  the  failure  of  a  treaty  at  this  time  with  the  Creek  nation,  can 
be  attributed  only  to  their  principal  chief,  Mr.  Alexander  McGillivray— 

1st  From  the  repeated  declarations  and  apparent  good  disposition  of  all  the  kings,  head-men,  and  warriors,  to 
estab  ish  a  permanent  peace  with  the  United  States. 

2d.  From  the  proposed  boundary  being  ofti?red  to  the  gi-eat  council  of  the  nation,  only  as  tiie  basis  of  amicable      ' 

3d.  From  the  deception  and  precipitate  retreat  of  Mr.  McGillivray,  without  stating  his  objections  to  the 
draught  of  a  treaty,  either  verbally  or  in  writing. 

11  *  ■  • 

78  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [irOO. 

4tli.  From  many  inquiries  concerning  this  man,  and  from  Mr.  McGillivray's  own  declarations:  that,  without 
obtaining  a  full  equivalent  for  the  sacrifice,  he  would  not  renounce  the  close  connexion  which  he  had  formed  with 
the  Spanish  Government  in  the  hour  of  distress — a  connexion  iionorable  and  lucrative  to  himself,  and  advanta- 
geous to  the  Creek  nation.  , ,  ,     ,-         .      •  ,     , 

.5th.  From  his  frequent  intimations  that  no  treaty  could  be  formed  with  the  commissioners,  unless  a  free  and 
e     lusive  port  should  be  granted  to  him  upon  the  Altamaha,  or  the  river  St.  Mary;  and 

6fh.  From  the  most  positive  refusal  toacknowledge  the  Creek  nationtobe  within  the  limits,  or  under  the  protection 
the  United  States;  although  in  express  contradiction  to  a  former  letter,  written  by  him,  on  the  5th  of  September, 
1785,  to  General  Pickens. 

The  commissioners  beg  leave  further  to  report,  that,  after  the  most  accurate  investigation  in  their  power  to  make, 
after  consulting  the  best  tlocuinents,  and  having  recourse  to  creditable  depositions,  they  are  unable  to  discover  but 
that  the  treaty  of  Augusta,  in  the  year  1783,  the  treaty  of  Galphintoii,  in  the  year  1785,  and  the  treaty  of  Shoulder- 
bone,  in  the  year  1786,  were  all  of  them  conducted  with  as  full  and  autliorized  representation,  with  as  much  substan- 
tial form,  and  apparent  good  faith  and  understanding  of  liie  business,  as  Indian  treaties  have  usually  been  conducted, 
or  perhaps  can  be,  where  one  of  the  contracting  parties  is  destitute  of  the  benefits  of  enlightened  society.  That  the 
lands  in  question  did  of  riglit  belong  to  the  Lower  Creeks,as  their  hunting  grounds;  have  been  ceded  by  them  to  the  State 
of  Georgia,  for  a  valuabfe  consiclefation;  and  were  possessed  and  cultivated  for  some  years,  without  any  claim  or 
molestation  by  any  part  of  the  Creek  nation.   ^   ,      ,  ,         .        ,  ■         ,  ■    „    •   .  „ 

As  Mr.  M'Gillivray,  and  all  the  other  chiefs,  head-men,  and  warriors,  nave  given  strong  assurances  in  their  talks, 
and  by  writin",  that  no  further  hotilities  or  depredations  shall  be  committed  on  the  part  of  their  nation;  and  as  the 
Governor  of  &eorgia,  by  issuing  proclamations,  and  by  other  effectual  measures,  will  prevent  tlie  commission  of 
hostilities  and  depredations  upon  the  Creek  nation,  on  the  part  of  Georgia,  the  commissioners,  in  the  best  of  their 
jud<'ment,  report,  that  all  animosities  with  the  Creek  nation  should  henceforth  cease. 

^  hat  some  person  should  be  despatched  to  the  said  nation,  with  the  ultimate  draught  of  a  treaty,  to  establish  per- 
petual peace  and  amity.  That,  when  such  a  draught  of  a  treaty  shall  be  properly  executed  by  the  leading  men  of  the 
nation  all  the  presents  intencled  for  the  Indians,  and  now  in  the  State  ot  Georgia,  should  be  distributed  among 
them. '  That,  if  the  Indians  shall  refuse  to  execute  such  draught  of  a  treaty,  the  commissioners  humbly  submit — 

That  the  arms  of  the  Union  should  be  called  forth  for  the  protection  of  the  people  of  Georgia,  in  the  peaceable  and 
just  possession  of  their  lands;  and  in  case  the  Creeks  shall  commit  further  hostilities  and  depredations  upon  the 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  that  the  Creek  nation  ought  to  be  deemed  the  enemies  of  the  United  States  and 

punished  accordingly. 


.A        ■v.'.'.v. 

The  Commissioners  to  the  Secretary  of  J  far. 

New  York,  November  20,  1789. 

We  made  our  communications  to  the  Creek  nation,  and  they  have  refused  to  conclude  a  treaty  of  peace  with 
the  United  States;  and,  as  in  this  case,  we  are  directed  by  our  instructions  to  report  such  plans,  botli  for  defensive 
and  offensive  measures,  as  may  be  thought  best  to  protect  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  on  the  frontiers,  in 
obedience  to  those  instructions  we  ofter  the  following  particulars  to  your  consideration: 

For  defensive  measures,  a  line  of  six  posts  ought  to  be  established  on  the  frontiers  of  Georgia,  and  two  at  least 
to  guard  the  settlements  upon  the  Cumberland  river.  Tiie  posts  to  consist  of  one  complete  company  in  each,  to  be 
covered  by  works  of  sufficient  strength  to  resist  any  sudden  impressions  of  the  Indians,  and  to  serve  as  places  of 
deposite,  if  magazines  should  hereafter  be  formed.  To  them,  also,  the  exposed  inhabitants  of  those  countries  might 
retire  upon  the  alarm  of  danger;  by  this  experiment,  we  should  be  satisfied  how  far  a  line  of  posts  would  be  adequate 
to  give  complete  protection  to  tlie  citizens  of  the  United  States  living  on  the  frontiers. 

The  stations  in  Georgia  siiould  be  as  follow :  One  upon  the  navigable  waters  of  St.  Mary;  one  at  Beard's  Bluff,  upon 
the  Altamaha;  one  at  the  junction  of  the  Oconee  and  Oakmulgee;  one  at  the  Rock  Landing;  one  at  the  Middle 
Trading  Path;  and  one  at  the  Upper  Trading  Path;  the  two  latter  at  such  positions  as  will  be  found  the  most  con- 
venient°to  protect  tiie  frontiers.  .  ,  •  . 

If  the  offensive  plan  shall  become  indispensable,  in  that  case  we  beg  leave  to  recommend  the  most  vigorous  and 
effectual  operations,  by  carrying  the  arms  of  the  Union  into  the  very  heart  of  the  Creek  country.  By  this  proceed- 
ing, the  Creek  nation  will  be  taught  to  feel  the  weight  and  superiority  of  the  United  States,  and  the  measure  would 
be\-onsistent  with  the  lionor  and  dignity  of  the  republic. 

The  forces  necessary  upon  this  occasion  siiould  consist  of  five  regiments  of  infantry,  seven  hundred  men  to  each 
re<fiment;  one  regiment  of  cavalry  of  five  hundred  men,  and  a  corps  of  artillery  of  two  hundred  and  forty  men; 
the  whole  amounting  to  4,250.  That  two  regiments  of  infantry  be  enlisted  from  the  States  of  Georgia,  South 
Carolina,  and  North  Carolina,  if  that  State  should  accede  to  the  new  constitution— the  cavalry  from  the  States  of 
Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  the  remainder  of  tiie  forces  from  the  other  States  indiscriminately.  We  are 
induced  to  recommend  only  two  regiments  to  be  raised  from  the  more  southern  States,  because  such  a  measure  would 
probably  comprehend  all  that-class  of  men,  whose  inclinations  might  lead  them  into  the  field  against  such  an  enemy; 
and  because,  if  the  troops  should  be  drawn  altogetlier,  or  principally  from  tiiese  States,  and  a  defeat  should  unfor- 
tunately take  place,  it  might  involve  that  country  for  a  time  in  disagreeable  consequences;  besides,  great  injury 
might  be  experienced  by  calling  forth,  in  the  first  instance,  a  large  proportion  of  that  body  of  men,  which,  from  their 
local  situation,  ought  to  remain  as  a  reserve. 

From  the  best  intelligence,  and  from  observation,  we  think  that  Augusta,  ill  the  State  of  Georgia,  ought  to  be  the 
place  of  rendezvous.  To  that  town  the  military  and  quartermaster's  stores  might  be  transported  from  Savannah,  by 
water,  in  15  days.  A  full  supply  of  wagons  can  be  obtained  at  no  great  distance  from  thence,  and  upon  the  road, 
towards  the  Ogechee,  whicii  might  bring  with  them  a  load  of  corn,  or  flour,  each.  The  route  from  Augusta  to  the 
Creek  nation  is  a  good  one,  little  more  than  200  miles  to  their  first  towns,  and  about  300  miles  to  their  western 
settlements.  ,.       • 

Two  other  routes  to  the  Creek  nation  present  themselves.  From  Beard's  Bluff,  on  the  Altamaha,  to  Flint  river, 
the  distance  about  150  miles,  and  70  miles  from  the  Flint  river  to  the  Cowetas. 

From  Bryant's  trading-house,  on  St.  Mary's  river,  to  the  Flint  river,  and  from  thence  to  the  Cowetas,  is  nearly 
the  like  distance  as  from  Beard's  Bluff.  The  navigation  is  good  from  the  ocean  to  Beard's  Bluff,  and  to  Bryant's 
trading-house — from  either  of  tiiem  a  tolerable  good  wagon  road  may  be  had  into  the  Creek  nation;  yet  both  of 
these  routes,  particularly  while  the  boats  shall  be  going  up  the  river  St  Mary's,  on  the  Altamaha,  would  be  attended 
with  considerable  embarrassment  and  danger  to  the  troops  from  the  enemy  ;  and  the  difficulties,  and  long  distance 
for  the  wagons,  to  reach  Beard's  Bluff,  or  Bryant's  trading-house,  would  be  almost  insurmountable. 

In  addition  to  tiie  foregoing  reports,  we  were  commanded,  if  possible,  to  ascertain  the  following  points  :  Those 
points  have  been  ascertained,  from  tlie  best  information  in  our  ability  to  procure. 

1.  The  number  of  warriors,  in  the  whole  Creek  nation,  does  not  exceed  4,500. 

2.  They  are  armed  pretty  generally  witli  good  rifles  ;  they  receive  their  ammunition  in  presents,  and  by  purchase 
i'rom  the  Spaniards.  t  ,-,      i        iu 

3.  The  Lower  Creeks  and  Seminoles  are  about  equal  to  the  Upper  Creeks,  in  number;  the  Lower  Creeks  rather 
more  numerous  than  the  Seminoles. 

ir90.]  THE   SOUTHERN  TRIBES.  7g 

4.  The  number  of  old  men,  women,  and  children,  in  the  proportion  as  four  to  one  of  the  warriors. 

5.  The  number  of  towns  in  each  district,  could  not  be  ascertained,  probably  about  eighty  in  the  whole,  of  which 
about  forty-five  are  in  the  upper  country.  The  towns  are  very  ditterent  in  magnitude  ;  and  a  few,  of  what  are  called 
the  mother  towns,  have  the  principal  direction  in  national  aifairs:  that  is  to  say.  the  war  towns  in  war,  and  the 
white  towns  in  peace. 

6.  Mr.  McGillivray.  of  the  half  breed,  is  the  most  influential  chief  throughout  the  nation.  Among  the 
Upper  Creeks,  the  "White  Lieutenant  has  the  ascendancy,  and  is  considered,  in  some  respects,  as  the  rival  ot  Mr. 
McGillivray;  the  Mad  Dog  is  next  in  authority.  Among  the  Lower  Creeks,  the  Hallowing  king,  and  the  Cussetah 
king— the  former  commanding  the  war  towns,  the  latter  commanding  the  white  towns— towns  unstained  with 
blood,  and  which  are  towns  ol  retuge:  add  to  these  the  Talassee  king,  the  White-bird  king,  the  Fat  king,  the 
king  of  the  Seminoles,  and  the  king  ot  the  Euchees. 

r.  Their  kinds  of  government  approach  the  qualified  monarchy.  In  the  towns,  they  have  head-men,  who  arc 
much  respected,  and  have  authority,  both  in  peace  and  war.  in  their  respective  towns:  in  the  districts,  they  have 
kings  or  chiefs,  and  warriors ;  the  former  have  their  influence  in  time  of  peace,  and  the  latter  in  time  of  war.  Upon 
all  important  occasions  they  meet  in  great  council,  and  deliberate  with  freedom,  paiticularly  once  a  year,  at  the 
ceremony  of  theirs/  fruits,  called  the  busking^  when  they  punish  great  delinquents,  regulate  internal  policy,  and 
form  plans  for  hunting  or  war  the  ensuing  season. 

8.  They  are,  in  a  great  measure,  hunters  :  however,  they  cultivate  some  Indian  corn,  and  potatoes,  possess  cat-  - 
tie  and  horses,  a  few  slaves,  and,  lately,  in  some  instances,  have  introduced  the  plough. 

9.  Of  late  years,  they  are  not  rigidly  confined  to  particular  districts  for  hunting,  but  are  permitted  to  go,  in 
small  parties,  tiiroughout  the  whole  naflon;  yet,  pretty  generally,  they  find  it  convenient  to  keep  within  their 
respective  divisions. 

10.  The  kinds  of  furs  are  the  beaver,  otter,  mink,  fox,  squirrel,  and  some  others,  together  with  deer,  and  other 
skins,  the  whole  amounting,  annually,  to  somewhat  more  than  ^610,000  sterling.  Theyare  principally  sold  to  the 
Indian  traders  in  the  nation,  and  exported  through  the  Spanish  settlements. 

11.  The  amount  of  the  European  goods,  annually  consumed,  is  about  £12,000  sterling,  furnished,  principally, 
by  the  commercial  house  of  which  Mr.  McGillivray  is  a  partner. 

12.  Ginseng  abounds  in  that  country,  but  is  not  yet  gathered  in  any  considerable  quantities. 

13.  The  country  of  the  Lower  Creeks  and  Seminoles  is  level,  sandy,  and  piney.  Tlie  country  of  the  Upper 
Creeks  much  broken,  with  a  good  soil  and  growth  :  farther  to  the  west,  and  even  to  the  Slississippu  the  lands  are 
rich,  and  rather  low  and  marshy,  abounding  with  good  streams  of  water,  and  excellent  timber,  such  as  the  oak. 
hickory,  bucks-eye,  elm,  and  large  gum.  &c.  &c. 

14.  The  waters  of  the  Mobile  are  navigable  for  large  boats:  the  one  branch  270  miles  from  the  ocean.  totheHic- 
C017  settlement,  where  Mr.  McGillivray  resides,  and  the  western  branch  is  about  320  miles  into  the  t'hoctaw  and 
Chickasaw  country,  and  within  50  miles  of  the  great  bend  of  the  Tennessee.  The  waters  of  the  Apalachicola,  par- 
ticularly the  Flint  river  and  Cataheekee,  and  the  waters  of  the  Altamaha,  particularly  the  rivers  Oconee  and  Oakniul- 
gee,  are  navigable  for  boats  some  hundred  miles.  From  the  northern  navigable  streams  of  those  rivers  to  the  southern 
navigable  waters  of  the  Tennessee,  there  are  no  establisiicd  portages,  but  the  country  is  level:  good  roads  might  easily 
be  made,  and  the  greatest  distances  not  more  than  one  hundred  miles. 

15.  We  could  not  ascertain  with  precision  the  nature  of  the  connexion  which  the  Creeks  have  formed  with  the 
Spaniards,  but,  from  intelligence  somewhat  to  be  relied  on,  we  believe  that  connexion  to  consist  principally  in  pay- 
ing less  duties  upon  the  gowls  imported  than  the  Spaniards  tliemselves  pay,  by  a  guarantee  of  all  the  Creek  posses- 
sessions,  and  by  military  distinctions  and  presents  to  Mr.  McGillivray  and  other  considerable  chiefs.  AVe  could 
procure  no  copy  of  any  treaty  subsisting  between  them.  The  predominating  prejudices  of  the  Creeks  are  certainly 
adverse  to  the  Spaniards,  particularly  Mr.  McGillivray  has  ol'ten  mentioned  and  declared,  that  a  connexion  with  the 
United  States  would  be  more  natural  to  tiie  Creek  nation,  if  they  could  obtainsuchconditionsof  interest  and  friend- 
ship as  would  justify  and  induce  them  to  break  with  the  Spanish  Government. 

16.  AV'e  had  but  little  opportunity  to  ascertain  similar  facts  with  respect  to  the  other  Indians,  from  our  small 
lights  upon  this  article  of  instruction.  We  think  the  (Cherokee  nation  will  be  found  to  contain  about  600  gun-men; 
the  Chickasaws  about  700.  and  the  Choctaws  about  3,000.  I'heirarms  are  bad,  scarcely  any  ammunition,  and  them- 
selves naked.  The  Cherokees  and  Chickasaws  cultivate  t\ie  ground  more  than  the  other  Indians,  and  possess  cattle, 
proportionally,  in  greater  numbers.  The  Choctaws  hunt  only,  are  brave  and  hardy  people  in  the  woods,  but  indo- 
lent to  a  great  degree  at  home.. 

In  order  to  preserve  the  attachment  of  the  several  Indian  nations  bordering  upon  the  United  States,  it  appears  to 
us  expedient  that  some  adequate  means  of  supplying  them  with  goods  and  ammuniticm,  at  moderate  prices,  should 
immediately  be  adopted.  With  our  best  endeavors  to  obtain  information  concerning  the  internal  state  of  the  Choc- 
taws and  Chickasaws,  we  have  not  been  able  to  succeed  fully,  so  as  to  justify  us  in  giving  any  positive  opinion  upon 
the  best  mode  of  effecting  this  desirable  object;  however,  in  conformity  with  our  instructions,  we  respectfully  suggest, ' 
that  some  uniform  plan  of  gi-anting  permits  to  those  wlio  may  be  emp"loyed  in  the  Indian  commerce  should  be  esta- 
blished by  the  supreme  authority  pt  the  United  States.  This  would  be  a  part  of  the  duty  imposed  upon  the  superin- 
tendent, agent,  or  commissary,  of  Indian  aftairs,  in  the  Southern  department.  The  fees  of  office  for  granting  sucli 
permits  ought  to  be  moderate,  and  might  be  applied  towards  the  payment  of  salary.  An  expedient  of  tliis  sort  is 
highly  requisite  to  prevent  persons  of  bad  character  from  defrauding  the  Indians,  from  making  still  more  untavorable 
impressions  upon  the  inimical  tribes,  and  from  alienating  the  affections  ot  the  friendly  tribes  from  the  United  States. 
This  superintendent,  agent,  or  commissary,  by  going  through  the  Indian  towns  of  all  the  different  nations,  would  be 
able  to  collect  such  information  as  might  be  extremely  useful  in  forming  definite  plans  of  trade  with  those  people; 
and,  in  case  of  war  with  the  Creek  nation,  he  might  be  of  solid  advantage  in  bring  the  Choctaws  and  Chickasaws  to 
co-operate  with  the  arms  of  the  United  States. 

We  have  rendered  to  the  treasury  of  the  United  States  a  full  account  of  all  our  disbursements.  The  books  No.  1 
and  2,  we  now  deposite  in  your  office.  Tliey  contain  invoices  of  all  the  articles  delivered  to  us  for  the  proposed  treaty, 
and  will  clearly  account  for  the  wholeof  them  by  ascertaining  those  articles  which  were  necessarily  expended,  and 
those  which  now  remain  in  the  State  of  Georgia. 

While  we  sincerely  regret  that  our  negotiations  with  the  Creek  nation  have  not  terminated  in  a  treaty  of  peace, 
we  hope  it  will  be  found  that  the  commissioners  have  been  as  diligent  and  attentive  to  the  subjects  of  their  mis- 
sion, and  as  economical  in  the  expenditures  of  the  public  money,  as  the  nature  of  things  would  permit. 
We  have  the  honor  to  be,  witli  sentiments  of  respect,  sir,  your  most  humble  servants, 

^  B.  LINCOLN, 


77ie  Hon.  The  Secretary  of  War.  D.  HUMPHREYS. 

N.  B.  Tlie  commissioners  wrote  the  following  letter  to  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne,  during  their  stay  at  Rock- 
landing,  and  received  their  answer,  with  sundry  papers  enclosed,  which  they  deposite  in  the  War  Office. 

.  Rock  Landing,  September  26,  1789. 

"  Gentlemen:  We  have  received  the  following  articles  of  instruction  from  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
which  we  do  ourselves  the  honor  to  communicate  to  you,  and  wish  to  be  favored  with  an  answer. 
We  are,  with  great  respect,  your  most  obedient  servants, 


Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne."                                                                                     D.  HUMPHREYS. 

80  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [Ir90. 


"  You  will  learn,  by  the  papers  delivered  to  you,  that  certain  goods  were  left  by  the  commissioners,  after  the 
treaties  of  Hopewell,  in  the  commencement  of  the  year  1786.  It  is  probable  that  these  goods  may  have  been  deli- 
vered to  Messrs.  Pickens  and  Osborne.  You  will  tlierefore  apply  to  the  said  gentlemen  for  regular  mvoices  of  all 
the  goods  in  their  possession  for  the  treaty,  distinguishing  the  means  by  which  tliey  became  possessed  thereof. 

"  You  will  also  request  of  them  an  account  of  the  moneys  or  goods  they  may  have  received  of  the  States  of  South 
Carolina  and  Georgia,  in  consequence  of  the  resolves  of  Congress,  of  the  26th  of  October,  1787,  and  August  14, 1788." 

"  Rock  Landing,  September  26,  1789. 

3Men:  In  answer  to  your  letter  of  this  date,  we  do  ourselves  the  honor  to  enclose  a  copy  of  our  letter 
s.  of  Charleston,  dated  the  20th  April  last,  with  a  copy  of  liis  answer,  dated  the  6th  of  June  last. 

"  Gextlej 

to  Mr.  Gervis.  „.   ,  ,  ,  „  ■      ,^         , 

We  do  not  know  of  any  goods  being  left  at  Hopewell.     The  accounts  of  moneys  received  trom  the  States  of  South 
Carolina  and  Georgia,  together  with  an  account  of  the  appropriation  and  expenditures  of  the  same,  we  have  also 
the  honor  to  enclosej  tlie  vouchers  of  all  which  are  ready  tor  your  inspection. 
"We  have  the  honor  to  be,  gentlemen,  your  most  obedient  servants, 

"  Tlie  Hon.  The  Commissmiers  for  treating  with  the  Indians,  south  of  the  Ohio.'''' 

1st  CoxGREgs.]  No.    10.  [2d  Session. 



Gentlemen  of  the  Senate: 

In  consequence  of  the  general  principles  agreed  to  by  the  Senate  in  August,  1789,  the  adjustment  of  the 
terms  of  a  treaty  is  far  advanced,  between  the  Umted  States  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Creek  Indians,  now  in-  this  city, 
in  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  whole  Creek  nation.  ,       :,    , 

In  preparing  the  ai-ticles  of  this  treaty,  the  present  arrangements  of  the  trade  with  the  Creeks  have  caused  much 
embarrassment.  It  seems  to  be  well  ascertained,  that  the  said  trade  is  almost  exclusively  in  the  hands  of  a  company 
of  British  merchants,  who,  by  agreement,  make  their  importations  of  goods  from  England,  into  the  Spanish  ports. 

.  As  the  trade  of  the  Indians  is  a  main  mean  of  their  political  management,  it  is  therefore  obvious,  tliat  the  United 
States  cannot  possess  any  security  for  the  performance  of  treaties  \vith  the  Creeks,  while  their  trade  is  liable  to  be 
interrupted  or  withheld,  at  the  caprice  of  two  foreign  Powers. 

Hence  it  becomes  an  object  ot  real  importance,  to  form  new  chan&els  for  the  commerce  of  the  Creeks  through 
tlie  United  States.  But  this  operation  will  require  time,  as  the  present  arrangements  cannot  be  suddenly  broken, 
without  the  greatest  violation  of  faith  and  morals. 

It  therefore  appeal's  to  be  important,  to  form  a  secret  article  of  a  treaty,  similar  to  the  one  which  accompanies 
this  message. 

If  the  Senate  should  require  any  further  explanation,  the  Secretary  of  War  wA\  attend  them  for  that  purpose. 


United  States,  ,5w^s/ 4,  1790. 

The  President  of  the  United  States  submitted  the  following  question,  for  the  consideration  and  adrice  of  the 

If  it  should  be  found  essential  to  a  treaty,  for  the  fiiTn  establishment  of  peace  with  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians, 
that  an  article  to  the  following  eifect  should  be  inserted  therein,  will  such  an  article  be  proper?  viz. 

SECRET  article. 

The  commerce  necessary  for  tlie  Creek  nation  shall  be  carried  on  through  the  ports,  and  by  tlie  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  if  substantial  and  eflfectual  arrangements  shall  be  made  for  that  purpose,  by  the  United  States,  on  or 
before  the  first  day  of  August,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-tvvo.  In  the  mean  time,  the  said  commerce 
may  be  carried  on  through  its  present  channels,  and  according  to  its  present  regulations. 

And  whereas  the  trade  of  the  said  Creek  nation  is  now  carried  on  wholly,  or  principally,  through  the  territories 
of  Spain,  and  obstructions  thereto  may  happen  by  war,  or  prohibitions  of  the  Spanish  government. 

It  is  therefore  agreed  between  the  said  parties,  that  in  the  event  of  any  such  obstructions  happening,  it  shall  be 
lawful  for  such  persons  as  the  President  of  the  United  States  shall  designate,  to  introduce  into,  and  transport  through, 
the  territories  of  the  United  States,  to  the  countiy  of  the  said  Creek  nation,  any  quantity  of  goods,  wares,  and  mer- 
chandise, not  exceeding  in  value  in  any  one  year,  sixty  thousand  dollars,  and  that  free  from  any  duties  or  impositions 
whatsoever;  but  subject  to  such  regulations,  for  guarding  against  abuse,  as  the  United  States  shall  judge  necessaiy; 
which  privilege  shall  continue  as  long  as  such  obstruction  snail  continue. 

1790.]  THE  CREEKS.  31 

1st  CoxGREss.]  .:  No,    11.  ■     ,  [2d  Session. 



Gentlemen  of  the  Senate:  .  ' 

Considering  tiie  circumstances  which  prevented  tlie  late  commissioners  from  concluding  a  peace  with  the 
Creek  nation  of  Indians,  it  appeared  to  me  most  prudent,  that  all  subsequent  measures  for  disposing  them  to  a  treaty- 
should  in  the  first  instance  be  informal. 

I  informed  you  on  the  4th  inst.  that  the  adjustment  of  the  terms  of  a  treaty  with  their  chiefs,  now  here,  was  tar 
advanced;  such  further  progress  has  since  been  made,  tliat  I  tliink  measures  may  at  present  be  taken  for  conducting 
and  concluding  that  business  in  form.  It  therefore  becomes  necessary  that  a  proper  person  be  appointed  and 
authorized  to  treat  with  their  chiefs,  and  to  conclude  a  treaty  with  them.  For  this  purpose,  I  nominate  to  you 
Henry  Knox. 

'        .  GEO.  WASHINGTON. 

United  States,  August  6th,  1790.  • 

1st  Congress.]  No.  12.  [2d  Session. 


communicated  to  the  senate,  august  7,  1790. 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate: 

I  lay  before  you  a  treaty  between  the  United  States  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Creek  nation  now  in  this  city, 
in  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  whole  Creek  nation,  subject  to  the  ratification  of  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate. 

While  I  flatter  myself  that  this  treaty  will  be  productive  of  present  peace  and  prosperity  to  our  southern  frontier, 
it  is  to  be  expected  that  it  will  also,  in  its  consequences,  be  the  means  of  fir;nly  attacliing  the  Creeks  and  the  neigh- 
boring tribes  to  the  interests  of  the  United  States. 

At  the  same  time  it  is  to  be  hoped,  that  it  will  afford  solid  grounds  of  satisfaction  to  the  State  of  Georgia,  as  it 
contains  a  regular,  full,  and  definitive  relinquishment,  on  the  part  of  the  Creek  nation,  of  the  Oconee  land,  in  the 
utmost  extent  in  which  it  has  been  claimed  by  that  State,  and  thus  extinguishes  the  principal  cause  of  those  hostili- 
ties, from  which  it  has,  more  than  once,  experienced  such  severe  calamities. 

But.  although  the  most  valuable  of  the  disputed  land  is  included,  yet  there  is  a  certain  claim  of  Georgia,  arising 
out  of  the  treatj'  made  bv  that  State  at  Galphinton,  in  November,  1785,  of  land  to  the  eastward  of  a  new  temporary 
line,  from  the  lorks  of  the  Oconee  and  OakmuJgee,  in  a  southwest  direction  to  the  St  Mary's  river,  which  tract  of 
land  the  Creeks  in  this  city  absolutely  refuse  to  yield. 

Tliis  land  is  reported  to  be  generally  barren,  sunken,  and  unfit  for  cultivation,  except  in  some  instances  on  tlie 
margin  of  the  rivers,  on  which,  by  improvement,  rice  might  be  cultivated;  its  cliief  value  depending  on  the  timber 
fit  for  the  building  of  ships,  with  which  it  is  represented  as  abounding. 

While  it  is  thus  circumstanced  on  the  one  hand,  it  is  stated  by  the  Creeks,  on  the  other,  to  be  of  the  highest 
importance  to  them,  as  constituting  some  of  their  most  valuable  winter  hunting  ground. 

I  have  directed  the  commissioners,  to  whom  the  ciiarge  of  adjusting  this  treaty  lias  been  committed,  to  lay  before 
you  such  papers  and  documents,  and  to  communicate  to  you  such  information  relatively  to  it,  as  you  may  require. 

,,  „  ,  GEO.  WASHINGTON. 

United  States,  August  7,  1790. 

[Note.  The  papers  that  may  have  been  communicated,  were  returned;  but  are  believed  to  be  substantially  tlie 
same  with  those  ot  No.  9  of  this  series.  ] 

A  Treaty  of  peace  and  friendship,  made  and  concluded  hetiveen  the  President  of  the  United  States  of  America,  on 
the  part  and  behalf  of  the  said  Slates,  and  the  undersigned  kings,  chiefs,  and  warriors,  of  the  Creek  nation  of 
Indians,  on  the  part  and  behalf  of  the  said  nation. 

The  parties  being  desirous  of  establishing  permanent  peace  and  friendship  between  the  United  States  and  the 
said  Creek  nation,  and  the  citizens  and  members  thereof,  and  to  remove  the  causes  of  war  by  ascertaining  their 
limits,  and  making  other  necessary,  just,  and  friendly  arrangements,  the  President  of  the  United  States,  by  Henry 
Knox,  Secretary  tor  the  Department  of  War,  whom  he  hath  constituted  with  full  powers  for  these  purposes,  by 
and  with  tlie  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Creek  nation,  by  the  undersigned  kings, 
chiefs,  and  warriors,  representing  the  said  nation,  have  agreed  to  the  following  articles: 

Article  1.-  There  shall  be  perpetual  peace  and  fnendship  between  all  the  citizens  ot  the  United  States  of 
America,  and  all  the  individuals,  towns,  and  tribes,  of  the  Upper,  Middle,  and  Lower  Creeks  and  Seminoles, 
composing  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians. 

Art.  2.  The  undersigned  kings,  chiefs,  and  wairiors,  for  themselves,  and  all  parts  of  the  Creek  nation  -within 
the  limits  of  the  United  States,  do  acknowledge  themselves,  and  the  said  parts  of  the  Creek  nation,  to  be  under  the 
protection  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  of  no  other  sovereign  whosoever;  and  they  also  stipulate,  that  the 
said  Creek  nation  will  not  hold  any  treaty  with  an  individual  State,  or  with  individuals  of  any  State. 

Art.  3.  The  Creek  nation  shall  deliver,  as  soon  as  practicable,  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops  of  the 
United  States,  stationed  at  the  Rock  Landing  on  the  Oconee  river,  all  citizens  of  the  United  States,  white  inhabitants 
or  negroes,  who  are  now  prisoners  in  any  part  of  the  said  nation.  And  if  any  such  prisoners  or  negroes  sliould  not 
be  so  delivered,  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  June  ensuing,  the  Governor  of  Georgia  may  empower  three  persons  to 
repair  to  the  said  nation,  in  order  to  claim  and  receive  such  prisoners  and  negroes. 

Art.  4.  The  boundary  between  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  the  Creek  nation,  is,  and  shall  be,  from 
-where  the  old  line  strikes  the  river  Savannah;  thence,  up  the  said  river,  to  a  place  on  the  most  northern  branch  of 
the  same,  commonly  called  the  Keowee,  where  a  northeast  line,  to  be  drawn  from  the  top  of  the  Occunna  mountain 
shall  intersect;  thence,  along  the  said  line,  in  a  southwest  direction  to  Tugelo  river;  thence,  to  the  top  of  the  Cur- 
rahee  mountain;  thence  to  the  head  or  source  of  the  main  south  branch  of  the  Oconee  river,  called  the  Appalachee: 

82  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

thence,  down  the  middle  of  the  said  main  south  branch  and  river  Oconee,  to  its  confluence  with  the  Oakmulgee, 
which  form  the  river  Altamaha;  and  thence,  down  the  middle  of  the  said  Altamaha,  to  the  old  line  on  the  said  river; 
and  thence,  along  the  said  old  line,  to  the  river  St.  Mary's. 

And  in  order  to  preclude  forever  all  disputes  relatively  to  the  head  or  source  of  the  main  south  branch  of  the 
river  Oconee,  at  the  place  where  it  shall  be  intersected  by  the  line  aforesaid,  from  the  Currahee  mountain,  the  same 
shall  be  ascertained  by  an  able  surveyor,  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  who  shall  be  assisted  by  three  old  citizens 
of  Georgia,  who  may  be  appointed  by  the  Governor  of  the  said  State,  ana  three  old  Creek  chiefs,  to  be  appointed  by 
the  said  nation;  and  the  said  surveyor,  citizens,  and  chiefs,  shall  assemble  for  this  purpose  on  the  first  day  of 
October,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-one,  at  the  Rock  Landing  on  the  said  nver  Oconee,  and  thence 
proceed  to  ascertain  the  said  head  or  source  of  the  main  south  branch  of  the  said  river,  at  the  place  where  it  shall  be 
intersected  by  the  line  aforesaid,  to  be  drawn  from  the  Currahee  mountain.  And  in  order  that  the  said  boundary 
shall  be  rendered  distinct  and  well  known,  it  shall  be  marked  by  a  line  of  felled  trees  at  least  twenty  feet  wide, 
and  the  trees  chopped  on  each  side,  from  the  said  Currahee  mountain  to  the  head  or  source  of  the  said  main  south 
branch  of  the  Oconee  river;  and  thence,  down  the  margin  of  the  said  main  south  branch  and  river  Oconee,  for  the 
distance  of  twenty  miles,  or  as  much  farther  as  may  be  necessary  to  mark  distinctly  the  said  boundary.  And  in 
order  to  extinguish  forever  all  claims  of  the  Creek  nation,  or  any  part  thereof,  to  any  of  the  land  lying  to  the  nortfi- 
ward  and  eastward  of  the  boundary  herein  described,  it  is  hereby  agreed,  in  addition  to  the  considerations  heretofore 
made  for  the  said  land,  that  thie  United  States  will  cause  certain  valuable  Indian  goods,  now  in  the  State  of  Georgia,  to 
be  delivered  to  the  said  Creek  nation;  and  the  said  United  States  will  also  cause  the  sun\  of  one  thousand  and  five 
hundred  dollars  to  be  paid  annually  to  the  said  Creek  nation.  And  the  undersigned  kings,  chiefs,  and  warriors, 
do  hereby,  for  themselves  and  tlie  whole  Creek  nation,  their  heirs,  and  descendants,  for  the  considerations  above- 
mentioned,  release,  quit  claim,  relinquish,  and  cede,  all  the  land  to  the  northward  and  eastward  of  the  boundary 
herein  described. 

Art.  5.  The  United  States  solemnly  guaranty  to  the  Creek  nation,  all  their  lands  within  the  limits  of  the 
United  States,  to  the  \yestward  and  soutliward  of  the  boundary  described  by  tlie  preceding  article. 

Art.  6.  If  any  citizen  of  the  United  States,  or  other  person,  not  being  an  InJian,  shall  attempt  to  settle  on  any 
of  the  Creeks'  lands,  such  person  shall  forfeit  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  and  the  Creeks  may  punish  him 
or  not,  as  they  please. 

Art.  7.  No  citizen  or  inhabitant  of  the  United  States  shall  attempt  to  hunt  or  destroy  the  game  on  the  Creek 
lands;  nor  shall  any  such  citizen  or  inhabitant  go  into  the  Creek  country,  without  a  passport  first  obtained  from  the 
Governor  of  some  one  of  the  United  States,  or  the  officer  of  the  troops  of  the  United  States  commanding  at  the 
nearest  military  post  on  the  frontiers,  or  such  other  person  as  the  President  of  the  United  States  may,  from  time  to 
time,  authorize  to  grant  the  same. 

Art.  8.  If  any  Creek  Indian  or  Indians,  or  person  residing  among  them,  or  who  shall  take  refuge  in  their 
nation,  shall  commit  a  robbery  or  murder,  or  other  capital  crime,  on  any  of  the  citizens  or  inhabitants  of  tlie  United 
States,  the  Creek  nation,  or  town,  or  tribe,  to  which  such  offender  or  offenders  may  belong,  shall  be  bound  to 
deliver  him  or  them  up,  to  be  punished  according  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  9.  If  any  citizen  or  inhabitant  of  the  United  States,  or  of  either  of  the  tenitorial  districts  of  the  United 
States,  shall  go  into  any  town,  settlement,  or  territory,  belonging  to  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians,  and  shall  there 
commit  any  crime  upon,  or  trespass  against,  the  person  or  property  of  any  peaceable  and  friendly  Indian  or  Indians, 
which,  if  committed  w;ithin  the  jurisdiction  of  any  Stat€,  or  within  the  jurisdiction  of  either  of  the  said  districts, 
against  a  citizen  or  white  inhabitant  thereof,  would  be  punishable  by  the  laws  of  such  State  or  district,  such  offender 
or  offenders  shall  be  subject  to  the  same  punishment,  and  shall  be  proceeded  against  in  the  same  manner,  as  if  the 
offence  had  been  committed  witliin  the  jurisdiction  of  the  State  or  district  to  which  he  or  they  may  belong,  against  a 
citizen  or  white  inhabitant  thereof. 

Art.  10.  In  cases  of  violence  on  the  persons  or  property  of  the  individuals  of  either  party,  neither  retaliation 
nor  reprisal  shall  be  committed  by  the  other,  until  satisfaction  shall  have  been  demanded  of  the  party  of  which  the 
aggressor  is,  and  shall  have  been  refused. 

Art.  11.  The  Creeks  shall  give  notice  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  of  any  designs  which  they  may  know 
or  suspect  to  be  formed  in  any  neighboring  tiibe,  or  by  any  person  whatever,  against  the  peace  and  interests  of  the 
United  States. 

Art.  12.  That  the  Creek  nation  may  be  led  to  a  greater  degree  of  civilization,  and  to  become  herdsmen  and 
cultivators,  instead  of  remaining  in  a  state  of  hunters,  the  United  States  will,  from  time  to  time,  furnish  gratuitously 
the  said  nation  with  useful  domestic  animals,  and  implements  of  husbandry.  And  further,  to  assist  the  said  nation 
in  so  desirable  a  pursuit,  and  at  the  same  time  to  establish  a  certain  mode  of  communication,  the  United  States  will 
send  such,  and  so  many  persons,  to  reside  in  said  nation,  as  they  may  judge  proper,  and  not  exceeding  four  in  num- 
ber, who  shall  qualify  themselves  to  act  as  interpreters.  These  persons  shall  have  lands  assigned  them  by  the 
Creeks  for  cultivation,  for  themselves  and  their  successors  in  office;  but  they  shall  be  precluded  exercising  any 
kind  of  traffic. 

Art.  13.  All  animosities  for  past  grievances  shall  henceforth  cease;  and  the  contracting  parties  vnW  carry  the 
foregoing  treaty  into  full  execution,  -with  all  good  faith  and  sincerity. 

Art.  14.  This  treaty  shall  take  eflect.  and  be  obligatory  on  the  contracting  parties,  as  soon  as  the' same  shall 
have  been  ratified  by  President  of  the  the  United  States,  w  ith  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate  of  the  United 

_   In  witness  of  all  and  every  thing  herein  determined,  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  whole  Creek 
""         nation,  the  parties  have  hereunto  set  their  hands  and  seals,  in  the  city  of  New  York,  within  the  United 
States,  this  7th  day  of  August,  1790. 

In  behalf  of  the  United  States: 
.  '  .      H.  KNOX, 

■         '  ■  ' Secretary  of  War,  and  sole  Commissioner  for  treati?ig  ivith  the  Creek  nation  of  Indians. 


And  twenty-three  chiefs  and  warriors,  in  behalf  of  themselves  and  the  whole  Creek  nation  of  Indians. 

,!     I}';,.    .'Hi.^tt',    •:       -i  -'    'If 


1st   Congress.]  No.     13.  ■■■  [2d  Session. 


COMMUNICATED   TO  THE   SENATE,    AUGUST   11,    1790. 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate:  ,  . 

Although  the  treaty  with  the  Creeks  may  be  regarded  as  the  main  foundation  of  the  future  peace  and  pros- 
perity of  the  southwestern  frontier  of  the  United  States,  yet,  in  order  fully  to  effect  so  desirable  an  object,  the  trea- 
ties which  have  been  entered  into  with  the  other-tribes  in  that  quarter,  must  be  faitlifuUy  performed  on  our  parts. 

During  the  last  year,  I  laid  before  the  Senate  a  particular  statement  of  the  case  of  the  Cherokees.  By  a  reference 
to  that  paper,  it  will  appear  that  the  United  States  formed  a  treaty  with  the  Cherokees  in  November,  1785:  That  the 
said  Cherokees  thereby  placed  themselves  under  the  protection  of  the  United  States,  and  had  a  boundaiy  assigned 

That  the  white  people  settled  on  the  frontiers  had  openly  violated  the  said  boundary  by  intruding  on  the  Indian 
lands:        '  .  ■ 

That  the  United  States,  in  Congress  assembled,  did,  on  the  first  day  of  September,  1788,  issue  their  proclamation, 
forbidding  all  such  unwarrantable  intrusions,  and  enjoining  all  those  who  had  settled  unon  the  hunting  grounds  of 
the  Cherokees,  to  depart  with  their  families  and  effects  without  loss  of  time,  as  they  would  answer  their  disobedience 
to  the  injunctions  and  prohibitions  expressed,  at  their  peril. 

But  information  has  been  received,  that,  notwitlistanding  the  said  treaty  and  proclamation,  upwards  of  five  hun- 
dred families  have  settled  on  the  Cherokee  lands,  exclusively  of  those  settled  between  the  fork  of  French  Broad 
and  Holston  rivers,  mentioned  in  the  said  treaty. 

As  the  obstructions  to  a  proper  conduct  on  tnis  matter  have  been  removed  since  it  was  mentioned  to  the  Senate 
on  the  22d  of  August,  1789,  by  the  accession  of  North  Carolina  to  the  present  Union,  and  the  cessions  of  the  land 
in  question,  I  shall  conceive  myself  bound  to  exert  the  powers  entrusted  to  me  by  the  cimstitution,  in  order  to  carry 
into  faidiful  execution  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  unless  it  shall  be  thought  proper  to  attempt  to  arrange  a  new  boundary 
with  the  Cherokees,  embracing  the  settlement^,  and  compensating  the  Cherokees  for  the  cessions  they  shall  make  on 
the  occasion.    On  this  point,  tlierefore,  I  state  the  following  questions,  and  request  the  advice  of  the  Senate  thereon: 

1st  Is  it  the  judgment  of  the  Senate  that  overtures  shall  be  made  to  the  Cherokees  to  arrange  a  new  boundary, 
so  as  to  embrace  the  settlements  made  by  the  white  peojile  since  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  in  November,  1785.*^ 

2d.  If  so,  shall  compensation,  to  the  amount  of dollars,  annually,  or  of dollars,  in  gross,  be  made  to  the 

Cherokees  for  the  land  they  shall  relinquish,  holding  the  occupiers  of  the  land  accountable  to  the  United  States  for 
its  value? 

3d.  Shall  the  United  States  stipulate  solemnly  to  guaianty  the  new  boundary  which  may  be  arranged.'' 

United  States,  ^j/gi«Ml,  1790. 

The  Senate  thereupon  adopted  the  following  resolutions: 

Resolved,  That  the  Senate  do  advise  and  consent,  that  the  President  of  the  United  States  do,  at  his  discretion, 
cause  the  treaty  concluded  at  Hopewell,  with  the  Cherokee  Indians,  to  be  carried  into  execution  according  to  the 
terms  thereof,  or  to  enter  into  arrangements  for  such  further  cession  of  territory,  from  the  said  Cherokee  Indians,  as 
the  tranquillity  and  interest  of  the  United  States  may  require:  FroiuV/ef/,  The  sum  which  maybe  stipulated  to  be  paid 
to  the  said  Cherokee  Indians,  do  not  exceed  one  thousand  dollars  aiirmally;  and  Provided  further.  That  no  person 
who  shall  have  taken  possession  of  any  lands  within  the  territory  assigned  to  the  said  Cherokee  Indians,  by  the 
said  treaty  of  Hopewell,  shall  be  confirmed  in  any  such  possessions,  but  by  compliance  with  such  terms  as  Congress 
may  hereafter  prescribe. 

Resolved,  In  case  a  new.  or  other  boundary  than  that  stipulated  by  the  treaty  of  Hopewell,  shall  be  concluded 
with  the  Cherokee  Iiuiians,  that  the  Senate  do  advise  and  consent  solemnly  to  guaranty  the  same. 

1st  Congress.]  '    .  '  No.  14.  ■    ■  [3d  S 




Jlnd  referred  to  by  the  President  of  the  United  Slates  in  his  speech  to  Congress  of  December  8 ,  of  which  the 

following  is  an  extract: 

"  It  has  been  heretofore  known  to  Congress,  that  frequent  incursions  haye  been  made  on  our  frontier  settlements 
by  certain  banditti  of  Indians  from  the  northwest  side  ot  the  Ohio.  These,  with  some  of  the  tribes  dwelling  on,  and 
near,  the  Wabash,  have  of  late  been  particularly  active  in  their  depredations;  and,  being  emboldened  by  the  impu- 
nity of  their  crimes,  and  aided  by  such  parts  of  the  neighboring  tribes  as  could  be  seduced  to  join  in  their  hostilities, 
or  affind  them  a  retreat  for  their  prisoners  and  plunder,  they  have,  instead  of  listening  to  the  humane  invitations  and 
overtures  made  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  renewed  their  violences  with  fresh  alacrity,  and  greater  effect. 
The  lives  of  a  number  ot  valuable  citizens  have  thus  been  sacrificed,  and  some  of  them  under  circumstances  pecu- 
liarly shocking;  whilst  others  have  been  carried  into  a  deplorable  captivity. 

"■  These  aggravated  provocations  rendered  it  essential  to  the  safety  of  the  western  settlements,  that  the  agressors 
should  be  made  sensible  that  the  government  of  the  Union  is  not  less  capable  of  punishing  their  crimes,  than  it  is 
disposed  to  respect  their  rights  and  reward  their  attachments.  As  this  object  could  not  be  eftt^cted  by  defensive 
measures,  it  became  necessary  to  put  in  force  the  act  which  empowers  the  President  to  call  out  the  militia  for  the 
protection  of  the  frontiers;  and  f  have,  accordingly,  authorized  an  expedition,  in  which  the  regular  troops  in  that 
quarter  are  combined  with  such  draughts  of  militia  as  were  deemed  sufficient:  the  event  of  the  measure  is  yet 
unknown  to  me.  The  Secretary  of  War  is  directed  to  lay  before  you  a  statement  of  the  information  on  which  it  is 
founded,  as  well  as  an  estimate  of  the  expense  with  which  it  will  be  attended." 

84  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [179G. 

War  Department,  December  8th,  1790. 

In  obedience  to  the  orders  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  I  have  the  honor  respectfully  to  submit  to  the 
Senate,  a  statement  of  the  information  on  which  the  expedition  against  the  Indians  northwest  of  the  Ohio  has 
been  founded,  and  also  the  instructions  to  tlie  Governor  of  the  Western  territory,  and  the  commanding  officer 
of  the  troops  relative  to  the  same  object;  together  with  an  estimate  of  the  expense  with  which  the  expedition  will 
probably  be  attended. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant, 

H.  KNOX,  Secretary  of  War. 
The  Honorable  the  President  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States. 

Information  relative  to  depredations  of  the  Indians  Northwest  of  the  Ohio. 

John  Evans,  Lieutenant  of  the  county  of  Monongalia,  to  the  Executive  of  Virginia,  25th  April,  1789. 

On  the  23d  instant  the  Indians  committed  hostilities  on  the  frontiers  of  this  county,  killed  a  captain  William 
Thomas,  Joseph  Cornbridge  and  wife,  and  two  children  on  Dunker's  Creek,  which  has  alarmed  the  people  in  such 
a  degree  as  to  occasion  them  to  apply  to  me  for  assistance. 

William  McClery  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia. 

Morgantown,  25th  Jlpril,  1789. 

An  express  came  here  this  morning  with  the  disagreeable  news  of  the  Indians  having  committed  hostilities  on 
one  of  our  frontier  settlements  on  the  23d  instant;  two  parties  attacked,  nearly  about  the  same  sime,  two  families  on 
Dunkard  Creek,  about  twenty  to  twenty-five  miles  from  this  place,  and  killed  one  man  out  of  one,  and  the  man 
and  his  wife  and  two  children,  which  was  the  whole  of  the  other  family;  the  alarm  given  to  the  frontier  of  this 
county  generally  by  this  murder,  hath  become  very  serious,  and  unless  some  speedy  assistance  is  given,  I  am  some- 
thing of  opinion,  that  the  Monongahela  river  (which  runs  by  (his  place)  will  be  our  frontier  line  in  a  short  time. 

Geo.  Clenditien  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia. 

'•  '■''■.''••:-  Greenbrier,  \5th  June,  1789.      ■ 

I  am  also  unhappy  to  find  that  the  Executive  have  received  no  official  information  respecting  tlie  disposition  of 
the  Indians  westward  of  the  Ohio;  but  let  their  disposition  be  what  it  mayi,  they,  or  some  Indians  to  us  unknown, 
since  my  last,  by  Mr.  Renick,  have  killed  and  taken  ten  prisoners  from  the  settlement  on  Clinch,  and  also  several 
persons  at  the  mouth  of  Great  Sandy,  and  I  have  reason  to  expect  their  blows  hourly  on  Kenhawa. 

Robert  Johnson,  Lt.  of  the  County  of  Woodford,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

District  of  Kentucky,  22d  August,  1789. 

About  the  10th  instant,  two  men  were  fired  on  by  a  party  of  Indians,  but  no  damage  sustained;  only  one  of 
the  horses  the  men  rode  was  killed;  the  Indians  took  the  saddle  and  bridle,  and  the  night  following,  they  stole  eleven 
horses;  our  men  pursued  them,  next  day  came  up  with  them,  and  retook  all  tlie  horses,  together  with  the  said  saddle 
and  bridle,  and  killed  two  (one  of  which  was  a  white  man.)  On  Sunday,  the  I6th,  six  negroes  were  taken  by  a 
party  of  Indians  in  ambuscade,  about  three  quarters  of  a  mile  from  my  house;  they  carried  them  about  one  quarter 
of  a  mile,  where  they  were  surprised  by  the  noise  of  some  people  riding  near  them;  they  tomahawked  four,  two  of 
which  died,  two  were  left  for  dead,  wnich  are  now  in  a  hopetul  way  of  recovery;  the  other  two  made  their  escape 
while  they  were  murdering  the  rest.  The  day  following,  the  party  was  seen  twice,  and  the  evening  or  night  of  the 
sixteenth  they  stole  some  horses  from  Captain  Buford;  we  pursued  them  as  quick  as  possible,  with  about  forty  men, 
to  the  Ohio,  about  twenty -five  miles  below  the  mouthof  Big  Miami,  where  twenty-six  volunteers  crossed  the  Ohio 
alter  them;  we  came  to  a  large  camp  of  them,  early  in  the  morning  of  the  20th,  about  twelve  miles  froin  the  Oliio; 
we  divided  our  party,  and  attacked  them  opposite,  on  each  side;  tliey  fouglit  us  a  short  time  in  that  position,  until 
they  got  their  women  and  children  out  of  the  way,  and  then  gave  back  to  a  thick  place  ;of  liigh  weeds  and  bushes, 
where  they  hid  veiy  close;  we  immediately  drove  up  about  forty  of  their  horses,  and  made  our  retreat  across  the 
Ohio.  We  lost  three  men  and  two  wounded.  The  Indians  wounded  one  of  our  men  as  we  returned.  Thus  they 
are  going  on  from  time  to  time  in  tliis  country. 

.  ':'.  '\M  ,'■:     ■'.-,'  ;;•.«:■    •,  ^e  Convention  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Danville,  2&th  July,  1789. 

We  can  assure  your  Excellency  thai  the  militia  of  Kentucky,  from  tlieir  hardiness,  alertness,  and  bravery,  are 
able  to  render  essential  service  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  district,  if  they  are  employed  in  its  defence. 

And  we  beg  leave  further  to  observe,  that,  from  the  present  station  of  the  federal  troops,  it  is  absolutely  impos- 
sible to  give  the  commanders  notice,  so  as  to  enable  them,  even  if  tlieir  force  was  sufficient,  to  render  any  service 


Robert  Johnson,  County  Lieutenant,  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia. 

District  of  Kentucky,  Woodford  County,  August  22d,  1789.. 

The  hostile  acts  of  the  savages  are  so  frequent  in  our  country  that  it  becomes  troublesome  to  write  you  on 
every  occasion.  On  the  10th  of  this  instant,  a  party  fired  on  a  young  man  in  this  county,  near  tlie  settlement,  killed 
the  horse,  and  took  the  saddle  and  bridle,  and  stole  some  horses,  tne  night  following.  We  were  in  motion,  early 
next  morning,  and  soon  found  their  trail,  and  came  up  with  them  and  retook  the  horses,  and  killed  two  of  them,  one 
of  which  was  a  wiiite  man;  the  I6tli  following,  a  party  took  six  negroes  within  a  mile  of  my  house,  killed  two, 
wounded  two  widi  their  tomahawks,  and  left  tliem  for  dead,  and  the  other  two  made  their  escape  while  they  were 
murdering  the  rest.    The  second  night  after,  they  stole  some  horses.    About  forty  men  foUoAved  them  to  tlie  Oliio, 


and  twenty-six  crossed  the  river  and  followed  them  over  the  Ohio,  about  twelve  nules,  where  we  came  up  with  a 
party  at  a  large  camp,  making  salt  at  a  salt  spring;  we  divided  the  party,  and  attacked  them  on  eacii  side;  they  soon 
gave  back;  we  took  some  of  tlieir  horses,  and  returned  to  the  Ohio,  where  we  crossed.  We  lost  three  men  killed 
and  two  wounded. 

Jin  account  of  the  depredations  committed  in  the  District  of  Kentucky,  by  the  Indians,  since  the  first  of  May,  1789. 



supper.  Three  of  Chinoweth's  family  were  killed  and  seven  wounded.    Three  of  the  wounded  are  since  dead,"and 

several  others  yet  dangerous.     The  Indians  plundered  the  house  of  every  tiling  they  could  carry  away.    There'  was 

at  the  same  station,  before  this  date,  one  man  killed  and  one  wounded.     Tiie  number  of  horses  stolen  from  this 

county  exceeds  twenty. 

Nelson. — Two  men  killed  and  two  wounded,  and  a  number  of  horses  stolen,  to  tlie  amount  of  about  twenty. 

Lincoln. — One  man  and  one  child  killed  aryl  two  women  wounded;  about  twenty-five  horses  stolen. 

Madison.— On  the  first  day  of  June,  the  Indians  broke  into  the  house  of  Edmond  Stephenson,  and  wounded 
one  person;  they  have  stolen  a  number  of  horses  from  this  county. 

Bourbon. — Two  men  have  been  badly  wounded^and  about  fifteen  horses  stolen. 

Mason. — Two  men  killed  and  forty-one  horses  stolen. 

Woodford. — One  boy  killed  and  several  horses  stolen. 

•     Colonel  Benjamin  Wilson  to  Governor  St.  Clair.  , 

H.\RRisoN  County,  Ath  October,  1789. 

On  the  19th  of  September  last,  a  party  of  Indians  killed  and  scalped  four  persons,  and  captured  four;  the 
family  of  a  certain  William  Johnston,  within  about  nine  miles  of  Clarksburg.  On  the  22d,  the  Indians  killed  John 
Mauk's  wife  and  two  of  his  children,  and  burnt  his  house;  the  same  evening,  Durnt  Jacob  Flotzer's  house;  the  family 
hardly  escaped.  On  the  23d,  burnt  Jethro  Thompson's  house;  and  on  the  26th,  burnt  John  Simnvs  house;  and  on 
the  28th,  stole  from  Randolph  county,  ten  or  eleven  horses.  The  number  of  horses  taken  from  this  county,  is  not 
yet  truly  ascertained:  but  certain,  five  horses  taken — cattle,  sheep,  and  hogs  killed.  Some  part  of  this  mischief 
done  eleven  or  twelve  miles  in  towards  the  interior  parts  of  this  county.  Sii-,  be  assured,  the  people  of  this  part  of 
the  county  are  much  alarmed  and  much  confused;  and  in  my  humble  opinion,  if  something  more  tnan  treaties  made 
with  part  of  the  Indian  tribes,  is  not  done  shortly,  it  will  be  with  difticulty  the  frontiers  of  tliis  county  can  be  kept 
froin  evacuating  their  settlements.  This  opinion  I  have  gathered  from  my  having  taken  a  tour  amongst  the  people, 
whilst  tlie  miscTiief  was  doing. 

Geo.  Clendinen,  Lieut,  of  the  county  of  Kenhawa,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Richmond,  27th  December,  1789. 

The  Indians  have,  in  the  county  of  Kenhawa,  committed  many  hostilities,  some  of  which,  Ij  beg  leave  to 
enumerate.  They  killed  a  man  ne;ir  Point  Pleasant:  took  a  young  man.  and'a  negro  fellow,  prisoners;  have  shot  at 
others,  who  made  their  escape;  and  have  taken  bet\yeen  twenty  and  thirty  head  ot  horses,  together  with  many  other 
outrages,  to  the  manifest  injury  and  distress  of  the  inhabitants. 

If  protection  is  not  immediately  given,  I  am  sure  the  greater  part  of  our  frontier  will  be  compelled  to  leave 
their  homes,?and  either  live  in  forts  or  move  into  the  strong  settled  parts  of  the  neighboring  counties,  which  I  con- 
ceive would  do  great  public  injury,  as  well  as  distress,  in  a  great  degree  the  inhabitants  that  are  thus  exposed,  who 
are  situated  in  a  part  of  tlie  country  not  only  to  become  respectable  but  very  useful. 

Address  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Virginia  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

It  has  been  a  great  relief  to  our  apprehensions  for  the  safety  of  our  brethren  on  the  frontiers,  to  learn  from 
the  communications  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  that  their  protection  against  the  incursions  of  the  Indians  has  occu- 
pied your  attention. 

Knowing  the  power  of  the  Federal  Executive  to  concentrate  the  American  force,  and  confiding  in  the  wisdom 
of  its  measures,  we  should  leave  the  subject  unnoticed,  but  from  a  belief  that  time  has  been  wanting  to  give  the 
proper  intelligence,  and  make  the  necessary  arrangements  of  defence,  for  a  country  so  far  remote  from  the  seat  of 

Many  members  of  the  General  Assembly  now  present,  have  been  either  witnesses  of  the  recent  murders  and 
depredations  committed  by  the  savages,  or  have  brought  with  them  information,  the  truth  of  which  cannot  be  ques- 
tioned. It  is  unnecessary  to  enter  into  a  detail  of  those  hostilities.  Permit  us  only  to  say,  that  those  parts  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  the  southwestern  and  northern  counties,  lying  on  the  Ohio  and  its  waters,  which  have  generally  been 
the  scene  of  Indian  barbarity,  are  now  pressed  by  danger  the  most  imminent. 

^ye  have  been  induced  to  suppose  it  possiblcj  that,  for  the  purpose  of  affording  effectual  relief,  it  may  be  found 
expedient  to  carry  war  into  the  country  of  the  Indian  enemy.  Should  this  be  the  case,  we  take  the  liberty  of  assur- 
ing you,  that  this  Commonwealth  will  cheerfully  sustain  her  proportion  of  the  expenses  which  may  be  incurred  in 
such  an  expedition. 

•'  From  the  Representatives  of  the  frontier  counties  of  Virginia,  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Richmond,  llth  December,  1789. 

In  addition  to  the  address  of  the  General  Assembly  on  Indian  Aftairs,  we,  the  representatives  of  the  counties 
of  Ohio,  Monongalia,  Harrison,  and  Randolph,  are  constrained  to  take  the  liberty  of  stating  to  j'ou  the  defence- 
less situation  of  those  counties,  in  order  that  you  may  be  able  to  direct  such  measures  as  may  oe  necessary  for  their 
defence,  as  we  have  every  reason  to  expect  that  the  Indians  will  break  in  upon  our  settlements  as  soon  as  the  weather 
will  permit  them  in  the  spring.  First,  from  the  northern  boundary  line,  where  it  croses  the  Ohio  river  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Little  Beaver  creek,  down  the  said  river  to  the  mouth  of  Big  Sandy  creek,  distant  about  three  hundred 
miles,  we  lay  open  to  the  ravages  of  the  Indians,  who  may  attack  our  settlements  in  any  quarter  they  may 
choose.  It  may  here  be  supposed,  that  the  troops  stationed  at  Muskingum  would  check  their  progress  in  this  busi- 
ness; but  experience  hath  taught  us,  that  they  are  of  very  little  use,  tor  we  find,  that  the  Indians  cross  tJie  river 
Ohio,  both  above  and  below  that  garrison,  undiscovered  either  on  their  way  to  our  country  or  returning  to  their  own. 
12  ♦ 

gg  INDIAN  AFFAIRS,  {1790. 

i     \n(l  indeed,  such  will  always  be  our  fate,  until  more  effectual  measures  are  adopted  for  our  defence.    It  may  be 
J    further  supposed,  that  General  St.  Clair  can  grant  all  the  relief  that  is  necessary  for  our  safety.     In  answer  to 
which  we  beg  leave  to  observe,  that,  although  we  have  the  highest  opinion  ot  that  gentleman's  integrity  and  good- 
^    ness,  yet.  from  liis  necessary  calls  to  visit  tlie  different  posts  on  the  Ohio  river,  even  as  low  down  as  the  Rapids, 
'        we  fear  it  will  be  out  of  his  power  to  render  us  the  necessary  aid;  besides,  it  is  impracticable  for  us  to  find  him  in 
tlie  hour  of  distress.    We  further  beg  leave  to  suggest,  that,  whilst  our  operations  were  confined  to  a  defensive  plan 
only  we  have  ever  found  the  greatest  degree  of  safety  to  our  country  arising  from  keeping  out  scouts  and  rangers  on  our 
frontiers.     Indeed,  it  was  owing  to  that  plan,  and  that  only,  that  large  tracts  ot  our  country  have  not,  long  ere  now, 
been  depopulated.     These  scouts  and  rangers  were  composed  of  our  own  militia,  on  whom  our  people  could,  with 
confidence,  depend,  as  they  are  well  acquainted  with  our  woods,  and  with  the  paths  the  Indians  use  to  come  in  upon 
our  settlements.    Whilst  we  were  thus  covered,  we  lived  in  perfect  security,  but  as  soon  as  they  were  withdrawn 
last  spring,  we  immediately  felt  the  effects  of  Indian  cruelty:  for,  from  the  month  of  April  last,  to  the  month  of 
October  at  whicli  time  we  left  iiome,  there  were  killed  and  captured  twenty  persons — a  considerable  number  of 
horses  and  other  property  carried  off",  and  several  houses  burnt  in  our  country.    All  military  regulations  being  sub- 
■nitted  to  you,  we  therefore  beg  leave  to  suggest  our  wishes,  that  you  would  continue  to  us  the  aforesaid  mode  of 
defence,  should  you  approve  of  it,  or  direct  such  other  measures  as  you,  in  your  wisdom,  may  think  more  advis- 
able to  be  continued  in  our  country,  until  it  may  be  thought  necessary  to  carry  on  offensive  war  into  the  enemy's 
country   to  bring  about  a  lasting  peace.     Suffer  us  further  to  assure  you,  that  we,  on  the  behalf  of  our  bleeding 
country'  look  up  to  you,  and  to  you  only,  for  that  assistance  that  our  necessities  require,  and  shall  conclude  with 
praying 'that  the  great  Parent  of  the  universe  mav  conduct  you  under  the  eye  of  his  special  providence,  enabling 
you  to  fill  that  exalted  station  to  wliich  he  hath  called  you,  as  well  for  the  good  of  your  tellow  citizens,  as  also  for 
the  happiness  of  mankind,  so  far  as  they  come  within  the  bounds  of  your  atlministration. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  witli  ^  ery  great  regard  and  esteem,  your  Excellency's  most  ob't  servants, 

JOHN  P.  DUVALL,  ^na^or. 
V.      .         :  WILLIAM  M ACM AHON,  7   ^,. 

ARCHIBALD  WOODS,        ^  ^'^^°- 

WILLIAM  M'CLEERY,  7  Monon'rdia. 
THOMAS  PINDALL,       5  ^*^'"*'"^^'«'«- 
JOHN  PRUNTY,  7   iy„„„.-„„„ 
GEO.  JACKSON,   5  -««'^"*"»- 
JONA.  PARSONS,  7   t)„^.i^i^i, 
CORN.  BOGARD,  ^: -"anaoipn. 

Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  Secretary  of  War.      "■       '  ■"  • '  ' 

.'■  .  .    Fort  Steuben,  2,6th  January,  1790. 

Bv  a  note  this  moment  received  from  Louisville,  I  am  informed  that  the  Indians  have  killed  three  men,  witiiin 
twelve  miles  of  Danville,  at  Carpenter's  Station,  and  three  more,  and  broke  the  settlement  up,  upon  Russell's  creek, 
•ibout  forty  miles  from  the  same  place ;  some  people  who  had  been  hunting  on  this  side  the  nver,  about  six  miles  below 
Limestone,  were  fired  upon  by  Indians,  and  one  man  killed;  just  almost  at  the  time  Major  Doughty  was  passing; 
he  landed  and  pursued  them,  but  in  vain. 

Hon.  Harry  Innes,  Judge  for  the  District  of  Kentucky,  to  the  Ho7i.  Jno.  Brown. 

*'     ■  ^  '        .■  '^  ■    ■    .  Danville,  13</t  il/arcA,  1790. 

In  the  month  of  January,  a  boat  with  ten  persons  were  cut  off",  about  sixteen  miles  above  Limestone;  nine  found 
dead  in  the  boat,  and  one  woman  missing;  during  the  massacre,  a  boy,  who  was  a  prisoner,  made  Ins  escape;  he  was 
up  Licking,  being  out  with  two  men  on  a  hunting  party,  who  were  killed.  Three  men  were  killed  about  the  same 
tinie  in  the  wilderness,  between  Rickland  creek  and  Stinking  creek;  on  the  road  two  escaped.  Old  John  Sloan  and  his 
son  were  killed  on  the  head  of  the  Rolling  fork;  one  man  killed  on  Holm.  A  station  on  Russell's  creek  was  attacked 
■iboutthe  25th  ot  the  month;  Isaac  and  Nathan  Farris,  a  son  of  Isaac  Farris.  John  Painter,  and  one  other  man,  killed; 
'a  negro  woman,  and  white  woman  wounded,  and  a  number  of  horses  have  been  taken,  but  I  can't  enumerate  them.  One 
Harper  was  killed  on  State  creek.  .,     ^t^     ^    i  i  ^l  i    .. 

In  February,  one  man  killed  at  the  Mudhck:  one  killed  at  the  mouth  of  Kentucky,  and  the  people  have  evacu- 
ated the  station  from  fear.  In  this  month  I  have  only  heard  of  one  man  killed  and  one  wounded  on  the  Rolling 
fork;  but  from  various  reports,  there  is  too  mucli  reason  to  fear  they  will  be  hostile  this  spring. 

•  '  Jfm.  If.  Bowell  to  the  Hon.  John  Brown. 

4th  April,  1790. 

\lthouah  I  wrote  you  a  few  days  ago,  I  feel  a  propensity  to  hand  you  every  intelligence  in  my  power.  The  In- 
dians have  again  made  a  capital  stroke  on  the  Ohio;  they,  to  the  number  ot  abouthtty.  are  encamped  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Scioto,  and  have,  by  means  of  a  white  prisoner,  who  they  have  with  them,  taken  three  boats  and  aperiogue;  the 
perio^ue  contained  six  men,  who  were  going  up  tiie  river  from  Limestone;  one  ot  the  boats  belonged  to  Mr.  John  May; 
the  six  men,  together  with  Mr.  May,  and  the  whole  crew,  were  put  to  instant  death  by  the  savages.  The  other  two 
boats  one  of  them  belonged  to  families,  the  other  was  the  property  of  Colonel  Edwards,  of  Bourbon,  and  Mr.  Thomas 
Marshall  and  others,  who,  the  day  after  May  was  taken,  were  at  the  same  place  attacked  by  the  savages;  they  in 
the  first  instance  attempted  to  induce  the  boats  to  come  to  shore,  by  means  of  the  prisoner,  who  was  the  only  person 
exposed  to  view,  and  who  affected  tlie  utmost  distress  and  anxiety,  in  order  that  he  might  be  received  on  board  and 
brought  to  Limestone;  but  finding  their  stratagem  would  answer  no  purpose,  they  immediately  exposed  themselves, 
and  began  to  fire  on  the  boats,  but  without  effect;  the  devils  then,  to  the  number  of  about thu-ty,  jumped  into  May's 
boat,  and  gave  chase:  by  which  means,  being  better  supplied  with  oars,  they  would  soon  have  overtaken  Marshall  and 
the  family  boat,  if  it  had  not  been  for  Colonel  George  Thompson,  who  was  owner  to  a  third  part  in  the  same  com- 
pany;  he  threw  out  all  the  horses  he  had  in  his  boatj  and  received  Colonel  Edwards'  crew,  and  the  families  all  into 
his  boat,  together  with  their  oars,  by  which  means  the  whole  of  the  people  escaped  after  sustaining  a  chase  ot  about 
fifteen  miles.  The  loss  of  property  in  tlie  two  boats,  was  seventeen  horses,  about  fifteen  hundred  pounds  worth  ot 
dry  goods,  and  a  considerable  quantity  of  household  furniture.     It  is  not  known  what  May  had  on  board,  as  no 

^^1  have  also  heard  to-day,  that  the  Indians  have  taken  a  boat  on  Salt  river,  which  was  laden  with  salt,  and  killed  a 
John  Prior,  and  two  others  who  belonged  to  the  boat's  crew.  i       i       • 

These  are  the  most  material  outrages  that  I  now  recollect.     The  consequences  are  truly  alarming;  no  prepara- 
tion is  yet  made,  neither  can  there  be  oy  us,  who  are  not  authorized  to  cross  the  river. 


Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Cahokia,  \st  May,  1790. 

The  Major  (Hamtramck)  understanding  that  there  \\as  some  private  difterence  between  tliat  Indian  and  the 
person  who  ser\'ed  as  interpreter  to  the  messenger,  did.  on  the  first  of  April,  send  forward  another  messenger,  and 
nehas  enclosed  to  me  a  letter  from  him  from  Quitepicomuais,  fifteen  miles  above  Ouisconsin,  of  the  15th  of  that 
month,  a  translation  of  which  is  sent  with  this.  By  that  letter  you  will  observe  tliat  every  thing  is  referred  to  the 
Miamies,  which  does  not  indicate  a  peaceable  issue.  The  confidence  these  have  in  tlieir  situation,  the  vicinity  ot 
many  other  nations,  either  much  under  their  influence,  or  hostilely  disposed  towards  the  United  States,  and  perni- 
cious counsels  of  the  British  traders,  joined  to  the  immense  booties  obtained  by  their  depredations  on  the  Ohio,  will 
most  probably  prevent  them  from  listening  to  any  reasonable  terms  of  accommodation,  so  that  it  is  nuicli  tobe  feared 
that  the  United  States  must  prepare  effectually  to  chastise  them;  and  the  consequence  of  not  doing  it,  may  very 
probably  be  the  defection  of  those  who  are  now  at  peace,  and  would  remain  so,  with  the  entire  alienation  of  the  affec- 
tions at  least  o//^e  peop/e  o/ //ie /ron^jers. 

N.  B.  Gamelin's  information  being  unimportant,  is  not  copied. 

Representation  from  the  Field  Officers  of  Harrison  coimty. 

Virginia,  Harrisox  County.  February  2d,  1790. 

Sir:  "  .         ..  ,    , 

The  alarming  predicament  in  which  this  countiy  now  stands,  as  touching  the  state  of  Indian  affairs,  and  the 
small  prospect  of  protection  from  his  Excellency  Arthur  St.  Clair,  hath  moved  us  the  subscribers  to  meet  this  day  in 
council,  in  order  to  concert  measures  as,  far  as  in  our  power,  to  calm  the  minds  of  our  exposed  frontiers,  who  expect 
early  in  the  Spring  to  be  again  harassed  by  the  savages. 

It  appears  to  us,  by  the  address  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Virginia,  dated  the  30th  of  October,  1789,  that  official 
information  has  been  given  to  your  Excellency  of  the  Indians"  wanton  barbarity  on  the  frontiers  of  this  State.  We 
also  have  the  strongest  assurance  tliat  the  members  of  the  General  Assembly  from  the  western  district  did  apply,  by 
a  subsequent  address,  separate  and  apart  from  the  said  address  sent  by  the  General  Assembly,  which  we  trusted 
would  have  fell  into  your  hands  before  Governor  St.  Clair  left  New  York,  which  now  appears  to  us  not  to  be 
the  case;  therefore,  the  frontiers  are  left  defenceless;  the  people,  who  lay  exposed,  are  complaining  that  they  are 
neglected;  that  the  interior  parts  of  the  United  States  have  enjoyed  peace  since  the  year  1782;  that  Government 
has  got  thoughtless  about  the  lives  of  their  citizens,  &.c. 

We  would  undertake  to  give  a  full  detail  of  the  various  incursions  made  on  the  frontiers  of  this  countiy,  but 
expect  our  county  lieutenant  will  hand  this  petition  to  your  Excellency,  who,  we  believe,  will  better  satisfy  your 
inquiries  than  our  detail. 

We  presume  the  aforesaid  address  of  our  legislative  body,  and  the  separate  address  sent  by  the  membei^s  of  this 
western  district,  fully  take  in  our  wishes  as  touching  the  mode  of  present  and  future  relief. 

Therefore,  in  the  name  and  behalf  of  our  suffering  fellow-citizens,  over  whom  we  preside  as  field  officers  of  the 
militia,  pray  that  your  Excellency  would  take  our  distressed  situation  under  your  parental  care,  and  grant  us  such 
relief  as  you  in  your  wisdom  shall  think  proper,  and  we,  in  duty  bound,  will  pray,  &;c. 


GEO.  JACKSON.  Lieut.  Colonel, 

The  President  of  the  United  States.  WILLIAM  ROBINSON,  Major. 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  the  Lieutenants  of  the  counties  of  Fayette,  TVoodford,  and  Mercer,  to  the  Secretary  of 

War,  dated  I4th  .^pril,  1790.  . 

We  almost  every  day  receive  accounts  of  their  horrid  murders  on  our  defenceless  frontiers,  (which  entirely  sur- 
round us)  and  the  taking  of  horses  and  other  property,  to  the  ruin  of  a  number  of  families.  It  is  painful  to  repeat 
particulars,  but  some  recent  acts  of  the  savages  demand  our  representation. 

Several  boats  have,  within  a  few  weeks  past,  been  attacked  and  taken  on  the  Ohio  river,  and  one  in  Salt  river, 
by  strong  parties  of  Indians,  and  their  unhappy  crews  murdered  or  carried  into  captivity. 

We  have  reason  to  believe  that  there  is  a  combination  of  several  tribes,  and  their  numbers  pretty  numerous. 

.■    '  Major  Hamtramck  to  Governor  St.  Clair. 

Post  Vincennes,  May  22,  1790. 

I  now  enclose  the  proceedings  of  Mr.  Gamelin,  by  wiiich  your  Excellency  can  have  no  great  hopes  of  bringing 
the  Indians  to  a  peace  with  the  United  States.  The  8th  of  May  Gamelin  arrived,  and  on  the  11th  some  merchants 
arrived,  and  informed  me,  that,  as  soon  as  Gamelin  had  Ipasseu  their  villages,  on  his  return,  all  the  Indians  had 
gone  to  war;  that,  a  large  party  of  Indians  from  Michilimackinack  and  some  Pattawatamies  had  gone  to  Kentucky; 
and  that,  three  days  after  Gamelin  had  left  the  Miami,  an  American  was  brought  there  and  burnt. 

Deposition  of  Charles  Johnson,  taken  before  the  Secretary  of  JVar,  July  29,  1790. 

On  the  20th  of  March,  1790,  going  down  the  river  Ohio,  in  company  with  John  May,  Esq.  of  Virginia,  with 
four  other  persons  in  our  boat,  (two  of  whom  Avere  women)  we  were  attacked  by  a  party  of  fifty-four  Indians,  con- 
sisting chiefly  of  Shawanese  and  Cherokees.  In  this  attack,'Mr.  May  and  one  of  the  women  were  killed,  the  rest  of 
us  made  prisoners. 

The  day  following,  a  canoe  coming  up  the  river,  with  six  men  in  it.  Mere  fired  upon  and  all  killed. 

In  a  few  hours  afterwards,  two  boats  (the  owners  of  wiiich  had  abandoned  them  and  got  on  board  a  third  boat 
that  was  in  company)  were  taken  by  the  savages,  with  goods  and  other  property  in  them,  which,  in  my  opinion, 
must  have  amounted  to  several  thousand  pounds  value. 

Two  days  afterwards  the  Indians  divided  themselves  into  several  parties,  when  they  set  off  to  this  town,  and 
arrived  in  about  five  or  six  weeks  at  Sandusky,  where  the  nation  of  Wyandot  or  Huron  Indians  live. 

Whilst  in  the  Indian  country,  I  was  informed  that  one  of  our  party,  whose  name  was  William  Flin,  and  wiiom, 
on  a  division,  had  fallen  to  the  Cherokees,  was  carried  to  the  nation  of  Miamies,  there  tied  to  a  stake,  and,  in  the 
most  inhuman  manner,  was  roasted  alive. 

I  fiirtlier  understood  that  there  are  a  number  of  Americans  w  ho  have  been  made  prisoners  by  the  Indians,  and  are 
now  in  the  Shawanese  and  Miami  nations,  languishing  under  slavery  and  all  its  bitter  appendages. 

88  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790 

Col.  Robert  Rankins  to  Col.  Thomas  Lewis. 

April  S,  1790. 

As  I  presume  you  have  not  heard  of  the  late  mischief,  I  shall  just  beg  leave  to  infonii  you,  that,  about  six  weeks 
ago,  two  men  were  taken  oflf  Cabin  Creek,  who  have  been  made  use  of  to  decoy  boats  ashore,  by  which  means  six 
men  in  a  canoe,  going  up  the  river,  attempting  to  escape,  after  they  found  themselves  ensnared,  were  murdered;  Mr. 
May's  boat  taken,  himself  and  one  other  killed,  the  rest  of  the  crew  made  prisoners;  two  boats,  in  which  was  a  consi- 
derable amount  of  property,  belonging  to  Col.  John  Edwards,  of  Bourbon,  Capt.  Thomas  Marshall,  and  a  number 
of  other  gentlemen  taken;  the  gentlemen  themselves  forced  to  crowd  into  Col.  George  Thompson's  boat,  and  row 
for  life,  the  Indians  having  pursued  tliem  in  Mr.  May's  boat,  armed  for  that  purpose,  with  unparalleled  avidity. 

Two  men  were  also  killed  and  seven  more,  one  woman,  and  five  children,  taken  prisoners,  about  six  weeks  ago, 
in  Kennaday's  Bottom,  on  the  Ohio.  20  miles  above  Limestone,  where  they  were  engaged  in  erecting  a  new  settle- 
ment. All  this  mischief  has  been  done  by  tiie  same  party  of  Indians,  who  are  still  on  the  river,  and,  from  informa- 
tion, about  tlie  same  place  where  tlie  boats  and  canoe  were  taken,  six  or  seven  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Scioto. 
And  we  are  informed,  by  the  two  men  above  inentioued,  who  have  escaped  and  come  inj  that  they  have  sent  the  plun- 
der to  their  town  by  a  party,  and  expect  a  reinforcement.  A  pai'ty  of  men  was  raised  m  this  settlement  on  the  first 
intelligence  of  the  disturbance,  but  a  dispute  arising  among  them  respecting  the  object  in  ^iew,  they  split,  and 
returned  without  doing  of  any  service,  except  bringing  away  a  boat  which  the  Indians  fitted  up  for  their  offensive 
operations.  However,  such  generally  is  the  consequence  of  expeditions  where  the  officers  who  conduct  them  have 
only  power  to  advise  and  persuade;  and  it  is  much  to  be  lamented  that  the  Government  under  wliich  we  live  wants 
power,  or  they  who  are  at  the  helm  a  disposition,  to  protect  its  citizens. 

I  have  this  moment  received  further  intelligence  of  the  depredations  of  tliose  cursed  devils.  A  boat  from  Green- 
briar,  in  which  was  Colonel  Ward,  Mr.  R.  Madison,  and  three  or  four  other  boats  from  Monongahela,  were  yes- 
terday afternoon  attacked,  at  or  near  the  place  mentioned  above;  a  Mr.  Richards  ^vas  killed,  and  the  Monongahela 
people  were  obliged  to  abandon  one  of  their  boats,  with  about  one  hundred  gallons  of  whiskey,  some  other  property, 
besides  several  horses  and  cattle:  a  number  of  horses  were  killed  and  wounded  in  the  other  boats. 

Judge  Innes  to  the  Secretary  of  War.        ,'        •' 
'  ■         ,  .       Danville,  ilfoi/ 13/A,  1790. 

That  you  may  have  an  idea  of  our  unhappy  situation,  I  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  a  letter  I  Avrote  on  the  20th 
ultimo,  to  the  Hon.  John  Brown;  since  which  the  Indians  have  killed  two  wliite  men  and  two  negroes  in  Jefferson 
county;  in  Nelson  two  girls,  scalped  one  woman,  and  made  one  other  woman  prisoner. 

Judge  Innes  to  the  Secretary  of  TFar. 

Danville,  July  7th,  1790. 

I  have  been  intimately  acquainted  with  this  district  from  November,  1783;  I  can  with  truth  say,  that  in  this 
.  period  of  time,  the  Indians  have  always  been  the  aggressors;  that  any  incursions  made  into  their  country  have  been 
/  from  reiterated  injuries  committetl  by  them;  tiiat  the  depredatory  mode  of  Mar  and  plundering  carried  on  by  them, 
;  renders  it  difiicult,  and  almost  impossible,  to  discriminate  what  tribes  are  the  offenders;  tliat,  since  my  first  visit  to 
this  district,  which  was  the  time  above  named,  I  can  venture  to  say,  that  above  1500  souls  have  been  killed  and 
J  taken  in  the  district,  and  migrating  to  it;  that  upwards  of  20,000  horses  have  been  taken  and  carried  off,  and  other  pro- 
'.  perty,  such  as  money,  merchandise,  household  goods,  and  weai'ing  apparel,  have  been  cai'ried  off  and  destroyed  by 
these  barbarians,  to  at  least  £15,000. 

Repeated  informations  have  been  given  of  these  injuries,  which  continue  to  be  daily  perpetrated,  and  yet  we  have 
no  satisfactory  account  of  the  intention  of  Government  for  oui'  relief;  the  consequences  to  the  district  are  of  a  seri- 
ous and  important  nature;  by  them  do  we  see  the  population  of  our  country  decreased,  by  the  murders  committed 
on  the  emigrants  and  actual  settlers,  and  by  them  do  we  find  people  intiinidated  from  migrating  to  our  countiy, 
which  lessens  our  rising  strength;  by  them  is  the  Avealth  of  our  citizens  diminished,  and  the  value  of  our  lands  de- 
creased.   What  wll  be  the  result? 

Volunteer  expeditions  will  be  carried  on  into  the  Indian  countries,  upon  the  principle  oi  revenge,  protectio7i,  and 
self-preservation,  and  Government  will  not  be  able  to  counteract  tliem;  the  consequences  will  be,  that  the  volunteers 
who  may  thus  embody  Avill  not  discriminate  between  the  Indians  who  are  hostile  and  those  who  have  treated;  they 
will  consider  all  as  enemies  that  come  in  tiieir  way,  and  the  supposed  amicable  Indians  will  no  longer  have  any 
.     faith  in  Goverinnent;  it  will  not  only  prevent  the  intended  views  of  Government,  but  undo  what  hath  been  done. 
I  will,  sir,  be  candid  on  this  subject,  not  only  as  inhabitant  of  Kentucky,  but  as  a  friend  to  society,  who  wishes 
to  see  order  and  regularity  preserved  in  the  Government  under  wliich  I  live.     The  people  say  they  have  long  groan- 
ed under  their  misfortunes,  they  see  no  prospect  of  relief,  they  are  tlie  strength  and  wealth  of  the  Western  country; 
/   all  measures  which  have  been  attempted,  are  placed  (for  execution)  in  the  hands  of  strangers,  wlio  have  no  interest 
(    among  them:  they  are  the  general  sufferers,  and  yet  have  no  voice  in  the  business;  they  are  accused  as  the  aggressors,- 
and  have  no  representative  to  justify.    These  are  the  general  sentiments  of  the  people,  and  they  begin  to  want  faith 
/  in  the  Government,  and  appear  determined  to  revenge  themselves:  for  this  purpose  a  meeting  was  latelyheld  in 
I  this  place,  by  a  number  of  respectable  characters,  to  determine  on  the  propriety  of  carrjing  on  tln-ee  expeditions  this 
^  fall.  From  a  more  general  representation  of  the  district,  the  business  was  postponed  until  the  meeting  of  our  conven- 
tion, which  is  about  the  26th  instant,  at  wliich  time  there  will  be  a  very  general  meeting  of  influential  characters  of 
/  the  district:  and  unless  some  information  is  received  before  that  time,  that  will  be  satisfactory,  I  fully  expect  one  or 
'  more  expeditions  will  be  determined  on. 

Impressed  with  the  idea  that  the  foregoing  observations  will  not  be  unacceptable  to  j'ou  as  an  officer  of  Govern- 
ment, through  whose  Department  it  may  be  properly  communicated  to  the  President;  if  worthy  your  attention,  I 
shall  make  no  apology  for  the  length  of  my  letter. 

From  the  same  to  the  same. — July  8th.  • 

I  have,  this  day,  received  a  letter  from  Governor  St.  Clair,  dated  the  5th  inst.  "  at  the  Rapids  of  Ohio;"  he 
says,  "  that  the  expectations  of  peace  which  I  much  wished,  cannot  be  realized  with  the  people  on  tlie  Wabash,  and 
in  consequence  I  have  come  here  sooner  than  I  should  otherwise  have  done,  to  prepare  for  operating  against  them. " 
He  has  requested  me  to  apprize  the  field  officers  of  the  district,  that  he  shall  call  for  the  proportions  of  the  militia 
they  are  to  furnish,  in  consequence  of  the  orders  he  has  received  from  the  President. 



Jilexander  S.  Ballit,  Lieut.  Jefferson  County,  to  Judge  Innes. 

May  24th,  1790. 
I  now  embrace  the  first  opportunity  which  offers,  of  informing  you,  that  a  man  was  wounded  neai-  Mr.  Joseph 
Kite's  plantation,  about  a  fortnight  ago.     I  mention  this  instance  as  tlie  last  of  several  which  have  appeared  this 
spring,  of  mischief  done  by  the  Indians  in  this  country. 

Certificate  of  Robert  Lemen,  Jacob  Steulan,  and  TFilliam  Price. 

We,  the  under  writers,  inhabitants  of  Jefferson  county,  on  the  waters  of  Brasheai's  creek,  do  certify,  that 
in  the  latter  end  of  March  last,  the^  Indians  took  a  negro  woman  prisoner,  tlie  property  of  Anderson  Long,  two 
youne  men  at  work  at  the  said  Long's,  in  his  field,  on  Clear  creek  and  branch  of  Brashear's  creek. 

That,  on  Tick  creek,  a  branch  of  Brashear's  creek,  in  April,  the  Indians  killed  two  men  at  work  in  their  field 
That,  in  May,  two  boys  were  made  pnsoners  from  Loudon's  station,  on  the  head  of  Drennon's  Lick  creek. 
That,  on  the  23d  instant,  a  party  of  Indians  fired  on  a  company  of  people,  on  Clear  creek,  as  they  were  return- 
ing from  meeting,  killed  one  man  on  the  spot,  and  took  a  young  woman  prisoner,  who  they  carried  about  ten  miles, 
and  then  tomahawked  and  scalped  her. 

That,  on  the  25th  instant,  as  a  company  were  bringing  home  tlie  corpses  of  the  man  and   woman,  they  were 
alarmed  by  their  dogs,  and  sent  a  party  out  to  reconnoitre,  who  discovered  the  trail  of  some  Indians. 
Given  under  our  hands,  this  28th  clay  of  May,  1790. 



There  was  no  magistrate,  to  be  conveniently  found,  when  this  certificate  was  given,  or  I  would  have  had  an 
affidavit  made  of  the  facts. 


John  Caldtvell  to  Judge  Innes. 

Nelson  County,  May  I2lh,  ir90. 
On  Tuesday  morning,  about  eleven  Indians  attacked  the  house  of  Miles  Heart,  on  Valley  Creek,  a  fork  of  Nole- 
lin,  and  killed  Heart  and  one  of  his  children:  and  his  wife  and  two  more,  whicli  includes  the  whole  family,  were 
made  prisoners. 

Deposition  of  Samuel  Winter,  taken  before  Christopher  Greenup,  2lst  May,  1790. 

Mercer,  ss. 

Samuel  Winter  came  before  me,  a  justice  for  the  said  county,  and  being  sworn,  saith:  That  he  is  an  inhabitant 
of  Nelson  county,  and  resides  on  Nolelin  creek,  that  a  certain  Miles  Heart,  who  lived  on  Valley  creek,  about 
six  miles  from  the  deponent,  was  murdered  in  his  house,  on  Tuesday,  the  11th  instant,  and  that  the  wife  and  two 
children  of  the  said  Heart  were  biken  prisoners  ;  that  two  of  Heart's  horses  are  missing,  which  are  supposed  to  be 
carried  off  by  the  Indians,  who  did  the  mischief. 

Christopher  Greenup  to  Judge  Innes. 

Mercer  CorNTV.  24/A  Miry,  1790. 

About  four  days  ago,  tlie  Indians  stole  four  horses  from  Mr.  Meaux.  a  considerable  distance  within  the  inhabi- 
tants; this  might  have  been  prevented  had  there  been  scouts. 

John  Caldwell  to  Judge  Innes. 

'   \   \     '  June  4th,  1790. 

About  the  seventh  of  March  last,  the  Indians  came  to  the  Rolling  fork,  and  stole  a  number  of  horses  to  the 
amount  of  sixteen;  they  were  pursued  by  Captain  Wilson,  and  a  small  party,  who  came  up  with  them,  in  about  forty 
miles  ;  but,  being  overpowered,  they  were  obliged  to  retreat ;  Capt.  Wilson  was  killed  upon  the  spot. 

'         .  ,     Robert  Johnson  to  Judge  Innes. 

-  May  13th,  1790. 

I  send  you  two  depositions,  containing  an  account  of  some  mischief  done  lately  by  the  savages  in  this  county  to 
wit :  the  killing  McBride  and  McConnel,  in  April  last,  and  also  taking  a  son  of  Mr.  Tanner's  (on  the  Ohio)  a  pri- 
soner, &c.  I'also  inform  you,  that,  last  fall,  two  men  were  killed  by  the  savages,  one  of  the  name  of  Brown,  whose 
wife  and  children  live  now  in  Lexington,  as  I  was  with  the  men  who  brought  the  corpse  into  the  neighborhood  I 
live  in  ;  besides  this,  there  hath  been  another  party,  last  winter,  who  stole  a  number  of  horses  from  the  neighborhood 
I  live  in,  and  carried  them  off. 

Deposition  of  John  Garnett,  taken  before  Robl.  Johnson,  M.  for  IV.  C.  May  \2th.  1790. 
Woodford  Couxtv,  ss. 

John  Garnett,  of  full  age,  being  duly  sworn,  saith  :  That  he  was  at  Mr.  John  Tanner's  station,  on  the  Ohio,  in  ) 

said  county,  about  five  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Miami,  and  that  said  Tanner  informed  liim,  that,  about  the  J 

last  of  April,  or  first  of  May,  five  Indians  came  and  lay  in  ambush,  a  little  over  one  hundred  yards  from  his  house  | 

between  the  house  and  his  held,  and  took  a  son  of  said  Tanner's,  aoout  nine  years  old,  and  carried  him  off,  across  I 

the  Ohio  ;  and  furdier  saith,  that  Indians  have  been,  since,  within  about  two  miles  of  said  station,  and  this  deponent  * 

further  saith  not  ,  ,  -  ■  | 

Deposition  of  Samuel  Stephenson,  taken  before  Robert  Johnson,  M.for  W.  Cty,  May  12, 1790. 

Woodford  County,  ss. 

Samuel  Stephenson,  of  full  age,  being  duly  sworn,  saith  :  That,  about  the  12th  of  April,  1790,  being  called  on  to 

SJ?  o*?*  to  bring  James  McBride  and McConnel^  who  were  killed  by  the  Indians  on  the  road  or  path  from  the  mouth 

of  Licking,  to  the  settlement  on  Elkhorn  ;  and  this  deponent  further  saith,  that  he  assisted  to  bring  two  men  which 
were  both  scalped  ;  one  was  much  cut  with  a  tomahawk,  and  the  other  was  shot  through  the  hips,  and  he  believes 
them  to  be  said  McBride  and  McConnell ;  and  this  deponent  further  saith  not. 

gQ  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

John  Edwards  to  Judge  Junes. 

Bourbon  County,  May  12,  1790. 

Lewis  Parker,  who 
as  I  have  enclosed 

you  an  affidavit ;  and,  as  to  the  murder  ot  two  more  men,  1  am  satished  of  its  certamty,  but  have  had  no  oppor- 
tunity of  finding  the  man,  who  was  with  them  when  they  were  killed,  nor  those  who  have  since  buried  them  ;  the 
names  of  the  men  were  McBride  and  McConnell. 

■  Deposition  of  David  Rankin  and  James  Hays,  taken  before  Benjamin  Harrison,  1790. 

This  day  came  before  me,  one  of  the  commonwealth's  justices  for  said  county,  tlie  subscribers,  and  made  oath,  that, 
on  the  12th  of  May,  inst.  tliey  saw  Lewis  Parker  lying  dead;  he  had  received  several  wounds,  with  balls,  toma- 
hawks and  knives;  (he  was  scalped)  that  tliey  found  him,  the  said  Parker,  about  one  hour  after  he  was  killed,  and 
that  they  verily  believe  he  was  thus  murdered  by  Indians,  and  furtlier  say  not 

Certificate  of  Beiyamin  Harrison. 

Although  I  did  not  see  the  Indians  kill  Parker,  I  do  verily  believe  they  did  do  it;  I  saw  his  body  about  two  hours 
after  he  was  killed;  it  happened  at  Michael  Hogg's,  not  quite  three  miles  from  my  house,  and  I  followed  the  trails 
of  those  who  committed  the  murder,  near  ten  miles;  their  direction  was  towards  the  Big-bone  Lick.  The  Indians 
have  stole  two  horses  from  Mr.  Coleman,  lately.  There  is  no  person,  in  this  quarter,  that  knows  any  thing  of 
McBride  and  McConnell's  being  killed,  only  from  hear-say;  but  it  is  a  matter  of  fact. 

'  ■■   ■         John  Edwards,  Lt.  Bourbon  County,  to  Judge  Innes.  ' 

•  Bourbon,  May  12,  1790. 

I  am  sorry  to  inform  you,  since  my  last  letter,  that  a  man  was  killed,  by  a  party  of  Indians,  in  his  cornfield, 
about  seven  miles  from  my  house,  on  Thursday  last;  also  a  boat  was  taken,  about  eight  or  ten  miles  above  Limestone, 
where  five  persons  were  found  killed  on  the  shore.  I  think  we  need  no  greater  proof  of  the  intentions  of  those 
savage  barbarians,  to  distress  us. 

Henry  Lee,  Lieutenant  Mason  County,  to  Judge  Lines. 

Mason  County,  May  I6th,  1790. 

On  the  night  of  the  1 1th  instant,  four  boats  (one  of  which  contained  an  officer  and  eight  men  of  the  United  States' 
troops)  landed  about  nine  miles  above  Limestone,  and  about  12  o'clock  was  fired  on  by  a  party  of  Indians,  supposed 
to  be  fifteen  or  twenty  in  number;  three  boats  made  their  escape  without  damage,  the  other,  containing  sixteen  souls, 

aOOUl  nueeu,  was  uiscuvcicu  ciubbhis  mc  .^.1..^  ......i...  .....  .^........o  ...  .....  .„.,^.  o^...^....,...o,  „...^.^..v,v- r     Tu 

towards  the  Blue  Licks;  this  notice  has  put  the  neighborhood  in  that  quarter,  on  their  guai-d;  I  have  had  no  turther 
intelligence,  but  am  under  apprehensions  eveiy  hour  of  the  fatal  consequences;  our  surveyors  and  hunters  have  all 
retired  from  the  woods,  the  frequent  signs  of  Indians  render  it  unsafe  for  them  to  pursue  tneir  business. 

'    •     '     •     ■  ^       ,  John  Logan  to  Judge  limes. 

Lincoln,  May  \7th,  1790. 

Friday  morning  the  14th  instant,  a  company  was  defeated  on  the  other  side  Ingle's  station;  six  of  said  company 
are  missing,  supposed  to  be  killed.  About  ten  or  fifteen  Indians  took  possession  ot  all  their  horses  and  goods,  ready 
packed  up  to  start.  , 

.        '  James  Burnett  to  Judge  Innes. .  ■      -     ' 

'        -  •  MADisoii,  Mount  Holley,  23d  May,  1790. 

I  can  assure  you,  sir,  that  the  frontier  of  this  county  (which  is  about  forty  miles')  have  considered  themselves  in 
imminent  danger  all  the  last  spring;  but  their  fears  are  much  increased,^  since  the  last  hostilities  committed  on  the 
wilderness  road,  and  Indian  signs  discovered  very  lately  upon  Station  Camp. 

The  mischief  above  referred  to  was  in  Madison  county,  about  torty  miles  from  the  inhabitants;  four  killed,  two 
wounded,  10  or  12  horses,  mth  valuable  property.  T^rnwrr^o 


Deposition  of  Joseph  Burnett,  token  before  Michael  Campbell,  June  Sth,  1790. 

Nelson  County,  ss. 

This  day  came  Joseph  Bai-nett,  Esq.  before  me,  a  justice  of  the  peace  for  said  county,  and  made  oath,  on  the 
holy  evangelists  of  Almighty  God,  that  on  the  eighteenth  of  April  last  past,  (being  Lord's  day)  about  the  hour  of  five 
in  the  evening,  a  party  ot  Indians  fell  upon  a  few  defenceless  people,  who  were  returning  from  Hartford  to^vn,  on 
Rough  creek,  to  a  station  at  tlie  house  of  tliis  deponent,  being  two  mdes  distant,  kdled  a  girl  of  twelve  years  old, 
and  a  boy  of  eight  years  old,  cutting  them  in  a  cniel  manner,  with  tomahawks  supposed;  cut  an  ancient  lady  of  both 
respectable  family  and  character,  in  her  right  arm,  head  and  backj  in  a  cruel  manner,  with  a  scimitar,  and  after 
having  scalped  her  alive,  left  her,  and  his  scimitar  \vith  her,  and  carried  off  the  daughter  of  this  deponent,  a  girl  near 
eleven  years  old,  into  captivity.  They  were  pursued  by  a  party  till  night,  whicli  gave  thein  an  opportunity  of 
escaping.  The  above  mentioned  boy  lived  till  Tuesday  morning  foUomng.  having  his  scull  split  with  a  tomahawk, 
and  a  great  part  of  liis  brains  on  the  outside  of  his  wounded  scalped  scull;  and  the  old  lady  is  yet  alive,  notwith- 
standing all  tlie  misery  she  has  endured;  further  this  deponent  saith  not. 
Observe  that  the  above  persons  were  returning  from  sermon. 


Brigadier  General  Harmar  to  the  Secretary  of  War.    , 

March  2Ath,  1790. 

The  Indians  still  continue  to  murder  and  plunder  the  inhabitants,  especially  tlie  boats  going  up  and  down  the 
Ohio  river.  About  the  beginning  of  this  month,  they  broke  up  Kenton's  station,  a  small  settlement  of  fifteen  miles 
above  Limestone,  killing  and  capturing  the  whole  of  the  people,  supposed  to  be  ten  or  t\velve  in  number. 

Buckner  Thruston,  Esq.  has  just  arrived  here,  who  informs  me  of  a  capital  stroke  of  plunder  which  tliey  made 
from  the  boats,  one  of  which  he  was  on  board,  a  small  distance  above  tlie  Scioto  river.  This  gentleman  is  a  member 
of  the  Virginia  Legislature,  and  has  given  me  the  enclosed  written  report  of  the  attack,  by  which  you  ^\^ll  please  to 
observe,  that  the  property  captured  by  the  savages  was  estimated  at  four  thousand  pounds. 

He  supposes  them  to  have  been  Snawanese.  No  calculation  will  answer,  but  raising  a  sufficient  force  to  effectu- 
ally chastise  the  whole  of  those  nations  who  are  known  to  be  liostile. 

Report  of  Buckner  Thruston,  Esq. 
^    -  ,  ■  March  24///,  1790. 

On  the  21st  of  March,  about  12  o'clock,  we  discovered  on  the  Indian  shore  a  flat  bottomed  boat,  which  appeared 
to  be  crowded  with  Indians,:  we  were  fortunately  near  the  Virginia  shore  at  the  time  we  discovered  the  savages. 
On  our  coming  opposite  them,  a  white  man  ran  down  on  tlie  beacli  and  hallooed  to  us,  for  God's  sake,  to  surrender; 
that  there  were  nftjr  Indians,  and  if  we  made  resistance,  we  should  be  massacred.  We  refused  to  surrender,  and 
immediately  they  hred  on  us  for  a  considerable  time,  perhaps  to  the  number  of  one  hundred  guns,  which  gave  us 
time  to  pass  by  them;  tliey  then  embarked  all  hands  aboard  their  boat,  (commonly  called  a  Kentucky  boat,  which 
they  had  taken  a  day  or  two  before  from  Mr.  John  May,  who.  with  four  other  men,  it  is  supposed  aie  either  killed 
or  taken)  and  gave  chase  to  us;  upon  finding  that  we  could  not  escape,  there  being  three  boats  m  company,  we  chose 
out  the  strongest  boat,  turned  the  liorses  adrift,  and  embarked  tiierein;  all  the  people  belonging  to  the  three  boats 
cut  holes  in  her  sides,  and  put  in  the  oars  of  tlie  tliree  boats,  and  made  the  best  way  we  could  for  fifteen  or  twenty 
miles,  the  Indians  pursuing  us  with  great  earnestness.  Thev  left  us  after  a  chase  ofbetween  twoand  tliree  hours,  and 
we  arrived  without  further  impediment  at  Limestone.  We  lost  twenty-eight  horses,  fifteen  liundred  pounds  value  of 
merchandise,  (as  I  am  informed)  besides  private  property  of  passengers  and  others,  to  a  considerable  amount.  W"e 
supposed  the  Indians  to  be  fifty  or  sixty  in  number.  We  had  about  twenty-eight  men,  and  sixteen  or  seventeen 
guns,  a  family  ot  women,  and  a  few  negroes,  women  and  children.  The  principal  sufferers  among  the  passengers, 
were.  Colonel  Thompson,  Colonel  Edwards,  Mr.  Abner  Field,  Mr.  Thomas  Marsliall. 

Brigadier  General  Harmar  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

June  9th,  1790. 

At  the  solicitation  of  the  inhabitants  of  Kentucky,  (copies  of  which  are  enclosed)  I  was  induced  to  endeavor  to 
break  up  a  nest  of  vagabond  Indians,  who  had  infested  tlie  river,  and  seemed  to  make  it  an  object  to  establish  them- 
selves near  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto,  in  order  to  interrupt  the  navigation  of  the  Ohio,  and  to  plunder  and  murder  the 
emigrants.  I  am  sorry  tliat  my  endeavors  were  unsuccessful,  as  tiie  villains  had  retreated;  wolves  might  as  well 
have  been  pursued;  every  exertion  in  my  power  was  made  without  effect. 

Having  settled  our  plan  of  operations,  wliich  was  to  make  a  circuitous  route,  and  strike  the  Scioto  pretty  high, 
and  from  thence  marcli  down  to  its  mouth,  in  hopes  to  intercept  some  of  their  parties,  we  took  up  our  line  of  marcli 
on  the  same  day,  (1 8th  April)  and  gained  about  twelve  miles.  On  this  first  day's  march,  four  moccason  tracks 
were  discovered.  General  Scott  detached  a  small  party  of  horsemen,  who  fell  in  with  the  savages,  killed  them, 
and  brought  the  four  scalps  into  liimestone. 

Ensign  Hartshorne's  convoy  of  boats  was  attacked  at  midnight  im  the  12tli,  (May)  about  nine  miles  above 
Limestone,  from  the  Virginia  side,  and  several  of  the  emigrants  killed;  I  have  enclosed  a  copy  of  his  report. 

'  Fort  Washingtok,  May  SOth,  1790. 

Sir:  .  . 

I  beg  leave  to  report  as  follows:  On  the  12th  instant,  as  I  was  coming  down  the  Ohio,  in  company  \yith  five 
other  boats,  in  the  evening,  before  we  came  to  Limestone,  by  the  request  of  the  company,  we  put  to  snore,  in  order 
to  stay  until  2  o'clock,  so  that  we  mieht  land  at  Limestone  in  day -light.  I  landed  nine  miles  above  Limestone, 
and  tlie  other  boats  landed  about  one  hundred  yards  below  me.  About  12  o'clock  the  Indians  attacked  the  lowermost 
boat;  after  a  number  of  shot  they  left  it,  and  fell  on  the  other  above  them,  which  they  took — in  this  time  my  men 
fired  five  or  six  shot  at  the  flash  of  their  guns.  I  iiad  much  to  do  to  keep  the  men  in  the  boat  from  cutting  her 
loose,  and  leaving  my  men  on  shore,  so  f  thougiit  proper  to  order  my  men  on  board;  for,  by  every  circumstance,  I 
thought  them  too  strong  for  me  with  so  few  men;  and  it  being  very  dark,  I  ordered  tlie  boat  oft" from  the  shore,  and 
fell  down  into  their  fire,  where  we  received  a  number  of  shot;  and  wiien  I  found  tliat  all  the  boats  were  not  taken, 
I  ordered  them  to  go  ahead  in  case  the  Indians  did  pursue  us,  that  I  might  check  them.  We  arrived  at  Limestone 
at  3  o'clock  in  the  morning;  I  immediately  wrote  to  tlie  county  lieutenant  upon  tlie  matter;  he,  with  twenty  men, 
came  down:  at  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  myself  with  five  men  went  up  to  the  place  where  we  were  attacked;  we 
found  one  man,  one  woman,  and  three  children,  killed  and  scalped,  which  we  put  into  the  boat,  with  tlieir  property, 
to  Limestone.  There  are  eight  missing;  the  whole  killed  and  missing  is  thirteen  souls;  they  took  none  of  the 
property  but  one  horse. 

I  am,  sir,  your  most  humble  servant, 

.      .  ASA  HARTSHORNE,  Ens.  1st  U.  S.  regt. 

James  Wilkinson,  Esq.  to  General  Harmar, 

Lexington,  7/A.^pn7,  1790. 

I  write  to  you  at  the  public  request,  on  a  subject  deeply  interesting  to  Kentucky,  our  national  honor,  and  to 

For  more  than  one  month  past  a  party  of  savages  has  occupied  the  Northwestern  bank  of  the  Ohio,  a  few  miles 
above  the  mouth  of  Scioto,  from  whence  tliey  make  attacks  upon  every  boat  which  passes,  to  the  destruction  ot 
much  property,  the  loss  of  many  lives,  and  the  great  annoyance  of  all  intercourse  from  the  northward. 

By  very  recent  accounts,  we  are  apprized  that  they  still  continue  in  force  at  that  point,  and  that  their  last  attack 
was  made  against  five  boats,  one  of  \vhich  they  captured.  It  is  the  general,  and  I  conceive  a  well  founded  opinion, 
that  if  this  party  is  not  dislodged  and  dispersed,  the  navigation  of  the  Ohio  must  cease.  In  a  case  so  very  critical, 
the  people  of  tins  district  conceive  themselves  justified  in  appealing  to  arms,  because  their  dearest  interests,  and  the 
lives  of  their  brethren,  are  at  hazard;  but  being  extremely  unwilling  to  proceed,  except  in  a  legal,  regular,  and 
authorized  way,  they  call  upon  you  for  your  advice,  succor,  and  assistance,  in  the  hope  and  the  expectation,  that 

92  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

I  you  will  be  able  to  co-operate  with  a  detachment  of  the  troops  under  your  command,  and  carry  an  immediate  expe- 
I  dition  against  the  belbre  mentioned  party  of  savages,  from  Limestone,  where  it  is  proposed  to  rendezvous  a  body  of 
'  militia  volunteers. 

Colonel  Patteison  waits  upon  you  on  this  occasion  to  know  your  determination,  and  to  make  such  adjustments 
as  may  be  deemed  expedient. 

•  Levi  Todd  to  General  Harmar, 

Fayette,  7th  April,  1790. 

Within  a  few  days  past  a  parly  of  Indians,  who  have  taken  post  on  the  Ohio,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto,  have 
captured  four  boats,  killed  and  taken  several  people,  and  much  property;  for  the  particulars  I  refer  you  to  Colonel 
Patterson,  who,  I  expect,  will  hand  vou  this.  From  circumstances  we  may  conclude  this  practice  will  be  continued, 
unless  they  are  dislodged.  The  unhappy  consequences  wliich  will  result,  are  too  obvious  to  every  discerning  man, 
and  too  distressing  to  be  borne.  A  party  of  men  from  the  counties  north  of  Kentucky  river,  are  preparing  to  remove 
these  troublesome  fellows  from  their  station.  They  will  rendezvous  at  Lexington,  on  Thursday,  the  15th  instant; 
at  Limestone,  the  Saturday  following.  The  inhabitants  of  this  district  flatter  themselves  thev  wdi  meet  with  every 
encouragement  and  protection  from  the  officers  in  the  Western  Government,  in  every  plan  that  will  tend  to  secure 
their  persons  and  property,  and  to  protect  in  the  enjoyment  of  those  riglits,  for  which  we  have  so  often  risked  our 
persons,  and  expended  property.  1  flatter  myself  that,  in  the  present  instance,  we  shall  not  only  meet  the  approba- 
tion of  his  excellency  General  St.  Clair,  but  with  such  instructions  and  assistance  from  you,  as  you  may  jucfge  best 
calculated  for  the  execution  of  the  intended  design,  that  a  peaceable  emigration  may  be  preserved  to  the  Western 

I  flatter  myself  that  an  account  of  the  hostilities  that  are  committed  in  the  Western  country  will,  by  the  earliest 
opportunity,  be  transmitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Colonel  Patterson  to  General  Harmar. 

Licking,  9/A  April,  1790. 

I  was  very  desirous  of  handing  you  General  Wilkinson's  and  Colonel  Todd's  letters,  but  our  interraption  on 
the  way,  and  my  business  at  home,  puts  it  out  of  my  power.  Mr.  Lemond,  who  I  expect  will  hand  this  with 
others,  can  inform  you  particularly.  I  do  not  know  that  my  personal  attendance  would  have  answered  any  purpose, 
only  to  have  informed  you  of  our  intention.  We  do  not  wish  to  infringe  on  the  rights  of  the  Federal  Government; 
it  is  well  known  tliat  the  Indians  occupy  both  sides  of  the  river.  We  know  that  it  is  not  infringing  to  drive  the 
enemy  from  our  own  door,  but  that  will  not  answer  any  purpose  in  this  case.  We  rest  assured  "that  we  will  not 
(inly  meet  with  your  approbation,  but  your  assistance.  You  need  not  doubt,  but  that,  on  Saturday,  the  17th  instant, 
there  will  be  at  Limestone,  five  hundred  men  at  least,  to  co-operate  with  your  troops,  and  your  directions.  Our 
men  will  be  furnished  witli  twelve  day's  provisions,  expecting  to  continue  out  tiiat  time. 

I  Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  Secretary  of  fVar. 

,'  .      .      ■     '   ".  ■    i      ."      .  ■'.'■'■   '    NewYork,  ./5i<^t<s/ 23rf,  1790. 

"The  letter  from  Major  Hamtramck,  and  journal  of  Mr.  Gamelin,  copies  of  which  accompany  this,  were 
received  b/  me  at  Kaskaskias,  after  my  return  from  Cahokia;  and  when  I  was  on  the  point  of  setting  out  for  the 
Wabash.  From  the  information  that  journal  contained,  and  the  intelligence  which  the  Major  had  received  after- 
wards, as  stated  in  the  letter,  it  appeared  to  me,  that  there  was  not  the  smallest  probability  of  an  accommodation 
vyith  the  Indians  of  that  river,  and  of  the  Miami,  and  that,  from  the  manner  in  which  the  proposal  of  an  accommoda- 
tion had  been  received  by  them,  and  their  subsequent  conduct,  it  would  not  be  proper  for  me  to  go  to  Post  St.  Vin- 
cennes;  I  therefore  took  the  resolution  to  return  by  the  Mississippi  and  Ohio  rivers,  to  the  head  quarters  of  the 
troops,  in  order  to  concert  with  General  Harmar  upon  the  means  of  carrying  into  etfect  the  alternative  contained  in 
my  instructions  from  the  President — that  of  punishing  them;  and  accordingly  embarked  on  the  eleventh  day  of  June, 
and  arrived  at  iort  Washington  on  the  13th  day  of  July. 

Before  my  departure  from  Kaskaskias,  I  put  a  letter  into  the  hands  of  Major  Sargent,  informing  him  of  my  in- 
tended journey,  and  that,  as  soon  as  I  had  embarked,  he  was  to  consider  me  as  absent,  and  in  consequence,  the 
government  devolved  upon  himself,  and  desired  him  to  proceed  to  the  post,  lay  out  a  county  there,  establish  the 
militia,  and  appoint  tiie  civil  and  military  officers.  I  was  led  to  proceed  in  this  manner  from  the  little  time  there 
would  be  to  digest  the  business,  and  bring  the  necessary  force  together  from  so  many  and  distant  parts,  before  it 
would  be  necessary  that  they  should  move,  and  the  certainty  there  appeared  to  be  that,  if  I  went  to  the  post,  the 
consuming  a  good  deal  of  it  would  be  unavoidable,  and  the  season  for  operation  be  lost. 

From  the  falls  of  Ohio,  I  took  Mr.  Elliot,  one  of  the  contractors,  \vith  me  to  head  quarters,  that  he  might,  in 
person,  give  General  Harmar  information  with  respect  to  the  certainty  of  supplies,  without  being  assured  of  which, 
It  would  be  vain  to  think  of  the  matter. 

The  number  of  militia  I  was  empowered  to  call  for,  was  one  thousand  from  Virginia,  and  five  hundred  from 
Pennsylvania,  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  continental  troops;  these  the  General  estimated  at  four  hundred  effec- 
^^y^-.  .'i'"?  manner  of  employing  this  force,  which  was  conclutted  upon,  is  this:  three  iiundred  of  tlie  militia  of 
Virginia  are  to  rendezvous  at  fort  Steuben,  and  with  the  garrison  of  that  fort,  to  march  to  Post  St.  Vincennes  and 
join  Major  Hamtramck;  the  remaining  twelve  hundred  of  the  militia  to  assemble  at  fort  Washington,  under 
the  orders  ot  General  Harmar,  which,  with  the  troops  to  be  collected  there,  will  form  a  body  of  fifteen  hundred: 
these  are  intended  to  march  directly  across  the  country  to  the  Miami  village,  while  Major  Hamtramck  moves  up 
the  Wabash  to  .attack  any  of  the  villages  on  that  river  to  which  his  force  may  be  equal;  but,  as  it  is  not  so  respecta- 
ble as  I  could  wish  it,  I  took  itup(m  myself  to  give  him  authority  to  call  for  aid  from  the  militia  of  Post  St.  Vincennes. 

It  would,  perhaps,  have  been  better  that  the  whole  should  have  been  drawn  together,  and  one  solid  effort  been 
made;  but  it  was  next  to  impossible  to  form  a  junction  of  all  the  parts  at  any  one  proper  place,  in  time,  and  we  were 
not  without  hopes  tliat,  as  the  movements  will  be  made  in  concert,  the  success  of  both  may  be  forwarded  by  each 
other:  for  that  up  the  Wabash  wll,  certainly,  I  think,  make  those  nations  uneasy  for  themselves,  and  prevent  them 
from  aiding  the  Miamies,  while  the  direct  movement  to  their  village  will  have  the  same  effect  upon  them. 

I  could  indeed  have  wished  that  the  force  in  botii  quarters  had  been  more  respectable,  as  far  as  it  is  possible  their 
success  should  be  put  out  of  the  chance  of  accidents;  for  a  failure  will  be  attended  with  the  very  worst  consequences. 
I  believe,  sir,  that,  if  the  President  approves  the  business,  and  should  think  proper  to  add  to  the  numbers,  it  is  not 
yet  too  late,  being  of  opinion  that  many  more  men  might  be  obtained  from  that  part  of  Virginia  from  whence  the 
others  are  called,  on  very  short  notice.  You  will  observe,  sir,  by  my  letter  to  the  county  lieutenants,  that  the  ren- 
dezvous at  fort  Washington  is  fixed  for  the  15th  of  next  month.  Their  assembling  there,  however,  was  not  counted 
upon  before  the  20th,  and  that  they  would  be  in  readiness  to  march  by  the  first  of  October.  Before  that  time,  I 
hope  I  shall  be  able  to  join  them. 

Mr.  Elliot  made  very  little  hesitation  about  the  provisions,  though  it  will  be  impossible  to  furnish  flour.  Corn, 
however,  it  seems,  is  still  abundant  in  Kentucky,  and  with  that  General  Harmar  is  satisfied. 


I  am  veiy  apprehensive  that  some  disappointment  will  be  met  wth  in  the  quota  of  Pennsylvania:  for  I  found 
that,  in  two  of  the  four  counties  from  whicli  that  militia  is  to  be  drawn,  they  iiave  not  had  an  officer  for  upwards  of 
two  years,  and  there  was  a  general  complaint  for  want  of  arms.  I  represented  that  matter  to  the  Executive  of  the 
State,  and  they  think  the  first  difficulty  will  be  obviated  by  a  voluntary  enlistment,  and  have  ordered  a  quantity  of 
arms  to  be  sent  forward.  As  a  disappointment  there  would  be  fatal,  perhaps  the  President  may  think  proper  to 
make  some  conditional  provision  against  it. 

I  hope  it  will  not  happen,  but  I  fear  it;  and  am  extremely  anxious  about  it,  on  account  of  the  expense  that  v.ill 
have  been  incurred  to  no  purpose,  and  moie  so  from  the  injury  the  reputation  of  tlie  Government  would  sustain. 

I  request  the  favor  of  you,  sir,  to  lay  tiiis  letter  before  the  President  as  soon  as  possible:  for  it  is  of  importance 
that  I  should  return  without  loss  of  time,  as  the  assembling  the  militia  of  Pennsylvania  is  appointed  on  the  3d.  and 
their  being  in  motion  not  to  exceed  the  10th  of  September. 

I  have  added  a  copy  of  my  letter  to  the  county  lieutenants,  and  to  the  senior  officer  of  the  Pennsylvania  militia. 

,    '      Mr.   Gamelin's  Journal.  '      ;    '■  '  ■   , . 

Memorandum  of  sundry  speeches  held  by  Anthony  Gamelin  to  the  chiefs  of  the  Wabash  and  Miami  nations. 

I,  Anthony  Gamelin.  by  order  of  Major  Hamtranick,  set  oft' from  fort  Knox  the  5th  April,  to  proceed  to  Miami 
town,  with  the  speeches  of  his  Excellency  Arthur  St.  Clair,  and  to  receive  the  answer  of  the  Wabash  and  Miami 

The  first  village  I  arrived  to  is  called  Kikapouguoi.  The  name  of  the  chief  of  this  village  is  called  Les  Jambes 
Croches.     Him  and  his  tribe  have  a  good  heart,  and  accepted  the  speech. 

The  second  village  is  at  the  river  du  Vermillion,  called  Piankeshaws.  The  first  chief,  and  all  the  cliief  warriors. 
were  well  pleased  with  the  speeches  concerning  the  peace;  but  they  said  they  could  not  give  presently  a  proper 
answer,  betore  they  consult  tlie  Miami  nation,  tlieir  eldest  brethren.  They  desired  me  to  proceed  to  the  Aliami 
town,  and,  by  coming  bade,  to  let  them  know  what  reception  I  got  from  them.  The  said  head-chief  told  me.  that 
he  thought  the  nations  of  the  lakes  had  a  bad  heart,  and  w;ere  ill  disposed  for  the  Americans:  that  the  speeches  would 
not  be  received,  particularly  by  the  Chaouanons,*  at  Miami  town. 

The  10th  of  April  I  met  thirteen  Kickapoo  warriors;  I  asked  them  the  purpose  of  their  journey.  We  are  for 
war,  said  they,  not  against  tlie  white  people,  but  against  the  Chichashas.  I  tola  them  to  be  friends  with  white  peo- 
ple: I  gave  them  a  letter  for  the  commanding  officer  of  Post  Vincennes,  desiring  them  to  go  and  shake  hands  with 
him.    They  promised  to  do  it. 

The  11th  of  April,  I  reached  a  tribe  of  Kickapoos:  the  head  chief  and  all  the  warriors  being  assembled.  I  gave 
them  two  branches  of  white  wampum,  with  the  speeches  of  his  Excellency  Arthur  St.  Clair,  and  those  of  ^lajor  Ifani- 
tramck  (it  must  be  obsei-\'ed  that  tlie  speeches  have  been  in  another  hand  before  me.)  The  messenger  could  not  proceed 


alF  the  tribes  to  whom  the  first  messenger  was  sent.  They  told  me  they  \\  ere  menacing,  and,  finding  that  it  might  have 
a  bad  eft'ect,  I  took  upon  myself  to  exclude  them,  and,  after  making  some  apology,  they  answered  that  he  and  his 
tribe  were  pleased  with  my  speech,  and  that  I  could  go  up  without  danger;  liut  that  they  could'  not  presently  give 
me  an  answer,  having  some  warriors  absent,  and  without  consulting  the  Ouiatanons,  being  the  owners  of  their  lands.  ' 
They  desired  me  to  stop  at  Quitepiconnae.  that  they  would  have  the  chiefs  and  warriors" of  Ouitanons,  and  those  of 
their  nation,  assembled  there,  and  would  receive  a  proper  answer;  they  said  that  they  expected  by  me  a  drau^^ht  of 
milk  from  the  great  chief,  and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  post,  for  to  put  the  old  people  in  good  humor?  also 
some  powder  and  ball  for  the  young  men  for  hunting,  and  to  get  some  good  broth  for  their  women  and  children;  that 
I  should  know  a  bearer  of  speeches  should  never  be  with  empty  hands;  they  promised  me  to  keep  their  young  men 
from  stealingj  and  to  send  speeches  to  their  nations  in  the  praines  for  to  do  the  same.  One  of  the  chiefs  ilesired  me 
to  listen  to  his  speech.  "  Is  it  tnie  tiiat  a  man  called  Lewis  Loder  has,  in  last  summer,  carried  a  letter,  wrote  with 
red  ink  upon  black  paper,  directed  to  the  chief  of  the  Falls,  by  the  French  and  American  people  of  the  post,  invitin" 
him  f(u-  to  furnish  his  young  men  for  to  destroy  the  Kickapoos?  Yourself.  Gamelin,  you  wrote  the  said  letter,  with^ 
out  giving  notice  to  the  chiefs  of  that  place,  as  reported  to  us.  But  the  chief  of  the  Falls  answered:  I  dont  under- 
stand the  meaning  of  writing  a  letter  with  vermillion;  dont  you  know  that  the  Kickapoos  are  my  children,  as  well  as 
other  nations?  Instead  of  destroying  them,  I  want  to  contract  a  solid  peace  with  them.  That  is  a  proof  of  a  good 
heart  of  the  great  chief,  and  we  sincerely  believe  that  what  you  say  concerning  the  peace  is  very  true.  Another 
proof  of  his  good  heart:  we  heard  that  Ducoign  applied  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  post  for  to  go  against  us. 
with  the  French  people,  his  brethren;  but  Jie  got  a  refusal." 

The  14th  Apnl  the  Ouiatanons  and  the  Kickapoos  were  assembled.  After  my  speech,  one  of  the  head  chiefs  got  up 
and  told  me:  "  You.  Gamelin,  my  friend,  and  son-in-law,  we  are  pleased  to  see  in  our  village,  and  to  hear  by  your 
mouth,  the  good  words  of  the  Great  Chief.  We  thought  to  receive  a  few  words  from  the  French  people,  but  I  see  tiie  > 
contrary :  none  but  the  Big-knife  is  sending  speeches  to  us.  You  know  that  we  can  terminate  nothing  without  the  consent 
of  our  elder  brethren,  the  jNIiamies.  I  invite  you  to  proceed  to  their  village,  and  to  speak  to  them.  There  is  one  thin<'  in 

times  our  nation  went  to  their  rendezvous.  I  was  once  myself.  Some  of  our  chiefs  died  on  the  route,  and  we  always  came  ^ 
back  all  naked,  and  you,  Gamelin,  you  come  with  speech,  with  empty  hands."  Another  chief  got  up  and  said  to  his 
youns  men:  "  If  we  are  so  poor,  and  dressed  in  deer  skins,  it  is  our  own  fault:  our  French  traders  are  leaving  us  and 
our  villages,  because  you  plunder  them  every  day,  and  it  is  time  for  us  to  have  another  conduct."    Another  chief  ''ot       i   i 
up  and  said:    "  Know  ye  that  the\illage  of  Ouiatanon  is  the  sepulchre  of  all  our  ancestors.     The  chief  of  AinerTca      1   '• 
invites  us  to  go  to  him,  if  we  are  for  peace;  he  has  not  his  leg  broke,  having  been  able  to  go  as  far  as  the  Illinois:  he      '    ' 
might  come  here  himself,  and  we  should  be  glad  to  see  him  at  our  village.    We  c(mfess  that  we  accepted  the  axe 

I  explained  the"  speeches  to  some  of  the  tribe;  they  said  they  were  well  pleased,  but  they  coufd  not  give  111^:111' 
answer,  their  chief  men  being  absent;  they  desired  me  to  stop  at  their  village  coming  back,  and  they  sent  with  me 
one  of  their  men  for  to  hear  the  answer  of  their  eldest  brethren. 

The  23d  April  I  arrived  at  the  Miami  town;  the  next  day,  I  got  the  Miami  nation,  the  Chaouanons,  and  Del- 
awares,  all  assembled.  I  gave  to  each  nation  two  branches  of  wampum,  and  began  the  speeches,  before  the  French 
and  English  traders,  being  invited  by  the  chiefs  to  be  present,  having  told  tiiem  myself  I  would  be  glad  to  have  them 
present,  having  nothing  to  say  againstany  body.  After  the  speech,  1  showed  them  the  treaty  concluded  at  Muskiii-  / 
gum,  between  his  Excellency  Governor  St.  Clair,  and  sundry  nations,  which  displeased  them.  I  told  them 
that  the  purpose  of  this  present  time  was  not  to  submit  them  to  any  condition:  but  to  offer  them  the  peace,  which 
made  disappear  their  displeasure.  The  great  chief  told  me  that  he  was  pleased  with  the  speech;  that  he  would  soon 
give  me  an  answer.  In  a  private  discourse  with  the  great  cluef,  he  told  me  not  to  mind  what  the  Chaouanons  would 
tell  me,  having  a  bad  heart,  and  being  the  perturbators  of  all  the  nations.     He  said  the  Miamies  had  a  bad  name,  on 

•  By  these  are  meant  the  Shawaneese. 
13  *  • 

1^4  ,  INDIAN  AFFAIRvS;    "'    'fn  [lf§'o. 

i-  account  of  mischief  dotie  on  the  river  Ohio,  but  he  told  me  it  was  not  occasioned  by  his  young  men,  but  by  the 
Chaouanons,  his  young  men  going  out  only  for  to  hunt. 

The  25th  of  April,  Blue  Jacket,  chief  wai-rior  of  the  Chaouanons,  invited  me  to  go  to  his  house,  and  told  me, 
"  My  friend,  by  the  name  and  consent  of  the  Chaouanons  and  Delawares,  I  will  speak  to  you.  We  are  all  sensible 
of  your  speech,  and  pleased  with  it:  but,  after  consultation,  we  cannot  give  an  answer  without  hearing  from  our  father 
at  Detroit,  and  we  are  determined  to  give  you  back  the  two  branches  of  wampum,  and  to  send  you  to  Detroit  to  see 
/  and  hear  the  chief,  or  to  stay  here  twenty  nights  for  to  receive  his  answer.  From  all  quarters,  we  receive  speeches  from 
the  Americans,  and  not  one  is  alike.  We  suppose  that  they  intend  to  deceive  us — then  take  back  your  branches 
of  wampum." 

The  26th,  five  Pattawatamies  arrived  here  with  two  negro  men,  which  they  sold  to  English  traders;  the  next  day 
I  went  to  the  great  chief  of  the  Miamies,  called  Le  Gris;  his  chief  warrior  was  present.  1  told  him  how  I  had  been 
served  by  the  Chaouanons;  he  answered  me,  that  he  iiad  heard  of  it;  that  tne  said  nations  behaved  contrary  to 
his  intentions.     He  desired  me  not  to  mind  those  strangers,  and  that  he  ^vould  soon  give  me  a  positive  answer. 

The  28th  April,  the  great  chief  desired  me  to  call  at  the  French  trader's,  and  receive  his  answer.  "Don't  take 
bad,"  said  he,  "of  what  I  am  to  tell  you;  you  may  go  back  when  you  please.  We  cannot  give  you  a  positive 
^•-'answer;  we  must  send  your  speeches  to  all  our  neighbors  and  to  the  Lake  nations;  we  cannot  give  a  definitive 
answer  Mitliout  consulting  the  commandant  of  Detroit."  And  he  desired  me  to  render  him  the  two  branches  of 
wampum  refused  by  the  Cliaouanons;  also,  a  copy  of  speeches,  in  writing.  He  promised  me  that,  in  thirty  nights, 
he  would  send  an  answer  to  Post  St.  Vinceunes,  by  a  young  man  of  each  nation;  he  was  well  pleased  with  the 
speeches,  and  said  to  be  worthy  of  attention,  ami  should  be  communicated  to  all  their  confederates,  having 
-'  resolved  among  them  not  to  do  any  tiling  witliout  an  unanimous  consent.  I  agreed  to  his  requisitions,  and  rendered 
him  the  two  brandies  of  wanipum,  and  a  copy  of  the  speech.  Afterwards,  he  told  me,  that  the  Five  Nations,  so 
called,  or  Iroquois,  ^vere  training  something;  that  five  of  them  and  three  Wyandots  were  in  this  village  with 
branches  of  wampum;  he  could  not  tell  me  presently  their  purpose,  but  he  said  1  would  know  of  it  very  soon. 

The  same  day  Blue  Jacket,  chief  of  the  Chaouanons,  invited  me  to  his  house  for  supper,  and,  before  the  other 
chiefs,  told  me  that,  after  another  deliberation,  they  thought  necessary  that  I  should  go  myself  to  Detroit,  for  to  see 
the  commandant,  Vvho  would  get  all  his  children  assembled  for  to  hear  my  speech.  1  told  them  I  would  not  answer 
them  in  the  night — that  I  was  not  asliamed  to  speak  before  tlie  sun. 

The  29th  of  April,  I  got  them  all  assembled.    I  told  them  that  I  was  not  to  go  to  Detroit;  that  the  speeches  were 
directed  to  tlie  nations  of  the  river  Wabash  and  the  Miami,  and  that,  for  to  prove  the  sincerity  ol  the  speech,  and 
the  heart  of  Governor  St.  Clair,  I  have  willingly  given  a  copy  of  tlie  speeches,  to  be  shown  to  the  commandant  of 
Detroit;  tiiat  his  excellency  will  be  glad  to  hear  that  his  speeches  have  been  sent  to  Detroit,  and,  according  to  a  letter 
wrote  by  the  commandant  of  Detroit  to  the  Miamies,  Chaouanons,  and  Delawares,  mentioning  to  you  to  be  peaceable 
with  the  Americans.    I  would  go  to  him  very  willingly,  if  it  was  my  directions,  being  sensible  of  iiis  sentiments.     I 
told  them  I  had  notliing  to  say  to  the  commandant,  neither  Jiiin  to  me.    You  must  immediately  resolve,  if  you  intend 
to  take  me  to  Detroit,  or  else  I  am  to  go  back  as  soon  as  possible.     Blue  Jacket  got  up  and  told  me, ' '  My  friend, 
we  are  well  pleased  with  what  you  say;  our  intention  is  not  to  force  you  to  goto  Detroit:  it  is  only  a  proposal,  think- 
ing it  for  the  best.     Our  answer  is  the  same  as  the  Miamies.     We  will  send,  in  thirty  nights,  a  full  and  positive 
answer,  by  a  young  man  of  each  nation,  by  writing  to  Post  St.  Vincennes."    In  the  evening.  Blue  Jacket,  chief  of 
the  Chaouanons,  having  taken  me  to  supper  with  him,  told  me,  in  a  private  manner,  that  the  nation  Chaouanon  was 
in  doubt  of  the  sincerity  of  the  Big-knifes,  so  called,  having  been  already  deceived  by  them. 
^        That  they  had  first  destroyed  their  lands,  put  out  their  fire,  and  sent  away  their  young  men.  being  a  hunting, 
'   v/itliout  a  mouthful  of  meat;  also  had  taken  away  their  women,  ^vherefore,  many  of  them  would,  with  great  deal  of 
pain,  forget  these  aftronts.     Moreover,  that  some  other  nations  were  apprehending  that  offers  of  peace  would,  may 
be,  tendlo  take  away,  by  degrees,  their  lands,  and  would  serve  them  a.s  they  did  before;  a  certain  proof  that  they 
intend  to  encroach  on  our  lands,  is  their  new  settlement  on  the  Ohio.     If  they  don't  keep  this  side  clear,  it  will  never 
be  a  proper  reconcilement  with  the  nations  Chaouanons,  Iroquois,  Wyandots,  and  perhaps  many  others.    Le  Gris, 
chief  of  tlie  Miamies,  asked  me,  in  a  private  discourse,  what  chief  had  made  a  treaty  with  the  Americans  at  Mus- 
kingum.    I  answered  him,  that  their  names  were  mentioned  in  the  treaty;  he  told  me  that  he  had  heard  of  it  some  time 
ago,  but  they  are  not  chiefs,  neither  delegates,  vvho  made  that  treaty;  they  are  only  young  men,  who,  without  autho- 
rity and  instruction  from  their  chiefs,  have  concluded  that  treaty,  which  will  not  be  approved.     They  went  to  that 
treaty  clandestinely,  and  they  intend  to  make  mention  of  it  in  the  next  council  to  be  held. 

The  2d  of  May,  I  came  back  to  the  river  a  i'Anguille.  One  of  the  chief  men  of  the  jtribe  being  witness  of  the 
council  at  Miami  town,  repeated  the  vvhole  to  them;  and  whereas  the  first  chief  was  absent,  they  said  they  could 
not  for  present  time,  give  answer;  but  they  are  willing  to  join  their  speech  to  those  of  their  eldest  brethren.     "To 

were  Poux,  who,  meeting  in  their  route  the  Sauteaux  and  Outawais,  joined  them.  "We  told  them  what  we  heard 
by  you;  that  your  speech  is  fair  and  true.  We  could  not  stop  them  froin  going  to  war.  Tlie  Poux  told  us,  that,  as 
the  Sauteaux  and  Outawais  v/ere  more  numerous  than  them,  they  ^vere  forced  to  follow  them." 

The  3d  of  May,  I  got  to  the  Ouias;  they  told  me  that  they  were  waiting  for  an  answer  from  their  eldest  brethren. 
"We  approve  very  much  our  bretlireii  for  not  to  give  a  definitive  answer,  without  informing  of  it  all  the  Lake 
nations;  that  Detroit  was  the  place  where  the  fire  was  lighted;  then  it  ought  first  to  be  put  out  there:  that  the  Eng- 
lish commandant  is  their  lather,  since  he  threw  down  our  French  father;  they  could  do  nothing  Avithout  liis  appro- 

The  4th  May  I  arrived  at  the  village  of  the  Kickapoos;  the  chief,  presenting  me  two  branches  of  wampum, 
black  and  white,  said:  "  My  son,  we  cannot  stop  our  young  men  from  going  to  war;  every  day  some  set  off  clandes- 
tinely lor  that  purpose:  after  such  behavior  from  our  young  men,  we  are  ashamed  to  say  to  the  great  chief  at  the 
Illinois  and  of  the  Post  St.  Vincennes,  that  we  are  busy  about  some  good  affairs  for  the  reconcilement;  but  be  per- 
suaded that  we  will  speak  to  theiu  continually  concerning  the  peace,  and  that,  \vhen  our  eldest  brethren  will  iiave 
sent  their  answer,  we  will  join  ours  to  it." 

The  5th  of  May  I  arrived  at  Vermillion;  I  found  no  body  but  two  chiefs;  all  tlie  rest  were  gone  a  hunting;  they 
told  me  they  had  nothing  else  to  say  but  what  I  was  told  going  up.  They  told  me  that  the  Grosse  Tete,  a  warrior 
absent,  appeals  to  have  a  bad  heart. 

ANTOINE  GAMELIN,  Messenger. 

This  irtli  day  of  May,  appeard  before  me,  Mr.  Antoine  Gamelin,  and  swore  that  the  within  is  tlie  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  tlie  truth. 

FS.  HAMTRAMCK,  Major  Commandant. 

Copy  of  a  circular  letter  from  Governor  St.  Clair,  to  the  county  Lieutenants. 

Head  Quarters,  Fort  Washington,  My  15th,  1790. 

The  interests  of  the  United  States  dictating  a  peace  with  the  Indian  nations  on  the  Wabash,  if  it  could  be 
obtained  upon  reasonable  terms,  I  was  directed  by  the  President  to  give  them  information  of  the  disposition  of  the 
General  Government  on  that  subject,  and  to  try  to  effect  it;  at  the  same  time.  I  was  instructed  by  him  to  take  measures 
for  the  security  of  the  frontier  country,  in  case  of  their  continuing  hostile.    The  following  is  extracted  from  his  instruc- 


tions  to  me  on  that  head  (here  was  inserted  that  part  of  my  instructions  relative  to  the  militia. 1  I  have  now  to 
infoiTii  you  that  there  is  no  prospect  of  peace  with  the  said  Indians  at  present;  on  tlie  contrary,  tfiey  continue  very 
ill  disposed  towards  the  United  States  in  general,  and  to  Virginia  in  particular:  and  many  parties  are,  from  infor- 
mation lately  received,  now  actually  gone  to  war.  The  commanding  officer  of  the  troops  and  myself  have,  there- 
fore, concerted  a  plan  of  oflensive  operations  against  them,  and  in  conformity  with  the  above  recited  instructions,  I 

now  call  upon,you,  in  the  name  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  ^»r men,  rank  and  file,  and  properly 

officered,  according  to  the  legal  establisliment  of  the  militia  of  your  State,  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  federal 

troops,  against  the  said  Indians;  and  that  they  be  at ,  on  the day  of  September  next,  armed,  accoutred,  and 

equipped,  for  a  service  of  sixty  days  or  more,  after  they  shall  have  joined  the  troops,  unless  the  object  in  \'iew  shall 
be  sooner  accomplished. 

The  laudable  desire,  and  ardent  spirit,  to  repress  incursions  of  the  savages,  by  which  the  militia  have  been  actu- 
ated, upon  all  occasions,  leave  not  room  for  a  doubt  but  the  present  opportunity  to  punish  them  for  tiie  many  injuries 
and  cruelties  they  have  committed,  will  be  embraced  with  zeal.  But  allov/  me  to  observe,  tliat  it  is  of  the  utmost 
importance  that  they  be  punctually  at  the  rendezvous. 

I  ha^e  the  honor  to  be,  &c. 


The  counties  of  Virginia  were  called  upon  in  the  following  proportion,  which  were  assigned  them  fiom  tlie  best 
information  I  could  get,  of  their  respective  strengths: 

The  county  of  Nelson,         125 

Lincoln,        125  ^To  rendezvous  at  Fort  Steuben,  on  the  12th  September. 
Jefferson,         5C 


Bourbui        ^^^^  '*'^°  rendezvous  at  Fort  Washington,  September  15th. 



700  •  .    • 

The  counties  of  Pennsylvania,  the  proportions  of  which  Avere  assigned  them  by  the  number  of  their  lepiesenta- 
trves  in  Assembly,  which  being  governed  oy  the  number  of  people,  from  time  to  time,  appeared  an  equal  rule,  and 
was  the  only  one  I  had  to  go  by,  having  been  able  to  meet  with  but  one  of  the  Lieutenants. 

Washington  county.  220'^ 

Westrnoreland  110  '^^  asseinblc  at  McMaiien's  creek,  four  miles  below  Wheeling,  on  3d  Sept. 

Alleghany.  60j  '  .  .  '  .     •.  ■• 

'■  '•    '•500  ■      ■    "V     " 

Copy  of  a  letter  from  Govenior  St.  Clair  to  the  senior  officer  of  the  Pennsylvania  militia,  assembled  at  McMa- 

Imvs  Creek. 

ViTTSKVRGH,  August  7th,  \7^Q. 

As  soon  as  the  detachments  from  the  dift'erent  counties  are  arrived,  you  will  proceed,  without  loss  of  time,  to 
fort  Harmar,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum,  and  there  join  the  Federal  troops  under  the  command  of  Major 
Doughty,  who  will  either  conduct  you  to  head  quarters,  or  direct  the  manner  in  which  you  are  to  proceed  to  that 
place.  I  do  hope,  and  expect,  that  nothing  will  prevent  tiie  whole  (juota  of  Pennsylvania  from  being  assembled  at 
the  appointed  place  and  time;  after  which,  you  will  remaiti  on  that  giound  not  a  moment  longer  than  is  necessary; 
at  all  events  you  must  be  in  motion  from  thence,  on,  or  before,  the  10th  of  September:  for  the  delaying  beyond  that 
period,  even  for  one  day,  might  create  difficulties  and  cmb;irrassments  that  would  not  be  easily  got  over,  if  it  did 
not  render  the  expedition  altogether  abortive. 

I  have  mentioned  the  10th  as  tlie  utmost  period,  but  you  are  by  no  means  to  delay  it  to  that  time,  if  tiie  different 
detachments  are  sooner  arrived.  Should  it  iiappen  that  any  of  them  are  not  got  up  when  you  move,  leave  directions 
for  them  to  follow  you  with  all  possible  expedition  to  Fort  Washington,  without  halting  at  Muskingum.  You  will 
be  sure  to  take  the  necessary  measures  for  the  security  of  your  camp,  while  you  remain  at  the  rendezvous,  and 
on  your  way  down  the  river;  possibly  you  may  see  no  Indians,  or  none  that  are  hostile,  but  a  sui-prise  is  ever  to  be 
guarded  against,  so  that  you  will  never  encamp  without  establishing  proper  guards  and  patrols,  nor  even  go  ashore, 
for  ever  so  short  a  time,  without  tiie  same  precaution. 

You  will  please  to  observe  that  many  of  the  friendly  Indians  witliwhom  the  United  States  are  engaged  by  treaty, 
may  be  in  the  neighborhood  of  McMahen's  creek,  and  that  they  have  a  right  to  hunt  in  that  countrj-.  It  is  of  great 
consequence  tliat  no  injury  be  done  to  any  of  them,  both  for  the  sake  of  public  faith,  which  has  been  pledged  to  them, 
and  to  keep  them  detached  from  those  who  are  inimical. 

You  will  therefore  impress  the  necessity  of  treating  tiiose  Indians  with  kindness,  should  any  of  them  be  met 
with,  upon  the  minds  of  the  people  under  your  command,  in  the  most  forcible  manner.  Indeed,  the  success  of  the 
expedition,  in  some  measure,  depends  upon  it.  They  are  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares.  If  you  see  any  of  them, 
assure  them  no  harm  is  intended  them,  if  they  continue  in  peace. 

'  AR.  ST.  CLAIR. 

The  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory  to  the  Secretary  of  JFar.  ,..,-• 

.....^        '  Marietta,  19th  September,  1790. 

The  depredations  on  the  Ohio  and  tlie  Wabash  still  continue;  every  day,  almost,  brings  an  account  of  some  1 

murder  or  robbery,  and  yesterday  a  number  of  horses  were  taken  from  this  settlement.    Not  long  ago,  a  boat  ! 

belonging  to  Mr.  Vigo,  a  gentleman  of  Post  St.  Vincennes,  was  fired  upon  near  the  mouth  of  Blue  River.    This  I 

person,  the  United  States  have  been  very  much  obliged  to  on  many  occasions,  and  is,  in  truth,  the  most  disinterested  | 

person  I  have  almost  ever  seen.     He  had  three  men  killed,  and  was  obliged  in  consequence  to  fall  doM'n  the  river.  \ 

This  party,  it  seems,  had  been  designed  to  intercept  me:  for  they  reported  that  they  had  had  three  fair  discharges  at  i 

the  Governor's  boat,  and  expected  that  they  had  killed  him.    In  descending  the  river,  Mr.  Vigo's  boat  fell  in  with  I 

Mr.   Melchor's,  returning  from  Tennessee,  and  attempted,  in  company  with  him,  to  ascend  the  Wabash.     Here  '| 

lliey  were  attacked  again.    Melchor  escaped,  and  fell  down,  it  seems,  to  the  Ance  de  la  graisse,  but  the  savages  • 
possessed  themselves  of  Vigo's  boat,  which  they  plundered  of  all  his  and  the  crew's  personal  baggage  and  arms;  but 

96  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  ^  [1790. 

as  she  was  navigated  by  Frenchmen,  they  suffered  them  to  depart  with  tiie  peltries,  telling  them  that,  if  she  had  not 

been  in  company  with  Americans,  they  would  not  have  injured  them,  and  that,  if  they  found  them  in  such  again, 

they  would  put  them  to  death.     Captain  McCurdy  likewise  was  fired  upon  between  Fort  Washington  and  this  place, 

and  had  five  or  six  men  killed  and  wounded. 

'•  I  am  directed  to  write  to  the  commanding  officer  at  Deti'oit.     I  have  enclosed  a  copy  of  that  letter." 


Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  commanding  officer  of  Detroit. 

Marietta,  19/A  September,  1790. 

As  it  is  not  improbable  that  an  account  of  the  military  preparations  going  forward  in  this  quarter  of  the  country 
may  reach  you,  and  give  you  some  uneasiness,  while  the  object  to  which  they  are  to  be  directed  is  not  perfectly 
known  to  youj  I  am  commanded  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  give  you  tlie  fullest  assurances  of  the 
pacific  disposition  entertained  towards  Great  Britain  and  all  her  possessions,  and  to  inform  you  explicitly  that  the 
expedition  about  to  be  undertaken,  is  not  intended  against  the  post  you  have  the  honor  to  command,  nor  any  other 
place  at  present  inthe  possession  of  the  troops  of  his  Britannic  Majesty,  but  is  on  foot  with  the  sole  design  of  humbling 
and  chastising  some  of  the  saAage  tribes  whose  depredations  are  become  intolerable,  and  whose  cruelties  have  of  late 
become  an  outrage,  not  on  the  people  of  America  only,  but  on  humanity,  which  I_  now  do  in  the  most  unequivocal 
manner.  After  tiiis  candid  explanation,  sir,  there  is  every  reason  to  expect,  both  from  your  own  personal  character, 
and  from  the  regard  you  have  for  that  of  your  nation,  that  those  tribes  will  meet  with  neither  countenance  nor  assist- 
ance from  any  under  your  command,  and  that  you  will  do  what  in  your  power  lies,  to  restrain  the  trading  people, 
from  whose  instigations  there  is  too  good  reason  to  believe,  much  of  the  injuries  committed  by  the  savages  has  proceeded. 
I  have  forwarded  this  letter  by  a  private  gentleman,  in  preference  to  that  of  an  officer,  by  whom  you  might  have 
expected  a  communication  of  this  kind,  that  every  suspicion  of  the  purity  of  the  views  of  the  United  States  might 
be  obviated.  ... 

Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  Secretary  of  War.  ,  . 

Fort  Washington,  9th  October,  1790. 

On  the  23d  ultimo,  I  arrived  at  this  place,  and  found  every  thing  in  a  better  state  of  preparation  than  I  had  flat- 
tered myself  with,  owing  to  the  prudent  care  and  attention  of  General  Harmar,  and  the  indefatigable  application  of 
Captain  Ferguson.  The  militia  that  had  been  ordered  from  Kentucky,  appeared  on  the  day  appointed,  all  except 
one  hundred  and  forty,  who  have  since  come  forward,  and  marched  to  join  the  army.  Major  Wyllis,  with  the  troops 
from  the  falls,  got  up  on  the  22d,  and  Major  Doughty,  with  part  of  the  garrison  of  tort  Harmar.  arrived  on  the  25tn. 
From  the  failure  on  the  part  of  Pennsylvania,  the  corps  would  have  been  rather  too  weak,  and  General  Harmar  was 
of  opinion  with  me,  that  it  would  be  proper  to  ask  for  a  reinforcement  from  Kentucky,  and  in  virtue  of  tlie  powers 
granted  to  me  by  the  President,  I  immediately  called  for  five  hundred  from  the  counties  of  Fayette  and  Woodford, 
which  were  the  nearest,  and  also  the  most  populous,  and  requested  that,  if  it  could  be  done,  they  might  all  be 
mounted;  but  as  the  other  militia  had  been  for  some  time  here,  and  were  beginning  to  grow  impatient,  it  was  thought 
best  not  to  wait  for  the  arrival  of  the  reinforcement,  and  accordingly  the  corps  under  the  immediate  command  of 
Colonel  Harding,  was  put  in  inotion  on  the  27th,  with  orders  to  advance  about  twenty  miles,  and  to  open  a  road 
from  their  camp  to  this  place,  for  the  passage  of  the  artillery.  By  the  accounts  we  have  of  the  country,  after  the 
first  twenty  miles  are  passed,  it  becomes  level,  and  so  thinly  covered  with  wood,  that  there  will  be  little  occasion  to 
open  roads.  On  the  30th,  General  Harmar  moved  wtli  the  troops,  three  pieces  of  artillery,  and  the  provisions  for 
the  campaign,  the  cattle  and  horses  for  the  transportation  of  the  flour  having  arrived  in  due  season.  On  the  2d 
instant,  Mr.  Frotliingham  arrived  with  the  remainder  of  the  garrison  of  fort  Hannar,  and  proceeded  to  join  the 
army  on  the  third. 

1  have  not  heard  from  General  Harmar  since  his  second  day's  inarch.  Tiie  country  was  then  hilly  and  difiicult 
for  the  artillery;  but  some  persons  who  had  been  viewing  the  countiy  came  in  two  day's  ago,  who  confirm  the  account 
of  its  very  soon  becoming  level  and  open.  Tiiey  fell  in  upon  the  trace  of  the  army  about  seven  miles  from  Mud 
river,  and  returned  upon  it  In  that  distance,  there  had  been  occasion  to  make  only  one  very  small  causeway  with 
logs.  They  must  be  up  with  Chillicothe  before  now.  and  if  they  have  not  been  opposed  there,  which  I  do  not  expect, 
as  it  is  situated  in  a  plain  prairie.  The  Indians  will  be  found  assembled  at  the  Miami  village.  Major  Hamtramck 
had  orders  from  General  Harmar  to  move  on  the  25th  of  the  last  month,  and  the  militia  would  join  him  in  time  for 
him  to  comply  with  the  orders  within  a  day  or  two  at  farthest. 

The  intelligence  I  received  shall  be  communicated  from  time  to  time,  by  every  opportunity,  and  by  express,  if 
any  thing  occurs  of  sufficient  importance. 

The  little  army  moved  in  high  spirits,  and  have  had  excellent  weather  ever  since,  one  day's  rain  excepted. 

Messrs.  Elliot  and  Williams,  Contractors,  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Uth  October,  1790. 

In  consequence  of  orders  received  from  General  Harmar,  dated  tlie  15th  of  July,  which  we  engaged  to  comply 
with  by  the  1st  of  October,  we  have,  before  the  18th  of  September,  furnished  and  equipped  for  the  use  of  the  army, 
in  the  intended  expedition  against  the  savages,  one  hundred  and  eighty  thousand  rations  of  flour,  two  hundred 
thousand  rations  of  meat,  eight  hundred  and  sixty -eight  pack  and  artillery  horses,  equipped  with  pack  saddles,  bags, 
ropes,  &c.  and  one  horse-master  general,  eighteen  horse-masters,  one  hundred  and  thirty  pack-horse  drivers,  all  of 
which  could  not  have  been  done  upon  so  short  a  notice  as  we  have  had,  if  we  had  not  employed  all  our  funds, 
and  pledged  our  credit  to  the  extent,  to  the  people  of  the  Western  country,  where  the  supplies  were  principally 

The  expedition,  we  trust,  cannot  fail  from  any  default  of  ours,  for  we  have  forwarded  supplies  in  greater  quan- 
tities than  were  required  of  us;  and  even  more  than  our  most  sanguine  expectations,  at  the  commencement  of  the 
business,  encouraged  us  to  promise. 

Instructions  from  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory. — 6th  October,  1789. 
To  Arthur  St.  Clair,  Esq. 

Govemorofthe  territory  of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  and  Superintendent  of  Indian  Afi^rs  for  the  Northern  district : 


Congress  having,  by  their  act  of  the  29tli  of  September  last,  empowered  me  to  call  forth  the  militia  of  the  States, 
respectively,  for  the  protection  of  the  frontiers  from  the  incursions  of  the  hostile  Indians,  I  have  thought  proper  to 
make  tliis  communication  to  you,  together  with  the  instructions  herein  contained . 


It  is  highly  necessary  that  I  should  as  soon  as  possible,  possess  full  information,  whether  the  Wabash  and  lUi-     \y 
nois  Indians  are  most  inclir.ed  for  war  or  peace.     If  for  the  former,  it  is  proper  that  I  sliould  be  informed  of  the  means 
which  will  most  probably  induce  them  to  peace.     If  a  peace  can  be  established  with  the  said  Indians  on  reasonable 
terms,  the  interests  of  the  United  States  dictate,  that  it  should  be  effected  as  soon  as  possible. 

You  will  therefore  inform  the  said  Indians  of  the  dispositions  of  the  General  Government  outhis  subject,  and  of 
their  reasonable  desire  that  there  should  be  a  cessation  of  hostilities  as  a  prelude  to  a  treaty.  If,  however,  notwith- 
standing your  intimations  to  them,  they  should  continue  their  hostilities,  or  meditate  any  incursions  against  the 
frontiers  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  or  agaiilst  any  of  tlie  troops  or  posts  of  the  United  States,  and  it  should  appear 
to  you  that  the  time  of  execution  would  be  so  near  as  to  forbid  your  transmitting  the  information  to  me,  and  receiv- 
ing my  further  orders  thereon,  then  you  are  hereby  authoriz-ed  and  empowered,  iii  my  name,  to  call  on  the  lieute- 
nants of  the  nearest  counties  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  for  such  detachments  of  militia  as  you  may  judge  proper, 
not  exceeding,  however,  one  thousand  from  Virginia  and  five  hundred  from  Pennsylvania. 

I  have  directed  letters  to  be  written  to  the  Executives  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  informing  tiiem  of  the  before 
recited  act  of  Congress,  and  that  I  have  given  you  these  conditional  directions,  sothattiiere  may  not  be  any  obstruc- 
tions to  such  measures  as  shall  be  necessary  to  be  taken  by  you  for  calling  forth  the  militia  agreeably  to  the  instruc- 
tions herein  contained. 

The  said  militia  to  act  in  conjunction  with  tlie  federal  troops,  in  such  operations,  offensive  or  defensive,  as  you, 
and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops,  conjointly,  shall  judge  necessary  for  the  public  service,  and  the  protection 
of  the  inhabitants  and  the  posts. 

The  said  militia,  while  in  actual  service,  to  be  on  the  continental  establishment  of  pay  and  rations;  they  are  to 
rj-m  and  equip  themselves,  but  to  be  furnished  with  public  ammunition  if  necessary,  and  no  charge  for  the  pay  of 
said  militia  will  be  valid  unless  supported  by  regular  musters,  made  by  a  field  or  other  officer  of  the  federal  troops, 
to  be  appointed  by  the  commanding  officer  of  tiie  troops. 

I  would  have  it  observed  forcibly,  that  a  war  with  the  Wabash  Indians  ought  to  be  avoided  by  all  means  consist-  i/' 
ently  with  the  security  of  the  frontier  inhabitants,  the  security  of  the  troops,  and  the  national  dignity.    In  the  exer- 
cise of  the  present  indiscriminate  hostilities,  it  is  extremely  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  say  tliat  a  war  without 
further  measures  would  be  just  on  tiie  part  of  the  United  States. 

But,  if,  after  manifesting  clearly  to  the  Indians,  the  dispositions  of  the  General  Government  for  the  preservation   , 
of  peace,  and  the  extension  of  a  just  protection  to  the  said  Indians,  they  should  continue  their  incursions,  the 
United  States  will  be  constrained  to  punish  them  with  severity. 

You  will,  also,  proceed,  as  soon  as  you  can,  with  safety,  to  execute  the  orders  of  the  late  Congress,  respecting 
the  inhabitants  at  St.  Vincennes,  and  at  the  Kaskaskias.  and  the  other  villages  on  the  Mississippi.  It  is  a  circum- 
stance of  some  importance,  that  the  said  inhabitants  should,  as  soon  as  possible,  possess  the  lands  to  which  they  are 
entitled,  by  some  known  and  fixed  principles. 

I  have  directed  a  number  of  copies  of  the  treaty  made  by  you,  at  fort  Ilarmar.  with  the  Wyandots,  &c.  on  the 
9th  of  January  last,  to  be  printed  and  forwarded  to  you,  together  with  the  ratification,  and  my  proclamation 
enjoining  the  observance  thereof. 

As  it  may  be  of  high  importance  to  obtain  a  precise  and  accurate  knowledge  of  tlie  several  waters  which  empty 
into  the  Ohio,  on  the  northwest,  and  of  those  which  discharge  themselves  in  the  lakes  Erie  and  Michigan,  the  lengtli 
of  the  portiiges  between,  and  nature  of  the  ground,  an  early  and  pointed  attention  thereto  is  earnestly  recom- 

Given  under  my  hand,  in  the  city  of  New  York,  this  6th  day  of  October,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thou- 
sand seven  hundred  and  eighty-nine,  and  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  the  sovereignty  and  independence  of 
the  United  States. 

■     "  The  Secretary  of  War  to  General  Harmar. 

7th  June,  1790, 

The  information  contained  in  your  letter  of  the  24th  of  March  last,  relative  to  the  depredations  of  the  Indians, 
is  corroborated  by  several  other  letters,  with  considerable  additions.     The  reports  of  these  several  events,   have 
excited  much  disquietude  in  the  public  mind  generally,  and,  more  particularly,  in  all  men  whose  views  or  interests  ' 
are  westward. 

A  letter  from  Judge  Symnies,  dated  at  Lexington,  the  30th  of  April  last,  mentions,  that  you,  with  some  con- 
tinental troops,  and  General  Scott,  with  some  volunteers  from  Kentucky,  had  made  an  expedition  up  the  Ohio, 
against  the  Indians, at  or  near  the  Scioto,  who  had  annoyed  the  boats  in  descending  the  Ohio,  but  without  any  con- 
siderable effectj  hayin,g  killed  only  four  Indians. 

The  recent  hostilities,  according  to  the  information,  seems  to  have  been  committed  by  the  remnants  of  the  Shaw- 
anese,  and  the  banditti  from  several  tribes  associated  with  them.  Although  the  said  Shawanese,  and  banditti, 
aggregatelyj  may  not  amount,  at  the  excess,  to  tvvo  hundred  fighting  men,  yet  they  seem  sufficient  to  alarm  the 
whole  frontier  lying  along  the  Ohioj  and,  in  a  considerable  degree,  injure  the  reputation  of  the  Government. 

To  extend  a  defensive  and  efficient  protection  to  so  extensive  a  frontier,  against  solitary,  or  small  parties  of 
enterprising  savages,  seems  altogether  impossible.  No  other  remedy  remains,  but  to  extirpate,  utterly,  if  possible, 
the  said  banditti. 

The  President  of  the  L^nited  States,  therefore,  directs,  that  you,  and  the  Governor  of  the  Western  Territory, 
consult  together  upon  the  most  practicable  mode  of  effecting  this  object,  in  such  manner  as  not  to  interfere  with  any 
treaties  he  may  be  about  forming  with  any  of  the  regular  tribes  of  Indians  on  the  Wabash. 

At  this  distance,  and  under  the  information  received,  it  would  seem  that  an  expedition  of  the  nature  herein 
described,  might,  if  conducted  with  great  address  and  rapidity,  be  attended  with  the  desired  effect. 

The  troops  to  be  employed  on  this  occasion,  to  be  composed  of  one  hundreil  continental,  and  three  hundred 
militia,  non-commissioneJ  officers  and  privates,  all  picked  men,  and  properly  officered. 

The  militia  to  be  drawn  from  the  nearest  counties  of  Kentucky,  to  rendezvous  at  fort  Washington,  or  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Miami,  or  such  other  place  as  you  may  judge  more  proper,  to  be  engaged  for  thirty  days  from  their 
arrival  at  the  rendezvous. 

The  continental  troops  and  militia  to  be  mounted  on  horseback,  and  if,  in  the  judgment  of  the  Governor  and 
yourself,  that  mode  of  transportation  would  most  probably  ensure  success,  and  horses  could  be  obtained  in  a  rea- 
sonable distance. 

The  militia  to  be  on  continental  pay,  according  to  the  establishment,  passed  the  30th  April  last  j  and  rations 
from  the  time  of  their  arrival  at  the  place  of  rendezvous. 

A  continental  officer,  to  muster  and  inspect  the  militia  on  their  arrival,  and  none  to  be  inserted  in  the  pay 
abstracts,  which  must  be  certified  by  you,  unless  so  mustered.  The  militia  to  find  their  own  arms  and  accoutre- 
ments, but  to  be  furnished  by  the  public,  with  ammunition,  if  necessary. 

The  militia  officers,  non-commissioned  officers,  and  privates,  to  be  allowed  for  the  hire  and  risk  of  their  horses, 
and  horse  accoutrements,  such  a  sum,  per  day,  as  the  Governor  and  you  shall  cei-tify  that  the  nature  of  the  service 
required;  provided,  however,  such  sum  shall  not  exceed  half  a  dollar  per  day. 

The  horses  to  be  hired  for  continental  troops,  to  be  on  the  same  terms,  or  less,  in  proportion  to  the  risk  of  the 
horses,  which,  perhaps,  ought  to  be  on  account  of  the  United  States,  according  to  the  value  of  the  horses,  which, 
in  that  case,  ought  to  be  appraised. 

It  is  presumed,  that  each  horse,  besides  the  rider,  ought  to  carry  thirty  days  bread  and  pork,  or  bacon,  and 
about  a  bushel  of  corn,  or  one  quart  per  day,  as  fodder  for  the  horses. 

98  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

The  Shawanese,  and  banditti  associated  with  them,  are  said  to  reside  on  the  eastern  branches  of  the  Wabash 
river,  towards  its  head.  I  have  learned  from  Major  Doughty  and  Captain  Ferguson,  that  the  Wabash  has  a  more 
easterly  course  than  is  laid  down  in  Hutchin's  map.  If  this  be  so,  the  distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami, 
over,  cannot  greatly  exceed  the  distance  from  the  rapids  over  to  Post  St.  Vincennes.  But,  suppose  the  distance 
should  be  one  hundred  and  thirty  or  forty  miles,  it  could  be  marched  on  horseback,  in  four  days,  at  furthest. 

It  would  be  unnecessary  to  enter  into  any  further  details.  To  the  judgment  of  the  Governorand  you,  the  expe- 
dition may  justly  be  confided.  Efficacy,  and  the  peace  of  the  frontiers,  are  the  great  objects;  with  these  are  to  be 
blended  due  economy.  But,  all  future  depredations  of  the  Indians  from  the  soutliwest  of  the  Ohio,  in  considerable 
numbers,  must,  if  possible,  be  prevented:  and,  for  this  purpose,  the  orders  now  given,  or  even  an  extension  of  them, 
one  or  two  hundred  men,  must  be  considered  as  a  standing  order,  until  tlie  object  of  extirpating  the  murderous  ban- 
ditti before  mentioned,  be  effected. 

It  is,  however,  strongly  to  be  observed,  that  the  highest  precautions  must  be  taken  in  all  incursions  into  the 
Indian  country,  that  the  friendly,  or  even  neutral  tribes,  be  uninjured,  but,  that  the  strongest  assurances  be  given 
to  such  tribes,  of  the  pacific  and  just  dispositions  of  the  United  States,  and,  at  the  same  time,  of  their  firm  inten- 
tions of  inflicting  severe  punishment  upon  all  those  of  a  contrary  nature. 

Although  these  orders  are  to  be  considered  as  addressed,  conjointly  to  the  Governor  and  yourself,  yet,  in  case 
of  his  absence,  and  a  conviction,  in  your  own  mind,  that  an  expedition  of  the  beforementioned  description  would 
not  interfere,  or  impede  his  negotiations,  you  are  to  undertake  it  as  if  he  were  present. 

Tlie  Secretary  of  War  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 

9.5(1  August,  1790. 

vi?n  estimate  of  the  expense  of  employing,  for  three  months,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  militia,  and  four  hundred 
continental  troops,  in  an  expedition  against  the  Wabash  Indians — two  hundred  of  the  militia  to  be  mounted. 

The  Militia. 

The  pay,        ---.--.--..      v^-,,;  j-        -        -  $24,012 

The  subsistence  and  rations  at  16-90ths  of  a  dollar,  -        .  ^  iyr.y.'.y-        -        -  31,302 

Forage  for  the  field  and  staff  officers,  -        -        -    ■  0-,u  ,.(;:>  !i->v' ;  -  Mi-'i?     -  234 


The  Continental  Troops. 

\dditional  expense  of  subsistence  and  rations  to  the  continental  troops,  during  the  same  period. 
This  expense  arises  from  the  contract;  the  price  of  the  ration  at  fort  Washington  is  stated  at  six 
and  a  half  ninetieths  of  a  dollar;  but,  from  that  post  to  the  places  of  operation,  the  price  will  be 
sixteen-ninetieths,         - .  4,146 

The  quartermaster's  department,  including  the  hire  of  four  hundred  horses,  purchase  of  boats,  and 

transportation, 30,000 

Contingencies,  - - 10,306 


The  contiactors  are  to  execute  the  duties  of  the  quartermaster's  department;  the  extra  services,  therefore, 
which  will  be  required  of  them,  independent  of  the  sum  set  down  for  contingencies,  will  amount  to  sixty-five 
thousand  six  hundred  and  eighty -two  dollars.  One  half  of  this  sum  may  be  necessary  to  be  advanced  immediately, 
to  enable  them  to  perform  effectually  the  services  required. 

The  Secretary  of  War  to  Governor  St.  Clair. 

25d  Jugust,  1790. 

I  have  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  your  letter  of  this  date,  and  the  papers  therein  refen-ed  to, 
containing  the  reasons  on  which  you  have  founded  the  proposed  operation  against  the  Wabash  Indians. 

While  the  President  regrets  exceedingly  the  occasion,  he  approves  the  measures  you  have  taken,  for  preventing 
those  predatory  incursions  of  the  Wabash  Indians,  which,  for  a  considerable  period  past,  have  been  so  calamitous  to 
the  frontiers  lying  along  the  Ohio. 

The  offers  of  peace,  which  have  been  made  upon  principles  of  justice  and  humanity,  to  the  Wabash  Indians,  and 
refused-  v.ill  fully  justify  the  conduct  of  the  Unitecf  States  in  the  operations  which  have  been  directed  for  the  pre- 
vention of  future  murders  and  robberies. 

It  is  the  earnest  desire  of  the  President  that  the  operation  should  be  effectual,  and  produce  in  the  Indians  proper 
dispositions  for  peace.  He  therefore  confides  in  your  judgment  and  abilities,  as  being  perfectly  acquainted  with  the 
force  of  the  Indians,  the  nature  of  the  operation,  and  all  the  circumstances  of  the  case,  whether  any  fnrther  force 
shall  be  added  to  that  already  ordered.  If,  upon  due  deliberation,  you  should  be  of  opinion  that  the  force  you  liave 
directed  should  be  inadequate  to  the  end  proposed,  and  that  an  additional  number  of  militia  should  be  requisite,  he 
consents  to  the  measure,  and  hereby  authorizes  you  for  that  purpose. 

In  this  case,  the  additional  number  of  militia  should  be  taken  from  tlie  frontier  counties  of  Virginia,  on  account  of 
their  vicinity  to  fort  Washington,  the  place  of  rendezvous. 

And,  if  you  should  be  of  the  jndgment  that  two  hundred  of  the  militia  should  be  mounted  on  horse-back,  he  also 
consents  to  such  arrangement,  under  the  regulations  prescribed  in  my  letter  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  of  the 
7th  day  of  last  June. 

It  may  not,  however,  be  improper  to  observe,  in  all  the  arrangements  for  the  expedition,  that,  while  energy  is  the 
first  principle  to  be  observed,  it  must  be  blended  with  a  just  economy. 

There  are  existing  jealousies  in  the  minds  of  the  British  officers,  in  Canada,  of  the  designs  of  the  United  States 
respecting  the  posts  to  have  been  relinquished  by  the  last  peace.  It  will  be  a  point,  therefore,  of  delicacy,  that  you 
should  take  measures,  by  sending  some  officer  or  messenger,  at  a  proper  time,  to  assure  the  commanding  officer  of 
the  real  object  of  the  expedition.  That  the  Shawanese,  and  some  otliers  joined  with  them,  have  committed  such 
enormous  offences  against  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  as  are  any  longer  insuppoi-table;  but,  to  assure  him  of 
the  entire  pacific  disposition  of  the  United  States  towards  Great  Britain  and  its  possessions. 

You  will  also  find  it,  at  some  certain  moment,  highly  proper  to  inform  the  Indians,  with  whom  you  have  formed 
treaties,  of  your  pacific  dispositions  towards  them. 

And  it  may  also  be  proper,  under  certain  circumstances  of  humiliation  of  the  Indians,  to  conclude  with  them 
treaties  of  peace,  provided  it  can  be  done  on  proper  security  of  tlieir  good  behavior,  and  consistently  with  the  dignity 
and  interest  of  the  United  States. 

•  '^u^  President  has  directed  me  to  observe,  that  many  important  circumstances  concur  to  press,  that  the  opera- 
tion should  commence  immediately  after  the  assembling  of  the  militia;  and  as  the  main  force  will  march  from  fort 
Washington,  it  is  his  opinion,  as  far  as  an  opinion  can  be  formed  from  the  maps,  that  the  march  of  the  troops  from 
that  post,  should  commence  two  or  three  days  previous  to  tliose  from  Post  Vincennes. 


The  militia  employed  must  be  mustered  previously  to  their  march,  and  on  their  return  before  they  are  discharged, 
by  a  field  officer  of  the  continental  troops,  agreeably  to  your  instructions  from  the  President,  dated  the  5th  of 
October,  1789,  and  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar.  dated  the  7th  of  June  last. 

I  have  made  an  estimate  for  the  object  of  the  expedition,  and  transmitted  it  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  and 
I  have  requested  liim  to  ad^•ance  a  sum  ot  money  to  the  contractors,  in  order  to  enable  them  to  furnish  the  requisite 
supplies  of  provision  and  articles  in  the  quartermaster's  department. 

1  have  also  written  to  JNIr.  Hodgden,  commissary  of  niilitary  stores  in  Philadelphia,  to  forward,  immediately,  by 
the  way  of  Red  Stone  and  Wheeling,  two  tons  of  best  rifle  and  musket  powder,  four  tons  leaden  bullets,  cartridge- 
paper,  case  shot  for  5h  inch  howitzers,  and  for  three  and  six  pounders. 

I  have  written  to  Lieutenant  Ernest,  at  fort  Pitt,  directing  him  to  repair  to  Red  Stone,  in  order  to  receive  said 
stores,  and  to  have  them  transported  down  the  Monongaheia,  by  water,  to  fort  Harmar,  or  to  Wheeling,  by  land, 
and  thence  to  fort  Harmar,  as  he  shall  find  most  convement.  , 

TTie  Secretary  of  War  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar. 

August  24,  1790. 

I  now  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  15th  of  last  month,  by  Governor  St.  Clair,  who  has  stated  to 
me  the  plan  of  the  proposed  expedition  against  the  Indians,  and  the  same  has  been  subniitted  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  who  has  approved  thereof. 

My  letter  to  the.Governor.  of  yesterday,  which  he  will  communicate  to  you,  contains  some  circumstances  whidi 
may  not  be  necessary  to  repeat. 

The  expedition  you  are  about  to  undertake  is  not  only  of  great  importance  in  itself,  but  it  may  be  attended  with 
extensive  and  remote  consequences.  Every  consideration,  therefore,  of  a  public  nature,  as  well  as  personal  to  your- 
self, require  that  it  should  be  conducted  in  the  most  perfect  manner;  that  there  should  not  be  any  omissions,  but  all 
just  arrangements  made  to  produce  a  due  execution  of  every  plan  and  order. 

A  knowledge  of  your  enemy's  strength,  situation,  and  designs,  must  be  essential  to  your  success;you  will,  there- 
fore, make  the  best  airan^ements  for  obtaining  intelligence. 

While,  on  the  one  hand,  your  movements  and  execution  should  be  so  rapid  and  decisive  as  to  astonish  youreneniy, 
so,  on  the  other,  every  possible  precaution  in  the  power  of  human  foresight  should  be  used  to  prevent  surprise.  To 
enter  into  the  details  of  tlie  measures  you  ou^ht  to  take  to  effect  the  former,  or  prevent  the  latter,  would  be  to 
attempt  to  preclude  the  exercise  of  your  abilities.  The  President  of  the  United  States  is  impressed  with  the  con- 
viction that  you  are  aware  of  the  iinportance  of  your  command,  and  that  you  will  endeavor  to  make  the  best  airange- 
ments  to  ensure  success,  ami  particularly  that  you  will  avail  yourself,  on  all  occasions,  of  the  mature  experience  and 
judgment  of  Governor  St.  Clair. 

I  have,  agreeably  to  Major  Doughty's  report,  directed  Mr.  Hodgden  to  forward  two  tons  of  the  best  rifle  and 
musket  powder,  lead  in  proportion,  cartridge  paper,  flints,  and  the  medicines  you  wrote  for,  the  capital  articles  of 
which  are  doubled. 

I  have  transmitted  you,  by  Governor  St.  Clair,  one  thousand  dollars  for  contingent  money,  for  which  you  will 
forward  me  triplicate  receipts. 

As  it  is  probable  that  most  of  tlie  militia  may  be  armed  with  rifles,  which  are  certainly  not  good  arms  in  a  close 
fight,  it  may,  perhaps,  be  proper  for  you  to  attempt  to  persuade  some  of  them  to  arm  themselves  with  the  spare 
muskets  you  have  in  store. 

P.  S.  It  will  be  necessaiy  that  you  communicate  the  time  of  your  setting  out,  the  number  of  your  command,  the 
progress  and  termination  of  the  expedition,  and  the  various  events  proper  for  the  President  to  know. 

TTie  Secretary  of  War  to  the  Governor  of  Virginia. 

.  '         '    '  "■     '  ,  •      ".  Septembers,  1790. 

Governor  St.  Clair  has,  in  person,  laid  before  the  President  the  plan  of  the  proposed  operation  against  the  Wabash 
Indians,  which  has  been  approved. 

It  being  the  anxious  desire  of  the  President  that  the  expedition  should  be  eftectual,  and  not  require  a  repetition, 
all  the  arrangements  are  made  to  accomplish  so  desirable  an  end.  For  this  purpose.  Governor  St.  Clair  has  been 
further  empowered  to  require,  if  necessary,  an  additional  number  of  men.  If,  therefore,  there  aie  any  measures 
necessary  to  be  taken  by  your  Excellency  and  the  council,  in  order  to  facilitate  an  additional  number  of  men,  tlie 
President  of  the  United  States  hopes  they  will  be  expedited  with  all  possible  despatch. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  expedition  may  be  liable  to  miscarriage,  from  a  jealousy  of  the  militia  and  regular 
troops.  It  is  devoutly  to  be  wished  that  such  suggestions  may  be  entirely  unfounded.  But,  if  jealousies  should 
exist,  it  would  be  highly  important  that  they  shoulube  entirely  removed,  or  suspended  during  the  season  of  activity. 
I  shall  write  particularly  on  this  point  to  Governor  St.  Clair  and  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  to  adopt  the  most 
conciliatory  conduct 

It  has  also  been  mentioned  as  a  circumstance  of  considerable  importance  to  the  success  of  the  expedition,  that 
Colonels  Logan  and  Shelby  should  be  induced  to  accompany  the  militia  on  the  expedition,  even  as  volunteers,!  great 
confidence  being  placed  in  the  characters  of  these  gentlemen.  Could  your  Excellency,  therefore,  influence  those 
gentlemen  to  go  forth  on  this  occasion,  it  would  be  highly  acceptable,  and  might  tend  greatly  to  the  accomplishment 
of  the  public  good.  The  expense  of  the  expedition  will  be  gi'eat,  and  if  it  should  fail  by  any  circumstances  whatever, 
the  public  injury  and  disappointment  will  be  in  proportion. 

it  is  thought  proper,  for  particular  and  political  reasons,  to  give  the  expedition  the  appeai-ance  of  being  levelled 
only  at  die  Shawanese.  .       .   _. 

Tlie  Secretai-y  of  War  to  Messrs.  Elliot  and  Williams,  at  Baltimore. 

September  3,  1790. 

Your  friend,  Colonel  Samuel  Smith,  has  been  here,  and  has  made  such  arrangements  with  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  respecting  advances,  as  are  entirely  satisfactory  to  him.  You  will,  therefore,  not  find  yourselves  any  ways 
restraineu  in  your  preparations  for  want  of  pecuniary  assistance. 

I  am  persuaded  that  you  will  endeavor,  by  every  possible  exertion,  to  make  adequate  preparations,  both  in  the 
commissary  and  quartermaster's  line,  for  the  proposed  expedition. 

■  On  your  making  adequate  and  seasonable  supplies,  the  whole  success  of  the  expedition  may  depend.    You  will 
see,  therefore,  tlie  urgent  necessity  of  every  thing  being  in  perfect  readiness. 

100  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1790. 

TTie  Secretary  of  J  far  to  Governor  St.  Clair. 

September  12,  1790. 

I  have  not  been  unmindful  of  tlie  suggestion  you  made  at  the  moment  of  your  departure  from  this  city,  relative 
to  the  establishment  of  a  post  at  the  Miami  village,  in  the  event  of  the  proposed  expedition's  succeeding  in  a  cei-tain 
degree.  I  have  had  a  full  communication  on  the  subject  with  the  President  of  the  United  States,  to  whom  you  had 
previously  made  the  same  suggestion,  and  the  following  ideas  are  the  result  thereof,  and  will  serve  for  the  direction 
of  yourself  and  Brigadier  General  Harmar  on  the  occasion. 

In  contemplating  the  establishment  of  military  posts  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  to  answer  the  purposes  of  awing  the 
Indians  residing  on  the  Wabash,  the  west  end  of  Lake  Erie,  St.  Joseph's,  and  the  Illinois,  as  much  as  Indians  can 
be  awed  by  posts,  and  at  the  same  time  exhibiting  a  respectable  appearance  to  the  British  troops  at  Detroit  and 
Niagara,  the  Miami  village  presents  itself  as  supenor  to  any  other  position,  excepting  the  actual  possession  of  the 
posts  on  the  lakes,  which  ought  to  have  been  given  up  comformable  to  the  treaty  of  peace.  This  opinion  was  given 
to  me  by  the  President  in  the  year  1789,  and  has  several  times  been  held  forth  by  me  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar. 

But,  at  the  same  time,  it  must  be  acknoAvledged  that  the  measure  would  involve  a  much  larger  military  establish- 
ment, than,  perhaps,  the  value  of  the  object,  or  the  dispositions  of  the  United  States  would  justify,  and  that  it  would 
be  so  opposed  to  the  inclinations  of  the  Indians  generally,  even  with  the  tribes  with  whom  we  have  made  treaties,  as 
to  bring  on  inevitably  an  Indian  war  of  some  duration.  In  addition  to  which,  it  may  be  supposed  that  the  British 
garrisons  would  find  themselves  so  uneasy  with  such  a  force  impending  over  them,  as  not  only  to  occasion  a  consi- 
derable reinforcement  of  their  upper  posts,  but  to  occasion  their  fomenting,  secretly  at  least,  the  opposition  of  the 

Theproposed  expedition  is  intended  to  exhibit  to  the  Wabash  Indians  our  power  to  punish  them  for  their  hostile 
depredations,  for  their  conniving  at  the  depredations  of  others,  and  for  their  refusing  to  treat  with  the  United  States 
when  invited  tiiereto.  This  power  will  be  demonstrated  by  a  sudden  stroke,  by  w'laich  their  towns  and  crops  may 
be  destroyed.    The  principal  means  used  will  be  the  militia. 

Let  us  suppose  the  expedition  to  be  successful,  as  I  pray  God  it  may,  and  let  us  estimate  the  force  which  would 
be  fully  required  for  establishing  a  post  at  the  Miami  Village. 

From  the  mode  of  Indian  fighting,  it  will  not  be  reasonable  to  conclude  their  force  will  be  greatly  reduced  in  the 
skirmishes;  they  may  have  with  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  or  Major  Hamtramck.  If,  therefore,  eleven  hundred 
warriors,  according  to  your  judgment,  delivered  to  me,  could  be  brought  into  activity  from  the  Wabash  and  its 
vicinity,  to  which  may  be  added  a  much  greater  number,  if  we  should  suppose  that  the  Wyandot,  Delaware,  St. 
Joseph's,  and  Illinois  Indians  should  be  combined  witli  them,  the  post  to  be  established  ought  not  to  have  a  less 
garrison  than  750  men;  were  it  inferior  to  this  number,  it  would  always  be  liable  to  be  invested  and  to  have  its 
supplies  cut  oft",  even  when  arrived  in  its  vicinity.  Whether  the  posts  of  communication  essentially  necessary  to 
the  existence  of  the  Miami  post,  should  be  up  the  Wabash,  up  the  Miami  of  the  Ohio,  or  the  Miami  of  lake  Erie, 
they  would  require  at  different  places,  at  least  500  men.  . 

To  establish  the  post  in  the  first  instance,  so  as  to  render  it  superior  to  the  Indian  force  in  the  neighborhood, 
would  require  all  the  troops  employed  in  the  expedition,  to  wit,  2,000:  for  if  a  sudden  stroke,  by  which  the  attention 
and  force  of  the  Indians  should  be  divided,  would  require  that  number,  the  notoriety  of  establishing  a  post  and 
erecting  fortifications  at  the  Miami  village,  in  the  heart  of  the  Indian  country,  would  require  the  same  or  a  superior 
number;  as  the  Indians  would  then  have  one  object  of  their  attention  and  exertion. 

To  complete  the  works  at  the  post,  and  the  essential  communications  to  it,  would  probably  require  two  months. 
W^ould  the  militia  stay  for  that  period?  It  so,  would  part  of  them  remain  in  garrison  afterwards,  for  six  months?  for 
the  four  hundred  continental  troops  to  be  employed  on  the  expedition,  would  be  utterly  inadequate  for  all  the 
services  required.  „    .  ^  ,  •       -■ 

Besides,  the  post  could  not  be  established,  unless  it  had  a  number  of  pieces  of  cannon,  and  a  proper  quantity  of 
stores,  and  also  three  months'  provision  in  the  first  instance.  The  transportation  of  these  articles,  would  require 
considerable  time  and  a  great  apparatus. 

It  might  be  added,  further,  that,  although  the  establishment  of  a  strong  post,  at  the  Miami  Village,  would  awe  the 
Indians,  yet  experience  has  demonstrated  tliat  posts  will  not  prevent  the  depredations  of  small  parties  against  the 

frontiers.  , ,-    ,      i    ^        ■  •  , 

To  render  the  measure  entirely  effectual,  and  at  the  same  time  to  guard  the  public  lands  from  intrusion,  the 
regular  force  to  be  employed,  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  ought  to  be  increased  to  1,800  men.  This  establishment  would 
not  be  compatible  either  with  the  public  views  or  the  public  finances,  unless  it  should  result  from  mere  necessity;  a  due 
consideration,  therefore,  of  these  several  circumstances,  renders  the  measure  atthispenod  inexpedient,  and,  there- 
fore, not  to  be  undertaken.  .,,.,,  ■     , 

The  expedition  will  either  incline  the  Indians  to  treat  of  peace,  or  it  will  induce  them  to  wage  open  war  m  the 
ensuing  spring.  \.  further  time  is  also  required,  to  know  the  intentions  of  the  Bntisli  court,  respecting  the  delivery 
of  Niagara  and  Detroit     The  decision  of  this  point  has  an  intimate  connexion  with  the  peace  of  the  frontiers. 

The  ultimate  determination  of  Government  must,  therefore,  depend  on  the  result  of  the  arrangements  which  have 
been  directed  and  which  are  in  operation.     It  would  not  be  wise  to  direct  a  measure  which  would  give  a  wrong  bias 

The  President  will  be  exceedingly  desirous  to  learn  the  measures  taken  by  yourself  and  Brigadier  General  Har- 
mar, from  time  to  time,  and  above  all,  he  is  exceedingly  anxious  that  every  arrrangement  should  be  made  to  render 
the  proposed  expedition  entirely  effectual. 

Secretary  of  War  to  General  Harmar. 

I4th  September,  1790. 

The  expense  of  the  proposed  expedition  will  be  great;  but,  I  have  that  confidence  in  your  econoiiw:ai  arrai^e- 
ments,  that  you  will  not  order  more  pack-horses  than  shall  be  absolutely  necessarv,  consistent  with  efficacy.  Tlie 
pack-horses  for  provisions,  will  be  at  the  contractor's  expense.  It  is  true  they  will  have  an  additional  price  for  the 
rations;  but,  as  you  will  not  take  tents,  and.  in  all  other  respects,  will  be  unincumbered,  and  as  light  as  possible.  I 
do  not  conceive  that  you  will  Avant  pack-horses  for  other  objects  than  your  provisions.  I  have  written  to  the 
Governor  by  this  conveyance,  respecting  the  Miami  village,  which  will  be  considered  as  a  joint  letter.  The  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  will  be  anxious  to  hear  of  tlie  arrangements  and  success. 

Tlie  Secretary  of  War  to  General  Harmar. 

3(f  September,  1790. 

Since  the  departure  of  Governor  St.  Clair,  I  have  been  informed,  that  there  may  be  an  aversion  in  tlie  minds  of 
the  militia  to  act  with  the  regular  troops.  If  this  should  really  be  the  case,  and  any  jealousies  should  arise,  to 
impede  the  success  of  the  expedition,  it  would  indeed  be  an  unfortunate  circumstance.  Eveiy  precaution  therefore 
should  be  taken  by  the  Governor  and  yourself,  either  to  remove  such  dispositions,  if  existing,  or  to  prevent  them 
arising  among  the  militia. 


It  has  been  suggested,  tliat,  could  Colonels  Logan  and  Shelby,  of  Kentucky,  be  induced  to  accompany  the  expe- 
dition as  volunteers,  they  would  have  a  powerful  influence  over  the  conduct  of  the  militia.  I  therefore  submit 
theideaj  that  the  Governor  and  you  invite  those  characters  to  accompany  you  in  tlie  expedition,  and  that  you  treat 
them  with  the  greatest  cordiality. 

To  Governor  St.  Clair,  or  Brigadier  General  Harmar. 

War  Office,  March  3,  1790. 

In  pursuance  of  powers  vested  in  the  President  ot  the  United  States,  by  the  act  of  Congress,  passed  the 
29th  day  of  September,  1789,  he  authorized  you,  by  his  instructions,  dated  the  6th  of  October  following,  in  certain 
cases,  and  in  the  proportions  therein  specifiecf,  to  call  forth  the  militia  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  for  the  protec- 
tion of  die  frontiers  against  the  depredations  of  the  Indians. 

Since  transmitting  you  the  aforesaid  instructions,  he  has  received  several  applications  for  protection,  from  the 
inliabitants  of  the  frontier  counties  of  Virginia,  lying  along  the  south  side  of  the  Ohio.  These  applications  are 
founded  on  the  depredations  of  small  parties  of  Indians  during  tlie  last  year,  who,  it  seems,  have  murdered  many 
of  the  unguarded  inhabitants,  stolen  tneir  horses,  and  burned  their  houses. 

Until  the  last  year,  an  arrangement  of  the  following  nature  existed  at  the  expense  of  Virginia.  The  lieutenants 
of  the  exposed  counties,  under  certain  restrictions,  were  permitted  to  call  forth  a  number  of  active  men  as  patrols 
or  scouts,  as  they  ai-e  generally  termed,  and  parties  of  rangers;  but  tlie  government  of  that  State  thought  proper  to 
discontinue  that  arrangement  on  the  organization  of  the  General  Government,  to  which  the  inhabitants  oi  the  said 
counties  now  apply  for  protection. 

All  applications  of  this  nature  have  been  placed  before  the  Congress  for  their  information,  and  in  order  that  they 
may  adopt  such  measures  as  the  case  may  require.  But  as  the  season  is  fast  approaching  in  which  the  inhabitants 
are  apprehensive  of  a  repetition  of  the  injuries  suffered  the  last  year,  they  seem  to  be  of  an  opinion,  that  their 
situation  requires  some  conditional  security,  previously  to  the  measures  which  may  result  from  the  deliberations  of 

The  President  of  the  United  States  has,  therefore,  so  far  conformed  to  their  apprehensions  on  this  point,  as  to 
refer  the  case  to  you,  or  in  your  absence  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  and  to  give  you  the  authority  herein 

1st.  That  if,  from  good  and  sufficient  information,  it  should  be  your  judgment,  or^  in  your  absence,  the  judgment 
of  the  commanding  officer  aforesaid,  that  anv  of  the  frontier  counties  of  Virginia,  lying  along  the  south  of  the  Ohio, 
are,  under  existing  circumstances,  threatened  immediately  with  incursive  parties  of  Indians,  that  you  or  the  said  com- 
manding ofiBcer,  under  your  hands  and  seals,  empower  the  lieutenants  of  such  exposed  counties  to  call  forth  a 
particular  number  of  scouts,  in  proportion  to  the  danger  of  the  said  counties,  not,  however,  exceeding,  for  one  county, 
the  number  of  eight  men.  The  said  scouts  to  be  continued  in  service  no  longer  than  the  danger  shall  exist,  accord- 
ing to  the  judgment  of  the  county  lieutenants. 

2d.  That,  when  the  said  service  shall  be  performed,  the  following  evidence  thereof  shall  be  required: 

1st.  A  return  of  the  names,  ages,  and  residence,  of  the  said  scouts. 

2d.  An  abstract  of  the  pay  of  the  said  scouts,  specifying  the  exact  days  in  which  they  were  so  employed.  The 
pay  to  be  regulated  by  the  lowest  price  in  the  respective  counties  in  which  the  service  may  be  performed;  and  on 
this  point,  you  and  the  commanding  officer  will  be  particularly  accurate.  I  have  been  informed,  that  5s.  Virginia 
currency  per  day,  has  been  given  to  each  of  the  scouts.  If  this  high  price  has  been  given,  it  must  form  the  excess 
to  be  given  on  the  part  of  the  United  States. 

od.  An  account  of  rations,  each  ration  being  stated  at  not  a  higher  rate  that  6rf.  per  ration. 

4th.  All  these  papers  might  be  signed  and  certified  on  oath  by  the  county  lieutenants,  or  commanding  officer  of 
each  county,  and  transmitted  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  in  order  to  be  delivered  to  the  paymaster  of  his  regiment, 
who  will  have  tlie  accounts  passed,  and  draw  the  money  for  the  same.  The  money  so  drawn,  to  be  paid  by  him  to 
the  county  lieutenants,  who  must  produce  to  him  the  receipts  of  the  individuals  for  whom  the  money  was  so  drawn. 

The  commanding  officer  will  also  issue  a  reasonable  quantity  of  powder  and  ball,  for  the  said  scouts,  to  the  county 

It  is,  however,  to  be  strongly  remarked,  that  all  measures  of  this  nature  are  uncertain,  opposed  to  the  principles 
of  regularity,  anci  to  be  adopted  only  in  cases  of  exigence,  and  to  cease  the  moment  the  said  exigencies  shall  cease. 
That,  therefore,  you,  or  the  commanding  officer  aforesaid,  will  not  confer  the  autliority  herein  contained,  but  in 
cases  of  the  most  conspicuous  necessity;  and  that,  when  such  cases  do  arise,  that  you  or  he  transmit  to  this  office,  a 
particular  detail  of  the  evidences  whereon  you  have  fonned  your  judgment.  H.  K. 

To  the  Lieutenants  of  the  counties  of  Harrison,  Randolph,  Ohio,  Monongalia,  arul  Kenhawa;  and  also  to  the 

Lieutenant  of  Russell  county,  Jlpril  2,9th,  1790. 

.    '  ..  .  ^.  :  War  Office,  ^/jnY  13,  1790.  .. 

Sir:  .  •   .'     '  ••      . 

The  President  of  the  United  States,  on  the  3d  of  last  month,  directed  me  to  authorize  the  Governor  of  the 
Western  territory,  or,  in  his  absence,  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops,  in  certain  cases,  to  empower  the  lieuten- 
ants of  the  counties  lying  along  the  Ohio  to  call  forth,  for  the  protection  of  said  counties,  certain  patrols,  denomi- 
nated scouts,  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States.  Colonel  Duval,  lieutenant  of  Harrison  county,  was  charged  with 
these  orders  to  the  Governor,  or  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  and  from  the  particular  interest  he  took  in  the  affair,  no 
doubt  can  remain,  but  that  he  exerted  himself  to  have  the  said  orders  carried  into  full  effect. 

But,  as  it  is  possible  that  some  delays  may  have  been  occasioned,  by  your  distance  or  other  circumstances,  and  as 
the  President  of  the  United  States  is  exceedingly  desirous  that  the  exposed  counties  may  avail  themselves  of  the 
provision  intended  in  said  orders,  he  has  directed  me  to  write  to  the  lieutenants  of  the  counties  of  Harrison, 
Randolph,  Ohio,  Monongalia,  and  Kenhawa.  in  Virginia,  and  in  case  their  situation  required  the  benefit  of  the 
said  provision,  that  they  should  be  empoweren  for  that  purpose. 

Therefore,  sir,  I  do,  in  the  name  of  the  President  ot  the  United  States,  hereby  authorize  and  empower  you,  if  in 
your  judgment  the  appearances  of  danger  are  such  as  to  require  the  measure,  to  call  forth  the  scouts  herein  men- 
tioned, and  under  the  regulations  described.*  H.  K. 

To  Harry  Jnnes,  Esq.  District  Judge  of  Kentucky. 

War  Office,  .April  13,  1790. 

By  some  recent  information  from  the  Ohio,  it  appears  that  the  Indians  still  continue  their  depredations  on  the 

A  general  arrangement  relative  to  the  frontiers  has  been  contemplated,  but,  not  having  been  finally  concluded 
upon  by  Congress,  and  the  season  of  activity  approaching,  the  President  of  the  United  States  was  induced,  from  the 

*  For  these  regulations,  see  the  preceding  letter  of  the  od  of  March,  to  Gov.  St.  Clair,  or  General  Harmar. 
14  • 

JQ2  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  ■  [1790. 

particular  situation  of  the  counties  lying  along  the  Ohio,  to  direct,  on  the  3d  of  last  March,  that  the  Governor  of  the 
Western  territory,  or.  in  his  absence.  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  should  be  invested  with  a  conditional  authority,  of 

These  orders  were  transmitted  by  Colonel  Duval,  lieutenant  of  Harrison  county,  who  would  undoubtedly,  as  he 
was  much  interested  in  the  business,  convey,  expeditiously  the  same  to  the  commanding  officer. 

But  as  it  is  possible,  notwithstanding,  that  some  delays  may  have  taken  place,  and  as  the  President  ot  the  United 
States  is  exceedingly  desirous  that  the  inhabitants  ot  the  frontier  counties  should  experience  the  benefits  ot  the 
provision  contained  in  the  said  orders  to  the  commanding  officer,  he  has  directed  me  to  make  this  communication  to 
vou-  and  he  has  further  directed  me  to  empower  you,  that,  in  case  any  of  the  counties  of  Kentucky  should  not  have 
already  availed  themselves  of  said  provision,  and  should,  in  your  judgment,  stand  in  need  thereof,  that  you  should, 
under  your  hand  and  seal,  authorize  the  lieutenants  of  such  counties  to  call  forth  the  scouts,  precisely  as  to  the 
numbers  and  under  the  regulations  directed  in  the  instructions  to  tlie  Governor  of  the  Western  territory,  or,  in  his 
absence,  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops.  u    r.  i      i  t»      i      t^  '         i  ^i      n      i     i 

The  information  of  the  wages  paid  for  the  scouts,  was  given  by  Colonel  Duval,  it  exceeds  greatly  all  calcula- 
tions of  pay  to  be  given  persons  tor  performing  military  service,  and,  were  it  carried  to  a  considerable  extent,  no 
government  on  earth  could  support  it.  .-     j.      x-i  c    i.u  ^  i        xu    r.     -j     x 

But  as  this  measure  is  regarded  merely  as  a  temporary  expedient  until  further  measures  are  taken,  the  President 
of  the  United  States  consents  to  the  usual  sums  being  given,  which  hitherto  have  been  given  by  Virginia  for  the  same 
services-  at  the  same  time,  he  reposes  entire  confidence  in  your  character,  that  you  will  (if  arrangements  should  not 
have  been  made  by  the  commanding  officer)  guard  in  this  respect  the  interests  of  the  United  States. 

It  is  the  opinion  of  some  gentlemen,  well  acquainted  with  Kentucky,  that  four  scouts,  or  men,  to  each  county, 
would  be  satisfactory.  If  this  should  also  be  your  judgment,  you  will  limit  the  arrangement  to  that  number,  or  at 
least  to  the  usual  number  heretofore  employed.  But  as  the  information  was  different  from  that  whereon  the  instruc- 
tions to  the  Governor  and  commanding  officer  of  the  3d  of  March  were  founded,  it  has  been  concluded  best  to  make 
no  alteration  in  that  discretionary  arrangement.  H.  K. 

Copy  of  a  letter  written  by  tlie  Secretary  of  War  to  the  Lieutenants  of  the  counties  of  Washington,  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, Harrison,  Randolph,  Ohio,  Monongalia,  and  Kenhawa,  in  Virginia,  Mason,  Bourbon,  Woodford, 
Madison,  Lincoln,  Mercer,  Nelson,  and  Jefferson,  in  Kentucky. 

War  Office,  Jidy  17,  1790. 

I  had  the  honor,  on  the  13th  day  of  April  last,  to  address  you  on  the  subject  of  the  incursions  of  small  parties 
of  Indians  on  the  western  frontiers.  In  that  letter  I  authorized  you,  in  the  name  of  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  in  certain  cases  of  imminent  danger,  to  call  out,  for  the  protection  of  the  county,  certain  species  of  patrols, 
denom'inated  scouts,  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States.    ^     ^'.     .,'.-,  „^  ^       ^    .-  .u  wi,       <.v,    -.„ 

I  have  now  the  honor,  by  the  direction  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  to  mforni  you,  that  the  authority 
contained  in  said  letter  relative  to  said  scouts,  is  to  be  considered  as  having  ceased  and  terminated  upon  your  receiv- 
ing this  letter,  duplicates  of  which  I  have  written  and  transmitted  to  you.  ,   ,     ,.,       ,-       -        , 

The  representations  of  the  then  deplorable  situation  of  the  frontier  counties,  and  the  high  estimation  the  said 
scouts  were  held  in  by  the  inhabitants,  were  the  inducements  of  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  consent  to 
calling  forth  that  expensive  species  of  militia  as  a  temporary  measure  for  the  protection  of  the  exposed  counties. 

But,  as  experience  has  demonstrated  the  inefficiency  of  defensive  measures  for  an  extensive  frontier,  against 
straggling  parties  of  Indians,  and  as  conditional  orders  have  been  transmitted  to  the  Governor  of  the  Western  tern- 
tory  and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops  of  the  United  States,  to  act  offensively  against  the  Shawanese  and  out- 
cast CheroT^ees  joined  with  them,  inhabiting  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  who  are  probably  the  banditti  which  has  for 
some  time  past  committed  depredations  on  the  counties  lying  along  the  Ohio;  and  as  the  militia  or  rangers  hereafter 
described  will,  in  cases  of  necessity,  be  permitted,  at  the  expense  of  the  Union,  in  lieu  of  the  scouts,  it  is  presumed 
that  no  injury  will  be  sustained  by  revoking  the  authority  for  calling  into  service  so  expensive  a  species  ot  troops  as 

the  said  scouts.  ^    „.         ,.  •       i     i-      z-  j  i        -n  x  i 

The  President  of  the  United  States  is  anxiously  desirous  of  effectually  protecting  the  frontiers,  and  he  will  take 
all  sucli  reasonable  measures  as,  in  his  judgment,  the  case  may  require,  and  for  which  be  shall  be,  by  the  constitution 
or  by  the  laws,  authorized.  ....  ,  i-         ■  i      •  •  i  i        i 

He  has,  therefore,  directed  me  to  inform  you,  that,  in  addition  to  the  general  measures  aforesaid,  which  have  been 
ordered,  he  has  empowered  the  Governor  of  the  Western  territory  and  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  or  either  ot 
them,  to  make  the  arrangement  hereafter  described  for  the  internal  security  of  the  exposed  counties. 

The  said  Governor  and  commanding  officer,  or  either  of  them,  wdl.  under  their  hands  and  seals,  empower  the 
lieutenants  of  such  counties  lying  along  the  Ohio,  as  they  shall  judge  necessary,  to  call  forth  the  number  of  nulitia  or 
rangershereafter  mentioned,  and  under  the  regidations  prescribed.  ,    .^    ' 

1st.  The  said  militia,  or  rangers,  shall  not  exceed,  for  the  internal  defence  of  any  county,  one  subaltern,  one  ser- 
geant, one  corporal,  and  twelve  privates,  but  such  less  number  may  be  ordered  as  the  said  Governor  and  commanding 
officer,  or  county  lieutenant,  may  judge  requisite.  ..  •      ^i     r  n      •  ^       r 

2d.  The  said  militia,  or  rangers,  shall,  during  the  time  of  their  actual  service,  receive  the  following  rates  of  pay, 
which  are  the  same  as  is  by  law  established  for  the  regular  troops  of  the  United  States  and  the  militia,  viz: 
Lieutenant,  twenty -two  dollars  1 
Ensign,  eighteen  dollars  | 

Sergeant,  five  dollars  V  per  month. 

Corporal,  four  dollars  | 

Privates,  three  dollars  J 

3d.  The  said  rangers  shall  be  furnished  with  rations,  in  such  manner  as  the  lieutenants  of  the  county  shall  think 
proper.  The  United"  States  will  allow  for  each  ration  sixpence,  Virginia  currency,  or  eight  and  one-thii'd  hundredth 
parts  of  a  dollar;  the  subaltern  to  have  two,  and  the  non-commissioned  and  privates  one  ration  each. 

4th.  The  lieutenant  of  eacli  county  will  be  responsible,  on  oath,  that  the  said  rangers  shall  be  called  into  service 
only  in  cases  of  imminent  danger,  and  that  they  be  discharged  as  soon  as  the  danger  shall  cease. 

That,  when  any  service  shall  have  been  performed  by  said  rangers,  the  following  evidence  thereof  will  be  required: 
1st.  A  return  of  the  names,  rank,  ages,  residence,  and  times  of  sei-vice,  of  each  of  the  said  rangers. 
2d.  A  pay  abstract,  or  account  of  the  number  of  said  rangers,  agreeably  to  the  aforesaid  returns. 
3d.  An  abstract  of  the  rations,  agreeably  to  the  aforesaid  return.  .•        m         r 

4th.  These  papers  to  be  signed  and  verified,  upon  oath,  by  the  lieutenant  of  the  county,  or  commanding  officer  of 
the  militia,  who  will  transmit  the  same  to  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  or  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops  of  the 
United  States  on  the  Ohio.  ,        •.     ^         .i    x  xi 

5tli.  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  or  the  commanding  officer  of  the  troops,  will  certify  on  the  said  return,  tiiat  the 
said  rangers  were  ordered  into  service  in  pursuance  of  his  authority^  or  the  authority  of  the  Governor  of  the  Western 

6th.  The  paymaster  of  the  regiment  of  regular  troops  will  receive  the  amount  of  the  said  abstracts  from  the  trea- 
sury or  pay  office  of  the  United  States,  and  pay  the  same  to  the  county  lieutenants,  and  the  said  county  lieutenants 
will  pay  each  of  the  rangers,  respectively,  taking  ti-iplicate  receipts  for  the  payments,  two  of  which  he  must  transmit 
to  the  paymaster  aforesaid,  within  two  months  from  the  time  he  shall  have  received  the  money  from  the  said  pay- 
master; and,  until  these  said  receipts  shall  be  transmitted  to  the  said  paymaster,  the  lieutenants  of  the  counties  will 



be  held  responsible  for  the  sums  they  may  have  received,  or  such  proportions  tliereof  for  whicli  tliey  shall  not  have 
produced  receipts  from  the  individual  rangers  (or  their  attorneys)  who  performed  the  service. 

And  whereas  some  of  the  counties  may  be  involved  in  such  immediate  danger  as  not  to  permit  the  county  lieu 
tenants  sufficient  time  to  obtain  the  authority  herein  mentioned  from  the  said  Governor  or  commandin°^  officer    in 
such  case  the  county  lieutenants  may  order  out  the  rangers  herein  mentioned,  under  the  regulations  prescribed'  on 
condition  tliat,  as  soon  as  may  be,  the  said  lieutenants  ot  the  county  and  two  magistrates  make  a  statement  to'the 
said  Governor  and  commanding  officer  of  the  reasons  which  induced  them  to  order  out  the  said  rangers 

This  statement  ^v^ll  be  considered  as  essential,  in  order  that  General  Harmar.  or  the  commancfin<' "officer  may 
ground  thereon  his  certificate  on  the  pay  abstracts,  without  which,  payments  will  not  be  made.  °  ' 

It  may  perhaps  be  considered  as  unnecessary,  after  stating  the  vouchers  before  mentioned,  to  add  any  further 
precautions  against  unnecessanly  calling  out  the  rangers  before  described,  but,  as  the  said  service  is  at  best  only  to 
be  viewed  as  an  expedient,  rather  temporary  and  desultorj-.  than  permanent  and  regular,  it  is  the  earnest  desire  of  the 
President  ot  the  L  nited  States  that  it  should  be  conducted  with  tlie  highest  economy.  He  therefore  has  desired  that 
the  county  lieutenants  may  be  strongly  impressed  ^\ith  this  idea,  as  well  from  a  personal  regaid  to  tliemselves  as  to 
the  common  welfare  ot  the  \\  estern  country  and  the  United  States. 

If  the  permission  now  given  be  used  witii  great  discretion,  and  only  in  cases  of  real  necessity,  every  consideration 
will,  in  future,  justily  a  more  extensive  and  perfect  protection,  should  tlie  situation  of  the  frontier  require  tiie  same 
,  I  shall  beg,  that,  immediately  upon  your  receiving  this  letter,  you  will  inform  me  thereof. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir.  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

.  •  H.  KNOX, 

.■'•••■.  .  !  '  Secretui-y  for  the  Department  of  TVar. 

An  estimate  of  the  expenses  of  scouts  and  rangers,  for  the  protection  of  the  frontiers  lying  along  the  Ohio,  the 
Cumberland  settlements,  and  the  settlements  upon  and  between  the  forks  of  Holston  and  French  Broad  rivers, 
for  the  year  1791. 

Five  men  Or  scouts  to  be  averaged  for  each  county,  and  the  number  of  counties  or  divisions  being  esthnated  at  22. 

110  men,  to  be  employed  as  scouts  from  the  1st  of  March  to  tlie  30th  of  November,  being  9  months, 

at  the  rate  of  1 2  dollars  per  month,     -  --  -  -  --  .  -Sll  ,880  00" 

One  ration  per  day  is,  for  the  above  period^  for  110  men,  29,700  rations,  at  85  cents  per  ration,         -         2,'524  50 

814,404  50 

RANGERS.      •'  •  \, 

One  lieutenant,  one  sergeant,  one  corporal,  and  twelve  men,  to  act  as  rangers  for  each  of  twenty-one 
of  the  above  counties,  at  the  same  rate  of  pay  as  the  regular  troops. 

21  Lieutenants,  at  22  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  months,  -           -           -  $4,158  00 

21  Sergeants,           5        do           do           do           do  ...  945  go 

21  Corporals,          4        do           do           do           do  ...  755  qo 

252  Privates,             3        do           do           do           do  ...  6,804  00 

Three  lieutenants,  six  sergeants,  six  corporals,  and  forty-eiglit  privates,  for  the  same . 
period,  for  Russell  county —  ,  .  ;  <, 

3  Lieutenants,  at  22  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  months.          -           -           -  '      594  00 

6  Sergeants,            5        do           do           do           do               ...  079  oo 

6  Corporals,            4        do           do           do           do               -           -           -  216  00 

48  Privates,          .    3        do           do           do           do               ...  1,296  00 

24  Lieutenants,  at  2  rations  per  day,  is,  for  9  months,  12,960  rations.                         '  .  -> 

354  Non-commissioned  and  privates,  at  1  ration,     -     95,580      do 

108.540      do    at  85  cts.  per  ration,  9.225  90 

24,264  90 
838,669  40 

H.  KNOX,  Secreta)-y  of  ff'ar. 

A  general  estimate  of  the  expenses  which  vould  be  incurred  by  an  expedition  aginst  the  Wabash  Indians,  calculated 
.  vpmi  a  scale  of  twelve  hundred  regidars  and  twelve  hundred  levies.     The  period  of  the  expedition  four  months. 
And  also  the  amount  of  the  expenses,  for  one  year,  of  the  proposed  augmentation  of  the  regular  troops. 

The  expense  of  2,000  levies,  as  per  estimate  B,  No.  2,         '       -/        -  -  '.^ .        _  _  $74,770  00 

Bounties  for  2.000  levies,  at  5  dollars  per  man,  .......      lO.OOO  00 

Tlie  ditference  between  3,200  rations  per  day.  on  tlie  Ohio,  and  the  proposed  places  of  operation,  the 

one  being  stated  in  the  contract  at  6j  cents,  and  the  other  at  15j  cents,  calculated  at  120  days; 

384,000  rations,  at  8A  cents,  difterence,  •  -  -  -  -  -  •  -     32,640  00 

Camp  equipage  of  all  sorts;  boats,  horses,  tents.  Sac,  and  the  transportation  of  the  hospital  stores, 

baggage  for  the  army;  the  cannon  and  stores  of  all  sorts,  to  establisli  a  post  at  the  Miami,  estimated 

in  gross,  -...-.-.....     50,000  00 

Medicines  and  hospital  stores,        -,.-•-  -  -  -  -  -..         -  -       4,000  00 

Contingencies,         -       '-.'-.•'■'■'-'.■•  t        '  .-  -  -     '   ,  -  r  ,         -  -      25,00000 

The  amount  of  the  annual  expenses  for  the  additional  regiment  of  regulars,  as  per  parti- 
cular estimate  .\.  amount  to        -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  $101,446  40 

-\nd,  if  the  bounty  of  8  dollars  for  2,128  non-commissioned  and  privates  should  be  added 
for  the  whole  regular  establishment,  augmentation  included,  the  following  extraordi- 
nary expenses  would  be  incurred,  -  -      .      -  -  -  -  -       17,024  00 

The  establishment  of  a  major  general  for  one  year,  as  per  estimate  B  2,  amounts  to        -         2,937  00 

One  aid-de-camp,  with  the  rank  of  a  captain,  and  pay  and  emoluments  of  a  major,  as 
during  the  late  \\ar — 

Pay,  40  dollars  per  month,     -  -  .  .  $480  00 


8196,410  00 

Subsistence.  4  rations  per  day,  at  12  cents,   -  -  -  175  20 

Forage.  10  dollars  per  month,     -  -  -  -  120  00 

•5  20 

104  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  itm. 

Two  inspectors,  omitted  in  the  general  estimate  of  the  War  Department,  for  the  year 

1791 ,  formed  the  7th  December  1790,  one  of  whom  to  act  as  brigade-major— 
Two  inspectors — 

Pay,  30  dollars  per  month,     -  -  -  -  $720  00 

Subsistence,  3  rations  per  day,  at  12  cents,  -  -  262  80 

Forage,  10  dollars  per  month,     -  -  -  -  240  00 

1,222  80 

The  establishment  of  a  quartennaster,  as  per  estimate  B,  ....         1,12680 

124,532  20 

Total,  to  be  provided  for,  -        .  -  -  -  -  -  $320,942  20 

H.  KNOX, 

-  '  ■  Secretary  of  War. 

1st  Congress.]  '  No.  15.  .  [3d  Sessiox. 


COMMUNICATED   TO    CONGRESS,  DECEMBER  14,   1790.  V".  .- 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate  •      .    ;        -  .'  , 

and  of  the  House  of  Representatives:  •  ■...■.-. 

Having  informed  Congress  of  the  expedition  which  had  been  directed  against  certain  Indians,  northwest  of 
the  Ohio,^  I  embrace  the  earliest  opportunity  of  laying  before  you  the  official  communications  wliich  have  been 
received  upon  that  subject 

United  States,  December  14th,  1790.  '     '.    . 

War  Department,  December  14th,  1790. 

Sir:  ,. 

Lieutenant  Denny  arrived  last  evening  from  fort  Washmgton,  on  the  Ohio,  charged  with  letters  from 
Governor  St.  Clair  and  Brigadier  General  Harmar,  copies  of  which  1  have  the  honor  herewith  to  submit,  and  also 
extracts  from  the  orders  issued  during  the  late  expedition:  also  a  return  of  the  killed  and  wounded. 

Lieutenant  Denny  reports  verbally,  that^  after  he  left  fort  Washington,  lie  saw,  in  Kentucky,  several  men  of  the 
militia  of  that  district,  wno  had  been  out  with  Major  Whitly,  under  Major  Hamtramck,  of  the  federal  troops,  who 
commanded  a  separate  expedition. 

The  said  militiamen  informed  Lieutenant  Denny,  that  Major  Hamtramck  had  destroyed  several  of  the  hostile 
Indian  towns,  on  the  Wabash,  and  had  returned  to  his  garrison,  at  Post  Vincennes,  without  having  met  any  oppo- 
sition. ~      . 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  witli  the  liighest  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

K.  KiaOX,  Secretary  of  JVar. 
The  President  of  the  United  States. 

Governor  St.  Clair  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Fort  Wasiiington,  November  6th,  1790.    • 

On  the  29th  of  last  month,  I  had  the  honor  to  inlbnn  you  generally  of  the  success  that  attended  General 
Harmar.  I  could  not  then  give  you  the  particulars,  as  the  General's  letters  had  not  reached  me;  (the  officer  how- 
ever who  had  them  in  charge  got  in  a  few  davs  afterwards)  it  is  not  now  necessary,  because  he  writes  himself.  One 
thing,  howeverj  is  certain,  that  the  savages  have  got  a  most  terrible  stroke,  of  which  nothing  can  be  a  greater  proof 
than  that  they  nave  not  attempted  to  liarass  the  army  on  its  return.  They  arrived  at  this  place  on  the  3d  instant, 
in  good  health  and  spirits.  Tliere  is  not  yet  any  account  from  Major  Hamtramck;  I  trust  he  also  has  been  suc- 
cessful; but  this  I  think  is  certain,  that  no  great  misfortune  can  have  happened  to  him:  for  in  that  case  we  should 
certainly  have  heard  of  it. 

Mr.  Denny,  the  gentleman  who  takes  General  Harmar's  despatches,  I  beg  leave  to  mention  to  you  in  a  parti- 
cular manner;  and  if  you  will  be  pleased  to  do  so  to  the  President  in  liis  favor,  you  may  be  assured  he  will  not  dis- 
appoint any  expectations  that  may  be  formed.  He  has  every  quality  that  I  could  wish  a  young  man  to  possess,  that 
meant  to  make  the  army  hife  profession.  There  are,  however,  some  traits  in  his  character  as  a  man,  that  are  not 
generally  known,  that  would  endear  him.  Out  of  tlie  little  pittance  lie  receives,  he  has  maintained  two  aged  parents 
for  a  long  time.  . 

Brigadier  General  Harmar  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Head  Quarters,  Fort  Washington,  November  4th,  1790. 
Sir:  . 

I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you,  that,  on  the  30th  September,  I  marched  with  320  federal  troops,  and  1,133 
militia,  total  1,453.  After  encountering  a  few  difficulties,  we  gained  the  Miami  village.  It  was  abandoned  before 
we  entered  it,  which  I  was  very  sorry  for.  The  villanous  traders  would  have  been  a  principal  object  of  attention. 
I  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  my  orders,  which  are  enclosed.  The  substance  of  the  work  is  tins,  our  loss  was  heavy, 
but  the  head  quarters  of  iniquity  were  broken  up.  At  a  moderate  computation,  not  less  than  100  or  120  warriors 
were  slain,  and  300  log-houses  and  wigwams  burned.  Our  loss  about  180.  The  remainder  of  the  Indians  will  be 
ill  off  for  sustenance;  20,000  bushels  of  corn,  in  the  ears,  were  consumed,  burned,  and  destroyed,  by  the  army,  with 
vegetables  in  abundance.  The  loss  ot  Major  Wyllys  and  Lieutenant  Frothingham,  of  the  Federal  troops,  and  a 
number  of  valuable  militia  officers,  I  sincerely  lament. 

The  bearer,  Lieut  Denny,  is  my  adjutant.  It  will  afford  me  great  satisfaction  to  know  that  some  mark  of  honor 
will  be  shown  to  him.  His  long  and  faithful  services  merit  it  There  is  a  vast  deal  of  business  in  this  Western 
world.    If  there  is  no  impropriety  in  giving  me  an  aid-de-camp,  I  wish  him  to  be  the  person. 

In  my  next  despatches  I  shall  enter  into  the  minutiae  of  business,  and  give  you  a  particular  description  of  each 
day's  march,  with  all  the  occurrences  and  observations. 

N.  B.  My  adjutant  is  really  and  truly  an  officer. 




Note.    The  orders  issued  previously  to  the  march  of  the  troops  and  militia  from  fort  Washington  and  until  thev 
.arrived  at  the  Miami  village,  relate  to  the  arrangement  of  the  troops,  the  order  of  march,  of  encampment    and  of 
battle,  and  the  discipline  necessary  to  be  observed,  all  of  which  are  particularly  detailed.  ' 

GENERAL   ORDERS.  '      ' 

• ,    ;  Camp  at  the  Miami  Village,  about  170  miles  from  Fort  Washington,  October  17th,  1790. 

The  General  is  highly  pleased  with  the  zeal  and  alacrity  shown  by  the  army,  (particularly  the  corps  which 
was  detached  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Hardin)  to  come  up  with  the  savages,  although  it  was  impracticable 
as  they  had  evacuated  their  favorite  towns  before  the  light  corps  could  possibly  reach  them.  ' 

Leaving  behind  them  such  a  vast  quantity  of  corn  and  vegetables,  is  a  certain  sign  that  they  decamped  in  the  ut- 
most consternation,  and  dare  not  face  the  enemy. 

The  army  is  to  remain  in  its  present  position  until  further  orders;  in  the  mean  time.  Quartermaster  Pratt  is  to 
have  the  corn  brought  m  and  deposited  m  one  place,  or  in  as  many  houses  as  he  can  find,  and  a  guard  is  to  be 
placed  over  it  for  its  secunty.    He  will  receive  directions  how  it  is  to  be  distributed. 

The  superintendent  of  the  horse  department  (Mr.  Caldwell)  is  to  be  responsible  that  his  pack  saddles  are  repair- 
ed and  put  in  as  good  order  as  possible,  ready  tor  the  next  movement  of  the  army. 

The  General  calls  upon  the  commanding  officers  of  battalions  not  to  suffer  their  men  to  straggle  from  the  en- 
campment, otherwise  they  will  certainly  stand  in  danger  of  being  scalped.  '  , 

The  guards  are  to  be  extremely  vigilant:  to  which  the  field  officer  of  the  day  is  to  pay  the  most  pointed  attention 

A  deUchment,  under  the  command  oi  Lieut.  Col.  Com.  Trotter,  consisting  of 

Federal  troops,        '-------30 

Major  Fontaine's  light  horse,  -  -  ......        4q 

_  '  -•-, ,    '  Active  riflemen,      -    _       -  -  -  .'     :  '  .       •     .   •        .      230 

''         ,  *  ■  ''  Total,  -  -      300,  are  to  march  to- 

morrow early. 

Lieut.  Col.  Com.  Trotter  will  receive  his  orders  from  the  General. 

JOS.  HARMAR,  Brig.  Gmeral. 


••'   •  "         •    '"     ■   •'.-'    Camp  at  the  Miami  Village,  October  18th,  1790. 

The  General  is  much  mortified  at  the  unsoldier-like  behavior  of  many  of  the  men  in  the  army,  who  make  it  a 
practice  to  straggle  from  the  camp  in  search  of  plunder.  He,  in  the  most  positive  terms,  forbicls  this  practice  in 
future,  and  the  guards  will  be  answerable  to  prevent  it.  No  party  is  to  go  beyond  the  line  of  sentinels  without  a 
commissioned  officer,  who,  if  of  the  militia,  will  apply  to  Colonel  Hardin  for  his  orders.  The  regular  troops  will 
apply  to  the  General.  All  the  plunder  that  may  be  hereafter  collected,  will  be  equally  distributed  amongst  the 
army.  The  kettles,  and  every  odier  aiticle  already  taken,  are  to  be  collected  by  the  commanding  officers  ot  batta- 
lions, and  to  be  delivered  to-morrow  morning  to  Mr.  Belli,  the  quartermaster,  that  a  fair  distribution  may  take 
place.  I 

The  rolls  are  to  be  called  at  troop  and  retreat  beating,  and  every  man  absent  is  to  be  reported.  The  General 
expects  that  these  orders  will  be  pointedlj^  attended  to — they  are  to  be  read  to  the  troops  this  evening. 

The  army  is  to  march  to-monow  morning  early  for  their  new  e.icampment  at  Chilhcothe,  about  fwo  miles  from 

JOS.  HARMAR,  Brig.  General. 

•     '        ■      ^    ••  • 

-.11.  .  I    • 

•    .^        ;  GENERAL   ORDERS. 

Camp  at  Chillicothe,  one  of  the  Shawanese  towns,  on  the  Omee  river,  October  20ih,  1790. 

The  party  under  C9iiimand  of  Captain  Strong  is  ordered  to  burn  and  destroy  every  house  and  ^vigwam  in 
this  \illage,  together  with  all  the  com,  &c.  which  lie  can  collect. 

A  party  of  100  men  (militia)  properly  officered,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Hardin,  is  to  bum  and  destroy 
effectually,  this  afternoon,  the  Pickaway  town,  with  all  the  corn,  &c.  wliich  he  can  find  in  it  and  its  vicinity. 

The  cause  of  the  detachment  being  worsted  yesterday,  was  entirely  owing  to  the  shameful  cowardly  conduct  of 
tlie  militia,  who  ran  away,  and  threw  down  their  arms,  without  firing  scarcely  a  single  gun.  In  returnin<'  to  fort 
Washington,  if  any  officer  or  men  shall  presume  to  quit  their  ranks,  or  not  to  march  in  the  form  that  they  are  or- 
dered, the  General  will,  most  assuredly,  order  the  artillery  to  fire  on  them.  He  hopes  the  check  they  received  yes- 
terday will  make  them  in  future  obedient  to  orders. 

,        ..  .;  ...  ,  JOS.  HARMAR,  ^n^.  Genera/. 

•  .       GENERAL    ORDERS.        .  'j  ■     .     . 

''•••••'•■       '   •  Camp  at  Chillicothe,  October  2lst,  1790. 

The  amiy  having  completely  effected  the  object  for  which  they  were  ordered,  viz.  a  total  destruction  of  the 
Maumee  towns,  as  they  are  generally  called,  with  the  vast  abundance  of  corn  and  vegetables.  &c.  in  tliem,  and  their 
vicinity,  are  now  to  commence  their  march,  and  to  return  to  fort  Washington. 

The  General  was  in  fond  hopes  that  he  should  be  able  to  break  up  the  Wea  towns  on  his  return,  but  the  weak 
state  of  the  pack  horses,  and  several  other  circumstances,  conspire  to  render  it  impracticable  at  present. 

The  generate  is  to  beat  at  nine,  the  assembly  at  half  past  nine,  and  the  whole  army  to  take  up  the  line  of  march 
precisely  at  ten  this  morning. 

It  is  not  improbable  but  the  savages  will  attempt  to  harass  the  army,  on  its  return,  particularly  the  rear  and 
flanks;  it  is  therefore  incumbent  upon  every  officer  to  attend  to  the  duties  of  his  station,  and,  by  no  means,  to  quit 
their  ranks,  or  create  the  least  contusion;  but,  on  the  contrary,  to  keep  silence  and  good  order,  otherwise  the  artil- 
lery (agreeably  to  the  orders  of  yesterday)  shall  certainly  be  ordered  to  fire  upon  such  men  as  are  so  lost  to  every 
principle  of  honor,  as  to  run  away  in  the  time  of  danger. 

The  cattle  and  pack  horses  are  to  be  kept  up  in  the  most  compact  order,  and  the  officer,  commanding  the  rear 
battalion,  is  to  be  responsible  with  the  field  officer  of  the  day,  that  these  orders  are  strictly  carried  into  execution. 
Such  horses  as  Mr.  Caldwell  may  absolutely  stand  in  need  of,  are  to  be  taken  from  the  mounted  militia,  not 
attached  to  Major  Fontaine's  corps,  for  public  service;  if  these  should  be  found  insufficient,  the  remainder  must 
come  from  Major  Fontaine's  corps. , 


Brigh-  General. 





•  Camp,  eight  miles  from  the  ruins  of  the  Maumee  Tovms,  >     • 

on  the  return  to  Fort  Washington,  October  22,  1790.  S       ' 

The  army  is  to  remain  at  the  present  encampment  until  further  orders. 



Tlie  General  is  exceedingly  pleased  with  the  behavior  of  the  militia  in  the  action  of  this  morning.  They  have 
laid  very  many  of  the  enemy  dead  upon  the  spot.  Although  our  loss  is  great,  still  it  is  inconsiderable  in  comparison 
of  the  slaughter  made  amongst  the  savages.  Every  account  agrees  that  upwards  ot  one  hundred  warriors  fell  in  the 
battle;  it  is  not  more  than  man  for  man,  and  we  can  afford  them  two  tor  one.  The  resolution,  and  firm  deter- 
mined conduct  of  the  militia  this  morning,  has  effectually  retrieved  their  character,  in  the  opinion  of  the  General. 
He  now  knows  that  they  can  and  will  tight. 

The  loss  of  Major  Wyllis  (with  so  many  of  the  federal  ti-oops)  and  Major  Fontaine,  two  gallant  officers,  he  sin- 
cerely and  deeply  laments;  but  it  is  the  fortune  of  war.  ,  '    _ 

The  General  begs  Col.  Hardin,  and  Major  McMillan,  and  Major  Hall,  of  Lieutenant  Colonel-commandaiit 
Trotter's  regiment,  together  with  the  officers  and  privates  of  the  militia,  under  their  command,  to  accept  his  thanks 
for  the  bravery  displayed  by  them  upon  this  occasion. 

The  anny  is  to  march  to-morrow  morning  at  eight  o'clock,  precisely.  JOS.  HARMAR, 

,  Brigadier  General. 


'  Camp,  about  24  7niles  fro7n  the  ruins  of  the  Maumee  Towns,        7     ', 

on  the  return  to  Fort  If  asiiington,  October  23,  1790.  y 

The  General  did  not  know,  in  time  last  evening,  of  the  good  conduct  "of  Brigade  Major  Ormsby,  in  rallying  a 
party  of  the  militia  and  firing  upon  the  savages,  wliereby  he  destroyed  several  of  them,  otherwise  he  should  then 
have  returned  him  liis  thanks.     He  now  begs  him  to  accept  them  for  his  cool  and  gallant  behavior  at  that  time. 

Although  the  enemy  were  so  sorely  galled,  in  the.action  of  yesterday,'they  may  still  take  it  into  their  heads  to 
hover  about  our  encampment.  The  General,  therefore,  orders  that  the  same  vigilance  and  caution,  which  has 
hitherto  taken  place  with  the  guards,  muSt  constantly  be  observed,  to  which  the  field  officer  of  the  day  is  to  pay 
the  strictest  attention. 

The  wounded  militia  are  all  to  be  collected  into  one  place.  Dr.  Allison  and  Dr.  Carmichael  are  to  attend  them, 
dress  them,  and  give  every  necessary  direction  concermng  them. 

The  army  is  to  march  to-morrow  morning,  at  eight  o'clock,  precisely. 

iOS.  HARMAR,  Brigadier  General.*^ 


Head  Quarters,  Fort  Washington,  4th  November,  1790.  ./, 

The  Kentucky  and  Pennsylvania  militia  are  to  be  mustered  this  afternoon,  at  2  o'clock,  by  Captain  Zeigler; 
The  order  and  regularity  which  the  militia  observed  on  their  return  to  tlie  Ohio  river,  was  highly  commendable. 
Upon  the  whole,  the  General  is  exceedingly  pleased  with  their  conduct  during  the  expedition.  Notwithstanding  our 
loss  was  great,  yet,  when  they  reflect  that  the  army,  in  five  weeks,  not  only  effected  the  capital  object  of  destroying 
the  Miami  village,  and  the  Maumee  towns,  as  they  are  generally  called,  with  the  vast  quantity  of  corn  and  vegetables 
therein,  but,  also,  killed  upwards  of  one  hundred  of  their  warriors,  it  must  afford  every  man  the  greatest  satisfaction. 
The  militia  from  Kentucky  are  to  receive  pay  until  the  10th  instant;  provisions  are  to  be  drawn  for  them  until  that 
time,  and  to-morrow  morning  they  are  to  maicli  to  their  respective  homes. 

The  General  returns  his  tlianks  to  every  officer  and  private  for  their  good  conduct,  and  hereby  discliarges  tiiem 
with  honor  and  reputation.  The  wounded  men  are  to  be  left  under  the  care  of  Doctor  Allison  and  his  mates,  who 
will  take  all  possible  care  of  them. 

JOS.  HARMAR,  ^n'^at/ier  Genera/,    .. 

Return  of  the  killed  and  tiiounded  upon  the  expedition  against  the  Miami  towns,  uyider  the  command  of  Brigadier 

General  Harmar.  •    ^.v-- .'   ^ 

Head  Quarters,  Fort  "Washington,  November  4th,  1T^.' 

— , , : ! . . T ' 



.'..  f, 

'  ' 



































Federal  Troops,          -        -        -        -        - 
























Total,          -        -        -        -        -    ■    -        -        -        - 












Killed.— Major  Wyllys,  Lieutenant  Frothingham,  Federal  Troops;  Major  Fontaine,  Captains  Thorp,  Scott; 
McMurtrey;  Lieutenants  Clark  and  Rogers;  Ensigns  Sweet,  Bridges,^  Higgens,  Thielkeld,  Militia. 

Wounded, — Lieutenants  Sanders  and  Worley;  Ensign  Arnold,  Militia.  ^ 

E.  DENNY,  Lieut,  and  Mjt.  1st  U.  S.  R. 

JOS,  HARMAR,  Brigadier  General. 

*  From  the  date  of  the  last  order  of  tlie  23d  October,  until  the  return  of  the  troops  to  fort  Washington,  the  orders  eihibit 
only  the  common  details  and  business  of  troops;  no  enemy  having  been  seen,  after  the  action  of  the  22d  of  October. 

1791.]  INDIAN   DEPREDATIONS.  107 

1st  Congress.]  ■  No.  16.  .-   •  <.  [3d  Session. 


.  -.,     ■  •     '■• 

■■•■■     X,    .1  .      .     \       .  '         ,     COMMUNICATED  TO  CONGRESS,  JANUARY  24,  1791. 

Gentlemen  of  the  Senate 

and  of  the  House  of  Representatives: 

I  lay  before  you  a  statement  relative  to  the  frontiers  of  tlie  United  States,  which  has  been  submitted  to  me  by 
the  Secretary  for  the  Department  of  War. 

I  rely  upon  your  wisdom  to  make  such  arrangements  as  may  be  essential  for  the  preserration  of  good  order,  and 
the  effectual  protection  of  the  frontiers. 

United  States,  January  24,  1791.        -,       -' 

The  Secretary  of  War,  to  whom  tlie  President  of  the  United  States  was  pleased  to  refer  a  letter  of  his  Excellency 
the  Governor  of  Virginia,  dated  the  10th  of  December  last,  enclosing  the  joint  memorial  addressed  to  him,  of  the 
delegates  of  Ohio,  Monongalia,  Harrison,  Randolph,  Kenhawa,  Greenbriar,  Montgomery,  and  Russell  counties, 
on  the  Ohio,  reports : 

That  the  said  memorial  states,  that  the  said  counties  form  a  line  of  nearly  four  hundred  miles  along  the  Ohio; 
exposed  to  the  hostile  invasions  of  their  Indian  enemies,  and  destitute  of  every  kind  of  support. 

That,  notwithstanding  all  the  regulations  of  the  General  Government  in  that  country,  the  memorialists  have 
reason  to  lament  that  they  have  hitherto  been  ineffectual. 

That  the  arrangements  and  regulations  for  their  defence,  as  declared  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  are  impossible  to 
be  complied  with. 

That  the  old  experienced  mode  of  keeping  out  scouts  and  rangers,  for  the  information  and  protection  of  the 
inhabitants,  is  exploded,  as  the  memorialists  are  informed,  because  the  new  plan  is  less  expensive. 

That  there  is  reason  to  fear  the  defeat  of  the  army  on  the  frontiers  will  be  severely  felt,  as  there  is  no  doubt  but 
the  Indians  Avill,  in  their  turn,  flushed  with  victory,  invade  the  settlements. 

That  the  memorialists,  therefore,  for  the  reasons  assigned,  think  the  only  measure  which  will  establish  the  confi- 
dence of  the  frontier  people  in  the  Government,  and  also  bring  about  the  proposed  end,  to  wit,  their  safety  and 
protection,  is  to  empower  tlie  county  lieutenants,  in  each  of  those  counties,  to  send  out  a  few  scouts  to  watch  the 
passes  of  the  enemy  when  the  winter  breaks  up,  and  to  place  some  rangers  on  the  outside  of  the  settlements. 

That  this  arrangement  be  temporary,  uhtil  more  effectual  measures  are  adopted  for  the  protection  of  the 

That  the  expense  of  the  scouts  and  rangers  be  settled  by  the  auditor  of  Virginia,  and  the  Government  debited 
with  the  amount  thereof. 

That,  if  the  Executive  Council  of  Virginia  should  not  possess  sufficient  power  to  extend  to  the  memorialists  that 
relief  which  their  necessities  require,  that  the  Governor  would  lay  the  complaints  before  the  proper  tribunal,  where 
they  may  be  redressed. 

On  the  subject  of  this  memorial,  the  Secretary  of  War  observes,  that,  on  the  26th  of  February,  1790,  a  report 
upon  the  subject  of  scouts,  and  an  estimate  thereof,  was  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  who  was 
pleased  to  lay  the  same  before  Congress;  a  copy  of  which,  with  tlie  estimate,  is  herewith  submitted.  No.  1. 

That,  as  the  danger  of  some  ot  the  frontier  counties  was  imminent,  the  President  of  the  United  States  was 

? leased  to  permit  a  certain  number  of  scouts  to  be  called  forth,  under  the  regulations  described  in  paper  marked 
^0.  2.* 
That,  as  it  did  not  appear  to  be  the  judgment  of  Congress  to  authorize  the  scouts  upon  any  higher  rate  of  pay  than 
the  militia,  and  as  offensive  measures  were  directed  on  the  7th  of  June,  the  President  of  the  United  States  directed 
that  the  employment  of  the  scouts  should  be  discontinued,  and,  in  lieu  thereof,  that  the  militia  should  be  employed 
as  rangers,  under  the  regulations  described  in  the  paper  herewith  annexed.  No.  3.* 

It,  however,  appears,  from  the  memorials,  that  the  permission  has  been  rendered  nugatory  by  the  regulations 
prescribed,  and  that  the  memorialists  propose,  in  lieu  of  the  former  arrangement,  that  the  county  lieutenants  should 
be  invested  with  discretionary  power,  on  the  occasion,  to  call  forth  scouts  and  rangers. 

It  is  to  be  observed,  that  no  partial  measures  can  be  adopted  by  the  Government.  That  any  arrangement  for  the 
eight  counties  to  which  the  memorialists  belong,  must  also  comprehend  the  county  of  Washington,  in  Pennsylvania, 
eight  counties  in  Kentucky,  the  exposed  parts  of  Cumberland  settlements,  and  the  settlements  lying  upon,  and 
between,  the  Holston  and  French  Broad  rivers;  making  in  all,  districts  or  divisions  equal  to  twenty-two  counties. 
That  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  scouts,  so  called,  are  the  most  active  hunters  or  woodsmen,  well  acquainted 
with  the  paths  by  which  Indians  enter  the  country;  that  experience  of  their  utility  seems  to  have  stamped  an  extra- 
ordinary value  upon  tlieir  services,  in  the  opinion  of  the  frontier  people.  They  seem,  however,  from  information, 
to  have  received  an  exceeding  high  pay,  and  greatly  disproportioned  to  any  known  compensation  for  military 

But,  considering  the  confidence  of  the  frontier  people  in  the  said  scouts,  tlie  Secretary  of  War  is  inclined  to  the 
opinion,  that  it  might  be  proper  to  indulge  them  therein;  provided,  their  services  could  be  obtained  for  a  reasonable 
pay,  and  regulated  in  such  manner  as  to  prevent  abuse.  The  pay  allowed  by  Virginia  was  five-sixths  of  a  doUai- 
per  day,  for  each  person  or  scout,  but  no  rations. 

The  Secretary  of  War  is  of  opinion  that  pay,  at  the  rate  often  or  twelve  dollars  per  month,  and  one  ration  per 
day,  to  be  given  for  each  person  acting  as  a  scout,  would  be  as  high  a  sum  as  ought  to  be  given  for  any  imlitary 
service;  that  no  greater  number  than  six  or  eight  sliould  be  allowed  to  any  county,  and,  in  no  instance,  a  greater 
number  than  have  heretofore  been  allowed  by  Virginia. 

That,  conformably  to  these  ideas,  the  estimate  is  herewith  submitted.  No.  4,  in  order  to  show  the  greatest 
aggregate  expense  of  this  business. 

■    That  tliis  measure  be  adopted  only  as  a  temporary  expedient,  and  be  continued  no  longer  than  the  President  of 
the  United  States  shall  judge  necessary.  ... 

It  ought,  however,  to  be  observed,  that,  while  the  pay  of  the  troops  is  greatly  reduced,  and  the  pay  of  this  species 
of  militia  greatly  advanced,  it  may  have  the  effect  to  prevent  the  recruiting  of  the  regular  troops,  on  the 
established  pay,  and  to  create  discontents  in  the  minds  of  those  already  in  service  on  the  frontiers.  But  it  is  con- 
ceived, that,  although  this  objection  may  occur,  yet,  perhaps,  it  is  not  of  suffit-ient  importance  to  prevent  the  adop- 
tion of  such  reasonable  measures  as  may  conciliate  and  attach  the  people  of  the  frontiers  to  the  General  Government. 
If,  therefore,  it  should  be  the  judgment  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  that  it  would  be  proper  to  adopt 
the  scouts,  it  will  be  necessary  to  lay  the  subject  before  the  Congress,  for  their  consideration  and  approbation:  for, 
if  a  species  of  troops  are  to  be  adopted  at  a  higher  rate  of  pay  than  tlie  rate  established  by  law,  it  will  be  necessaiy 
to  malce  the  provision  for  that  purpose,  by  a  special  act. 

The  rangers  are  a  species  of  mditiaj  for  which  a  higher  rate  of  pay  does  not  seem  to  be  necessary. 
All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  ot  the  United  States. 

H.  KNOX,  Secretary  of  War. 
War  Department,  5th  January,  1791.  ; 

•  Not  OB  file. 

108  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [1791. 

War  Office,  February  26</t,  1790. 

In  obedience  to  your  order,  I  have  received  the  communications  of  Colonel  John  Pierce  Duvall,  Lieutenant 
of  Harrison  county  in  Virginia,  the  result  of  which  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you. 

The  paper  No  1,  is  a  representation  from  the  field  officers  of  the  said  county,  on  the  subject  of  their  exposed 

situation.  .  ..,„..,.  ,  ,         , 

Colonel  Duvall  states,  that  there  are  five  counties  of  Virginia,  lying  on  the  western  waters,  exposed  to  the 
incursions  of  the  Indians;  all  of  which  are  to  the  east  of  the  Kentucky  line,  to  wit:  Monongalia.  Ohio,  Randolph, 
Harrison,  Kenhawa. .  ,••,£. 

That  these  counties  have  been  permitted  to  keep  out,  for  their  own  immediate  protection,  at  the  expense  of  Vir- 
ginia, certain  parties  of  •scouts  and  rangers.  ,.    ,         , 

That,  during  the  last  year,  the  Governor  ot  Virginia  directed  the  said  scouts  and  rangers  to  be  discharged,  m  con- 
sequence of  a  letter  from  the  President  of  the  United  States,  a  copy  of  which,  with  the  letter  from  the  said  Governor, 
isherewith  submitted,  marked  No.  2.  /  .      ,  «.      i     •       • 

That,  since  the  discharge  of  the  said  scouts  and  rangers,  the  said  counties  have  suffered  great  injury  from  the 
Indians;  and  that  Harrison  county,  in  particular,  has  had  fifteen  persons  killed,  besides  houses  burnt  and  horses 

That  the  object  of  the  said  Colonel  Duvall  is,  that  he  should  be  permitted  to  call  into  service  again,  the  said 
scouts  and  rangers,  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States. 

That  the  expense  of  the  said  scouts  and  rangers  would,  according  to  his  information,  for  the  ensuing  season,  and 
for  Harrison  county  only,  amount  to  three  thousand  four  hundred  and  forty  dollars,  agreeably  to  the  estimate  here- 
with submitted,  marked  No.  3.  .  ^     .  .,.•., 

That  this  arrangement  would  give  perfect  satisfaction  to  the  inhabitants  of  said  county. 

On  this  information,  it  may  be  observed,  that  an  arrangement  of  this  nature  for  one  county,  involves  a  similar 
arrangement,  not  only  for  the  other  four  counties  of  Virginia,  but  for  the  nine  counties  of  the  district  of  Kentucky, 
all  of  which  are  exposed,  in  greater  or  less  degree,  as  Harrison  county. 

That  it  would  be  proper,  that  this  representation  from  Harrison  county,  together  with  the  memorial  of  the  repi-e- 
sentatives  of  the  counties  of  the  district  of  Kentucky,  (lated  the  28th  of  November,  1789,  requesting  a  post  to  be 
established  at  Great  Bonelick,  and  the  petition  from  the  inhabitants  of  Miro  settlement,  dated  the  30th  ot  Novem- 
ber, 1 789,  should  be  laid  before  the  Congress,  for  their  information,  in  addition  to  other  papers  of  the  same  nature, 
which  you  were  pleased  to  lay  before  them,  on  the  4th  of  January  last 

No.  1.  .  . 

An  estimate  of  tlie  expense  of  a  guard  of  one  captain  and  thirty  rangers,  and  eight  men,  termed  scouts,  for  the  period 
of  seven  months,  required  by  the  Lieutenant  of  Harrison  county,  for  the  protection  of  the  same,  against  the  depre- 
dations of  parties  of  Indians — the  estimate  being  formed  from  information  given  the  subscriber  by  Colonel  Duvall, 
the  Lieutenant  of  said  county. 

40  rations,  at  6rf.  per  day,  ------        ^6214 

The  pay  of  1  captain  for  7  months,  at  35  dollars  per  month,    -  -  73  10 

The  pay  of  2  sergeants  for  7  months,  at  6  dollars  per  month,  -  -  25    4 

The  pay  of  28  privates  for  the  same  period,  at  4j  dollars  per  month,  264  12 

The  pay  of  8  scouts  for  7  months,  say  214  days,  at  5s.  7d,  per  day,  428 

Powder  and  lead  furnished  by  Government,  suppose  -  -  30 

~     '  £1,035    6,  or  $3,451. 

If  protection  be  given  to  the  other  four  counties  of  Virginia,  and  the  nine  counties  of  the  district  of  Kentucky, 
and  the  same  be  estimated  on  the  above  scale,  the  expense  would  amount  to  48,314  dollars. 

War  Office,  February  9,6th,  1790. 

The  Secretary  of  War,  to  whom  the  President  of  the  United  States  was  pleased  to  refer  a  letter  from  his  Excellency 
the  Governor  of  Virginia,  of  the  4th  instant,  transmitting  certain  papers,  stating  the  measures  which  the  Legis- 

'  lature  and  Executive  of  Virginia  have  adopted,  for  the  temporary  defence  of  the  western  frontier  of  that  State, 

That  it  appears,  from  the  said  papers,  that,  upon  the  20th  day  of  December  last,  the  Legislature  of  Virginia 
authorized  the  Executive  of  said  State  to  direct  sucli  temporary  defensive  operations  in  the  frontier  counties  of  said 
State,  as  would  secure  the  citizens  thereof  from  the  hostile  invasions  of  the  Indian  enemy. 

That,  at  the  same  time,  the  said  Ligislature  also  requested  the  Executive  to  transmit  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  the  memorial  from  the  representatives  of  the  frontier  counties,  and  communicate  to  him  such  defen- 
sive measures  as  they  may  think  propar  to  direct,  in  consequence  of  the  authority  vested  in  them,  for  the  sole  purpose 
of  affording  defence  to  the  frontier  citizens,  until  the  General  Government  can  enter  into  full  and  effectual  measures 
to  accomplish  the  said  object. 

That  the  memorial  of  the  representatives  of  the  frontier  counties  alluded  to  by  the  said  Legislature,  was  trans- 
mitted by  the  said  Governor  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  the  10th  day  of  December  last,  and  the  same 
was  reported  upon,  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  fifth  instant. 

Tiiat  the  measures  directed  by  the  Executive  of  Virginia,  in  consequence  of  the  before  recited  power  vested  in 
them  by  the  Legislature,  are  detailed  in  No.  2,  and  amount  to  ten  lieutenants,  ten  ensigns,  and  five  hundred  and 
eighteen  non-commissioned  and  privates,  at  the  same  rate  of  pay  allowed  by  the  law  of  the  United  States,  besides 
a  biT^adier  general,  who  sliall  be  allowed  the  pay  and  rations  of  lieutenant  colonel  when  in  actual  service. 

That  it  does  not  appear,  tiiat  any  denomination  of  troops,  termed  scouts,  at  an  higher  rate  of  pay  than  the  mili- 
tia, have  been  ordered  out  by  the  Executive  of  Virginia.  , 

That  the  expense  of  the  saifl  defensive  system,  for  nine  months,  would,  if  the  same  should  be  necessary  for  so 
long  a  term,  amount  to  thirty-six  thousand  seven  iiundred  and  forty-seven  dollars  and  sixty  cents,  as  per  estimate 
herewith  submitted,  No.  5. 

That  the  total  of  the  estimate  submitted  on  the  5th  instant,  amounts  to  thirty-eight  thousand  six  hundred  and 
sixty- nine  dollars  and  forty  cents.  But,  about  four-twenty-second  parts  are  to  be  deducted  from  the  said  estimate, 
for  the  county  of  Wasiiington  in  Pennsylvania,  and  the  districts,  amounting  to  about  three  counties,  for  the  set- 
tlements upon  Cumberland  and  between  the  forks  of  Holston  and  French-broad.  This  would  leave  about  eighteen 
parts  of  the  said  estimate  for  the  expense  of  the  counties  of  Virginia  and  the  district  of  Kentucky,  amounting  to 
thirty-one  thousand  six- hundred  and  thirty-eight  dollars  and  sixty  cents.  Coniparing,  therefore,  the  expense  of  the 
plan  suggested  in  the  report  of  the  5t)\  instant,  with  the  system  du-ected  by  the  Executive  of  Virginia,  the  difference 
will  be  five  thousand  one  hundred  and  lune  dollars  greater  for  the  latter  than  the  former  plan. 

But,  in  the  plan  suggested  in  the  said  report  of  the  5th  instant,  only  the  number  of  three  hundred  and  fifty-four 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  were  stated  to  be  employed,  besides  commissioned  officers.  The  number 
directed  by  Virginia,  amounts  to  five  hundri^d  and  eighteen  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  besides  the  com- 
missioned officers.  The  reason  tliat  the  difference  of  the  expense  is  not  proportioned  to  the  difference  of  numbers, 
is,  that  the  species  of  militia  tenned  scouts,  are  not  ordered  m  the  system  directed  by  Virginia. 

From  this  statement,  the  following  questions  arise: 

1st.  Is  the  exposed  situation  of  the  frontier  counties  of  Virginia  such  as  to  require  that  they  should  be  protected 
at  the  expense  of  the  United  States?  . 


2d.  It"  so,  is  the  system,  directed  by  tlie  Executive  of  Virginia,  of  such  a  nature  as  to  be  confirmed  by  the  Gen- 
eral Government  and  ordered  into  execution  at  the  expense  ot  the  United  States.'^ 

3d.  If  not,  shall  a  regular  and  efficient  plan  be  devised  for  tlie  same  object,  and  put  into  execution  at  the  expense 
of  the  United  States? 

On  the  first  question,  tlie  Secretary  of  War  is  of  opinion,  that  the  existing  circumstances  relative  to  the  Indian 
hostilities  are  such  as  to  cause  just  apprehensions  for  the  safety  of  the  frontier  settlers  during  the  approaching  season 
That  principles  of  sound  policy,  therefore,  as  well  as  of  justice,  require  that  the  said  settlers  should  be  afforded  all 
reasonable  protection  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States. 

On  the  second  question,  the  Secretary  of  War  is  of  opinion,  that,  however  proper  the  system  of  defence  directed 
by  tlie  Executive  of  Virpnia  may  have  been,  considering  the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  ordered,  yet  tliere 
are  several  well  founded  objections  against  its  being  confirmed  by  tlie  General  Government,  and  ordered  into  execu- 
tion at  the  expense  of  the  United  States. 

First — Because  it  is  too  uncertain  as  to  any  mateiial  effect  to  be  produced  thereby. 

Secondly — Because  it  is  destitute  of  those  principles  of  unity  and  responsibility,  essentially  necessary  to  guard 
tlie  public  from  abuse. 

Thirdly— Because  the  detachments  ordered  out  for  the  other  counties  besides  Kentucky,  are  evidently  desit'ned 
for  local  service  only,  and  not  to  be  drawn  into  one  body,  however  necessary  the  measure  may  be.  *' 

Fourthly— Because  it  is  evident  tlie  Legislature  of  Virginia  considered  the  arrangement  which  should  be  made  by 
the  Executive  ot  the  said  State,  as  a  temporary  measure  of  affording  defence  to  the  frontiers,  until  the  General 
Government  could  enter  into  full  and  effectual  measures  to  accomplish  the  said  object. 

On  the  third  question,  the  Secretary  of  War  is  of  opinion,  that  the  following  plan  for  defence  of  the  frontiers  in 
addition  to  the  regular  troops,  would  be  the  most  proper  for  the  ensuing  season.  ' 

For  the  defence  of  the  exposed  counties  of  Virginia  and  Kentucky,  and  the  Cumberland  and  Holston  settle- 
ments, one  regiment  ot  rangers,  to  consist  of  one  lieutenant  colonel-commandant,  two  majors,  ten  captains,  and 
fourteen  subalterns,  and  seven  hundred  and  thirty-eight  non-commisioned  and  privates. 

That  these  rangers  be  enlisted  on  the  continental  establishment  of  pay,  rations,  and  clothing;  to  serve  from  the 
first  day  of  March  next,  until  the  30th  of  November,  unless  sooner  discharged. 

That  a  proportion  of  clothing,  equal  to  the  annual  allowance  to  the  federal  ti-oops,  be  issued  to  the  said  ran^^ers. 
That,  it  an  expedition  be  formed  against  the  Indian  towns,  the  rangers  raised  for  the  counties  of  Virginia  and 
Kentucky  should  be  assembled  for  that  purpose;  that, in  other  cases,  they  should  be  employed  in  rangin''  the  fron- 
tiers most  liable  to  inroads.  " 

That  the  expense  of  the  said  corps  for  nine  months  would  amount  to  forty -nine  thousand  four  hundred  and  fifty- 
four  dollars,  as  per  estimate  herewith  submitted.  But  the  Secretaiy  of  War  conceives  the  efficacy  and  service  of 
said  corps  would  amply  compensate  for  the  difference  of  expense  between  the  same  and  the  system  directed  by 

That  the  expense  of  defending  the  frontiers  for  the  ensuing  year,  seems  to  be  inevitable.  But  there  is  a  choice  in 
the  manner  of  defence.  The  regular  troops  are  inadequate  to  afford  that  extensive  protection  required  from  the 
county  of  Washington,  in  Pennsylvania,  down  the  Ohio,  to  the  settlements  on  the  Cumberland  river,  and  the  other 
settlements  in  the  southwestern  territory  of  the  United  States.  They  must  be  assisted  by  auxiliaries,  in  order  to 
defend  the  frontiers  effectually. 

The  question  seems  to  be  reduced  to  one  point:  whether  the  defence  shall  be  afforded  in  a  regular  efficient  man- 
ner, with  full  proof  of  the  servMce  having  been  renciered,  or  whether  it  shall  be  performed  in  a  manner  less  efficient 
and  neither  regular  or  certain.''  ' 

The  Secretary  of  War  submits  the  idea,  that  the  whole  business  ofthe  defensive  protection  afforded  tlie  frontiers 
during  the  last  year,  by  the  General  Government,  the  svstem  directed  by  the  Executive  of  Virginia,  and  the  plan 
herein  proposed,  should  be  laid  before  the  Congress  of  the  I'liited  States  for  their  information  and  decision. 

The  Secretary  of  War  will,  in  another  report,  which  he  will  shortly  submit  to  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
take  the  liberty  of  suggesting  some  observations  respecting  the  issue  ot  the  late  expedition  against  the  Miami  towns,' 
and  ot  the  circumstances  which  may  require  another  and  more  effectual  expedition  against  the  Wabash  Indians. 
But,  in  of  another  expedition,  it  is  conceived  that  the  defensive  provision  should  be  made:  for,  although,  while 
the  expedition  will  be  in  operation,  the  Indians  will  not  probably  make  incursions,  yet,  their  predatory  parties  may 
be  expected  on  tlie  frontiers  botii  before  and  alter  the  expedition. 

All  which  is  humbly  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

H.  KNOX. 

„r      ,  ,    ,  Secretary  of  TVar. 

>V  AR  Offick,  \5ln  Juniiary,  1791. 

No.   1. 

.  The  Governor  of  lu^iniu  to  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Council  Chamber,  Jamwcy  4<A,  1791 . 

In  conformity  to  a  resolution  of  the  General  Assembly  of  this  State,  herewith  enclosed,  I  do  myself  the  honor 
to  transmit  a  memorial  from  the  representatives  of  the  frontier  counties,  and  the  proceedings  of  the  Executive, 
respecting  a  temporary  system  of  defence  for  the  western  frontier.  I  beg  leave  also  to  lay  before  you,  copies  of  two 
odier  resolutions  ofthe  General  Assembly,  together  with  the  petition  of  sundry  officers  of  the  Virginia  line  on  conti- 
nental establishment,  on  the  subject  of  the  bounty  lands  allotted  to  them  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  Ohio. 
I  have  the  li(jnor  to  be,  witli  the  highest  respect,  your  obedient  servant, 

,  ,     ,,  .     ,  ,  BEVERLEY  RANDOLPH. 

The  Presidknt  ofthe  United  States. 

,  No.  2.   . 

In  Council,  December  29th,  1790. 

The  Board  resumed  the  consideration  of  a  resolution  of  the  General  Assembly,  authorizing  the  Executive  to  direct 
such  tempoiaiy  defensive  operations  in  the  frontier  counties  of  this  State,  as  will  secure  the  citizens  from  the  hostile 
invasions  ofthe  Indian  enemy. 

Whereupon,  the  Board  are  of  opinion,  that  the  best  system  of  defence  which  can  be  established  under  the  present 
circumstances,  will  be  to  order  into  service  in  the  different  western  counties,  a  small  number  of  men,  proportioned 
to  the  degree  in  which  they  are  respectively  exposed. 

That  the  officers  commanding  these  parties  be  instructed  constiintly  to  range  the  frontiers  most  open  to  invasion, 
and  either  to  alarm  tlie  inhabitants  upon  the  approach  of  a  large  body  of  the  enemy,  or  repel  the  incursions  of  preda- 
tory parties. 

It  is,  therefore,  advised,  that  a  lieutenant,  two  sergeants,  and  forty  rank  and  file,  be  allowed  to  the  county  of  Har- 
/ison;  an  ensign,  two  sergeants,  and  thirty  rank  and  file,  to  Monongalia;  a  lieutenant,  an  ensign,  three  sergeants, 
and  hfty  rank  and  file,  to  Ohio;  a  lieutenant,  an  ensign,  three  sergeants,  and  fifty  rank  and  file,  to  Kenhawa;  an 
ensign,  two  sergeants,  and  twenty  rank  and  file,  to  Randolph;  an  ensign,  three  sergeants,  and  thirty-two  rank  and 
file,  to  Wythe;  and  a  lieutenant,  an  ensign,  three  sergeants,  and  fifty  rank  and  file,  to  Russell.  The  rangers  to  be 
ready  for  service  by  the  first  day  ot  March  next;  to  be  stationed  at  such  places  as  in  the  opinion  of  the  commanding 
officer  ot  each  county,  respectively,  shall  be  most  convenient,  to  enable  them,  by  rilnging  the  frontiers,  to  give  effec- 
tual protection. 

15  •  •?'    ■■■       -   •■  ■■ 


210  INDIAN    AFFAIRS.  [1791^ 


That  the  commanding  officers  of  the  several  counties  be  directed  to  procure,  by  voluntary  engagements,  the 
complement  of  men  allowed  for  the  defence  of  their  counties,  respectively;  but,  should  they  be  unable  to  obtain  the 
required  number  by  this  means,  that  they  detach  them,  with  the  necessary  officers,  by  detail  and  rotation  of  duty, 
agreeable  to  the  act  to  amend  and  reduce  into  one  act,  the  several  laws  lor  regulating  and  disciplining  the  militia,  and 
guarding  against  invasions  and  insurrections. 

That,  for  the  defence  of  Kentucky,  it  is  advised,  that  a  brigadier  general  be  appointed  to  command  the  whole 
militia  of  the  district,  who  shall  be  allowed  the  pay  and  rations  ot  a  lieutenant  colonel  when  in  actual  service. 

That  the  said  brigadier  general  do  immediately  endeavor  to  procure,  by  voluntary  engagements,  two  hundred  and 
twenty-six  men,  to  range  the  most  exposed  parts  ot  the  frontiers  ot  the  district,  to  be  so  stationed  as  will,  in  his 
judgment,  at!brd  the  best  protection  to  the  inhabitants;  but,  should  he  be  unable  to  obtain  the  required  number  by 
voluntary  engagements,  that  he  direct  the  commanding  officei-  ot  the  respective  counties  composing  the  district,  to 
detach  their  just  proportion,  witli  the  necessary  officers,  by  detail  and  rotation  of  duty,  agreeable  to  the  militia  law, 
to  be  ready  for  service  by  the  first  day  of  March  next. 

That,  in  the  execution  of  this  business,  he  be  not  considered  as  in  actual  service,  nor  have  authority  to  appoint  the 
staff  and  other  officers  allowed  by  law,  but  shall  be  reimbursed  all  such  reasonable  expenses  as  he  may  necessarily 

That  the  said  rangers  be  furnished  with  rations  in  sucli  manner  as  the  brigadier  general  of  Kentucky,  and  the 
officers  commanding  the  several  counties  without  that  district  shall  think  proper;  six  pence  to  be  allowed  for  each 
ration;  a  subaltern  to  be  allowed  two,  and  the  non-commissioned  and  privates  one  ration,  each.  The  pay  and  rations 
of  both  officers  and  privates  to  be  the  same  as  is  allowed  by  law  to  the  continental  troops. 

That  the  following  evidence  of  the  service  of  the  rangers  be  required : 

1st.  A  return  of  the  names,  rank,  and  time  of  service,  of  each  of  the  said  rangers. 

2d.  A  pay  abstract  or  account  for  the  number  of  said  rangers,  agreeable  to  the  aforesaid  return;  these  papers  to 
be  verified  by  the  oath  of  the  officers  commanding  the  several  detachments,  and  by  the  signature  of  the  brigadier 
"eneral  in  Kentucky,  or  by  that  of  the  commanding  officers  of  the  several  counties  witiiout  that  district. 

3d.  An  abstract  of  the  rations  agreeably  to  the  aforesaid  return,  to  be  signed  by  the  officer  receiving  them,  and 
countersigned  by  the  brigadier  general  in  Kentucky,  or  by  the  commanding  officers  of  the  several  counties  without 
that  district. 

And  it  is  further  advised,  that  Charles  Scott,  Esquire,  be  appointed  brigadier  general  of  Kentucky. 

All  which  matters,  so  advised,  the  Governor  orders  accordingly. 
Extract  from  the  Journal.     Attest, 

SAM.  COLEMAN,  A.  C.  C. 

Resolution  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Virginia. 

Virginia:  In  the  House  of  Delegates,  Monday,  the  ZOth  of  December,  1790. 

Resolved,  That  the  Executive  be  authorized  to  direct  such  temp()rary  defensive  operations  in  the  frontier  coun- 
ties of  this  State,  as  will  secure  the  citizens  thereof  from  the  hostile  invasions  of  the  Indian  enemy. 

Resolved,  That  the  Executive  be  requested  to  transmit  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  the  memorial  from 
the  representatives  of  the  frontier  counties,  and  communicate  to  him  such  defensive  measures  as  they  may  think 
proper  to  direct,  in  consequence  of  the  authority  vested  in  them  for  the  sole  purpose  of  affording  liefence  to  our  fron- 
tier citizens,  until  the  General  Government  can  enter  into  full  and  effectual  measures  to  accomplish  the  said  object. 

Attest,  CHARLES  HAY,  C.  H.  D. 

1790.  December.    Agreed  to  by  the  Senate,  H.  BROOKE,  C.  5'. 

' ,.' ,;,      ,  ■      .  No.  4. 

To  his  Excellency  Beverley  Randolph,  Esquire,  Governor  qf  Virginia. 

The  joint  memorial  of  the  Delegates  of  Ohio,  Monongalia,  Harrison,  Randolph,  Kenhawa,  Greenbriar,  Mont- 
gomery, and  Russell  counties,  humbly  represents: 

That  the  defenceless  condition  of  those  counties,  forming  a  line  of  nearly  four  hundred  miles  along  the  Ohio  river, 
exposed  to  the  hostile  invasions  of  their  Indian  enemies,  destitute  of  every  kind  of  support,  is  truly  alarming:  for, 
notwithstanding  all  the  regulations  of  the  General  Government  in  that  country,  we  have  reason  to  lament  that  they 
have  been  hitherto  ineffectual  for  our  protection;  nor,  indeed,  could  it  happen  otherwise:  for  the  garrisons  kept  by 
the  continental  troops  on  the  Oiiio  river,  if  they  are  of  any  use,  it  must  be  to  the  Kentucky  settlements,  as  tliey 
immediately  cover  tnat  country;  to  us  they  can  be  of  no  ser\ice,  being  from  two  to  four  hundred  miles  below  our 
frontier  settlements.  ,    ,       ,  ,      , 

We  further  beg  leave  to  represent,  that,  agreeably  to  the  last  arrangement  tor  our  defence,  as  declared  by  the 
Secretary  of  War,  a  subaltern  officer,  a  sergeant,  a  corporal,  and  twelve  privates,  were  allotted  to  some  of  the 
above  mentioned  counties,  for  their  defence,  and  them  only  to  be  continued  in  service  when  the  continental  com- 
manding officer  in  the  Western  country  may  approve  of  it,  they  at  the  same  time  to  be  under  such  regulations  as  it  is 
impossible  for  the  inhabitants  of  our  country  to  comply  with,  the  communication  betwixt  him  and  us  being  cut  off 
by  a  distance  of  two  to  four  hundred  miles,  and  that  through  an  uninhabited  country,  exposed  to  the  Indians,  having 
entirely  exploded  our  old  experienced  mode  of  defending  our  frontiers,  by  keeping  out  scouts  and  rangers  for  their 
information  and  protection,  owing,  as  we  are  informed,  that  it  is  supposed  that  the  new  plan  is  less  expensive;  but 
surely,  if  our  operations  must  be  on  the  defensive,  a  small  saving  (for  a  small  saving  it  must  be)  ought  not  to  be 
deemed  a  good  reason  to  alter  from  a  known  measure  to  one  that  is  only  supposed  to  be  as  good,  when  the  lives  of 
so  many  ot  your  citizens  are  exposed  to  the  enemy.     We  further  beg  leave  to  observe,  that  we  have  reason  to  fear 
that  the  consequences  of  the  defeat  of  our  army  by  the  Indians  on  the  late  expedition,  will  be  severely  felt  on  our 
frontiers,  as  there  is  no  doubt  but  that  the  Indians  will,  in  their  turn,  (being  fluslied  with  victory)  invade  our  settle- 
ments, and  exercise  all  their  horrid  murder  upon  the  inhabitants  thereof,  whenever  the  weather  will  permit  them  to 
travel.    Then  is  it  not  Letter  to  support  us  where  we  are,  be  the  expense  what  it  may,  than  to  oblige  such  a  number 
of  your  brave  citizens,  who  have  so  long  supported,  and  still  continue  to  support,  a  dangerous  frontier,  (although 
thousands  of  tlieir  relatives  in  the  flesh  have,  in  the  prosecution  thereof,  fallen  a  sacrifice  to  savage  inventions)  to 
quit  the  country,  after  all  they  have  done  and  suffered,  when  you  know  that  a  frontier  must  be  supported  somewhere? 
Permit  us,  therefore,  to  assure  you,  that  we  think  the  only  measure  that  will  establish  the  confidence  of  your 
frontier  people  in  the  Government,  and  also  be  the  means  of  bringing  about  the  end  proposed,  to  wit:  their  safety 
and  protection,  will  be  to  empower  the  county  lieutenants  in  each  of  those  counties  to  send  out  a  few  scouts  to 
watcn  the  passes  of  the  enemy,  and  when  the  winter  breaks  up,  to  place  some  rangers  on  the  outside  of  the  settle- 
ments.   This  we  mean  only  as  a  temporary  matter,  to  continue  until  more  effectual  measures  are  adopted  for  the 
protection  of  that  country,  the  expense  of  which  scouts  and  rangers,  to  be  settled  with  your  auditor,  and  paid  by 
Virginia,  and  the  General  Government  to  be  debited  with  the  amount  thereof,  for  which  the  State  of  Virginia  ought 
to  be  credited  in  her  accounts  with  that  Government.    And  we  hope  and  trust  tliat  Congi-ess  will  comply  therewith, 
until  they  extend  to  us  that  protection  that  we,  as  citizens  of  Virginia,  have  a  right  to  expect.     And  we  further  trust 
and  hope  that  the  State  of  Virginia  will  never  quietly  rest  inactive  until  peace  is  restored  to  all  her  citizens,  be 
their  situation  ever  so  remote.    Under  these  impressions,  we  have  taken  the  liberty  to  address  you  upon  this  subject. 


praying  that,  should  not  the  Executive  Council  of  Virginia  possess  power  sufficient  to  extend  to  us  tliat  relief  which 
our  necessities  require,  you  will,  in  that  case,  lay  our  complaints  before  the  proper  tribunal,  where  we  may  be 

We  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect,  &c.  .   • 

BENJAMIN  BIGGS.   7  ^, -^ 
JOHN  HENDERSON.  5  ^'"*'- 

.       .  GE0.JACKS0N.7rr. 

JOHN  PRUNTY,5^'""*°"• 
C0RNELIUS  BOGARD.  Ijiandohh 
ABRAHAM  CLAYPOOL,  5  ^«""^'^"- 
•  '.  ANDREW  DONNALLY,  7  .^„„,„,„ 

GEO.  CLENDINEN,         j  Aan/m?m. 

THOS.  EDGAR,  I  Greenbriar 

W.  H.  CAVENDISH,  3        "" 
H.  MONTGOMERY.  7  ,.. 
R,  S  AAV  VERS,  5  '^^"^^^Somery. 

Attest,  SAM.  COLEMAN,  ,5.  C.  C. 

^  -  ..  ■  , 

'    -  No.  5. 

An  estimate  of  pay,  subsistence,  and  forage,  for  9  months, from  the  first  day  of  March  to  the  50th  of  November, 
,,•■■•  1790,  according  to  the  arrangement  of  Virginia. 

1  Brigadier  General,  with  the  pay,  subsistence,  and  forage  of  a  lieutenant  colonel,  estimated  to  be  in 

service  4  montiis. 
Pay,  at  60  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  4  months,       -  -  -  -  -  -  -  $240  00 

Subsistence,  6  rations  per  day,  for  4  months,  is  720  rations,  a  12^  cts.     -  -  -  -  86  40 

Forage,  12  dollars  per  month,  ..-.--..-  36  00 

10  Lieutenants,  for  9  months.  . 

Pay  at  22  dollars  per  month,  is  for  9  months,              .  .  -  .  .  1.980  00 

Subsistence,  2  rations  per  day,  5,400  rations  a  12  cents  -  '-  -  -  648  00 

10  Ensigns  for  9  months. 

Pay.  at  18  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  months,            -  -  '    -  -  -  1,620  00 

Subsistence,  2  rations  per  day,  5,400  rations,  «  12  cents  -  ..  -  -  .       648  00 

40  Sergeants,  at  5  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  months  -  -  .  .  1,800  00 

478  privates,  at  3  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  months  ....  12,906  00 

14,706  00 
Subsistence  for  518  non-commissioned  and  privates,  at  one  ration  per  day,  is,  for  9 

months  139,860  rations,  a  12  cents  -  -  -  -  -        ■    -  16,783  20 

362  40 

2,628  00 

2,268  00 

31.489  20 

,   ■        '  •  ■  $36.747  60 

\i.Yi^O\,  Secretary  of  JVar. 
War  Office,  15</i  yanwari/,  1791. 

No.  6. 

^n  estimate  for  pay,  subsistence,  forage,  and  clothing,  for  nine  months,  for  one  regiment  of  Rangers,  formed  as 

follows : 


1  Lieutenant  Colonel-commandant,  at  $60  per  month,  is,  for  9  months, 

2  Majors,  -  -  .         40  - 
10  Captains,         -               -               -         30          -  - 
10  Lieutenants,       "            -     *          -         22          - 
10  Ensigns,          -               -               -         18          - 

1  Paymaster,  additional,  -  5  - 

1  Quartermaster,  do.        -  -  5  - 

1  Adjutant,  do.        -  -        10  - 

40  Sergeants,  -  -  -  5  -  - 

40  Corporals,  -  -  -         4  - 

40  Drummers,  -  -  7 

40  Filers,  -  -  f    -^  ■  "  " 

578  Private?,  -  -  -  J 

Deductions  for  clothing. 
40  Sergeants,  at  $1  40  per  month,  is,  for  9  months, 

40  Corporals,  1  15  -  . 

658  Musicians  and  privates,        90  -  • 

.'/-"■  '      -         ^,  . 

Amount  of  pay, 


1  Lieutenant  Colonel-commandant,  6  rations  per  day.  is,  for  9  months,  1,620  rations, 

2  Majors,  -  -  -  4  -  -  -  2,160  do. 
10  Captains,  .  .  3  -  .  .  8,100  do. 
10  Lieutenants,  -  -  2  -  -  -  5.400  do. 
10  Ensigns,      -               -               -  2               -               -               -           5,400      do. 

738  Non-commissioned  and  privates,    1  -  -  -        199.260      do.  t- 

Amount  of  Subsistence,  ■  221,940  rations,  at  7-100       15,535  80 




$1,800  00 
1,440  00 

17,766  00 

$540  00 

720  00 

2,700  00 

1,980  00 

1,620  00 

45  00 

45  00 



$7,740  00 

$  504 



$21,006  00 
6,247  80 

14,758  20 

'     _   ■ 


$22,498  20 

112  INDIAN  AFFAIRS.  [I791, 



1  Lieutenant  Colonel -commandant,  12  dollars  per  month,  is,  for  9  montlis,  $108  00 

2  Majors,                -                -               10             -                -                -                -  -      180  00 
Paymaster,  quartermaster,  and  ad- 
jutant, each,                  -                6            -               -               -                -  ,          .      i62  00 

Amount  of  Forage,       -  /  *  -  -  -  -  450  00 

738  Non-commissioned  and  privates,  at  15  dollars,  -  -  -  .  11,070  00 

$49,454  00 

H.  KNOX, 

War  Office,  January  15,  1791.  Secretary  of  War. 

The  Secretary  of  War,  to  whom  the  President  of  the  United  States  referred  the  consideration  of  various  papers 
and  information,  relative  to  the  frontiers  of  the  United  States,  respectfully  reports: 

That  the  frontiers,  from  several  causes,  are,  at  present,  so  critically  circumstanced,  as  to  claim  an  immediate 
consideration,  and  such  arrangements  as  may,  upon  investigation,  be  found  indispensably  necessary  for  the  preser- 
vation of  good  order,  and  the  protection  of  the  inhabitants  exposed  to  the  hostilities  of  certain  Indian  tribes. 

That,  in  order  to  obtain  a  clear  view  of  the  existing  circumstances  of  the  frontiers,  the  following  summary  state- 
ment is  submitted;  and,  also,  tliat  a  judgment  may  be  formed  of  the  measures  necessary  to  be  adopted  on  the 

That,  in  the  first  place,  it  may  be  proper  to  explain  the  relative  situation  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States, 
with  the  Choctaw,  Chickasaw,  and  Cherokee  nations  of  Indians.  It  will  appear  by  the  Journals  of  the  late  Con- 
gress, and  the  paper  herewith  submitted.  Marked  A,  No.  1,*  that  the  Unitecl  States  did,  in  November,  1785,  and 
m  January,  1786,  form  treaties  with  the  Cherokee,  Choctaw,  and  Chickasaw  nations  of  Indians,  by  which  their 
boundaries  were  defined. 
/  That  the  State  of  Georgia  claims  the  right  of  pre-emption  to  nearly  all  the  lands  belonging  to  the  said  Indian 


That  it  will  appear  by  tlie  act  of  Legislature  of  the  said  State,  passed  the  21st  day  of  December,  1789,  a  copy 
i    of  which  is  herewith  submitted,  marked  A,  No.  2,  that  the  said  Legislature  has  granted  and  sold  to  three  private 
,  I     companies,  its  said  right  of  pre-emption  to  almost  the  whole  of  the  lands  of  the  Chocta\vs  and  Chickasaws,  and 
\^    '^      part  of  the  Cherokees,  amounting  in  all  to  15,500,000  acres. 

That,  although  the  right  of  Georgia  to  the  pre-emption  of  said  lands  should  be  admitted  in  its  full  extent,  yet, 
it  is  conceived,  that,  siiould  the  said  State,  or  any  companies  or  persons,  claiming  Under  it,  attempt  to  extinguish 
the  Indian  claims,  unless  authorized  tliereto  by  the  United  States,  that  the  measure  would  be  repugnant  to  the  afore- 
said treaties,  to  the  constitution  of  tlie  United  States,  and  to  the  law  regulating  ti-ade  and  intercourse  vnth.  the 
,  Indian  tribes. 

Y  That  the  President  of  the  United  States,  apprehensive  tliat  individuals  belonging  to  said  companies  might,  from 

ignorance,  or  otherwise,  pursue  a  line  of  conduct  derogatory  to  the  United  States,  caused  the  said  treaties,  and  the 
,^     law  to  regulate  trade  and  intercourse  with  the  Indian  tribes,  to  be  published  on  the  25th  day  of  August,  1790, 
together  witii  his  proclamation,  requiring  all  persons  to  govern  themselves  accordingly. 

But,  notwithstanding  this  warning,  it  appears,  from  the  information  contained  in  A,  No.  3,  that  certain  persons, 
claiming  under  the  said  companies,  are  raising  troops  for  the  purpose  of  establishing,  by  force,  one  or  more  settle- 
ments on  the  lands  belonging  to  the  aforesaid  Indian  nations. 

The  authority  of  the  United  States  is  thus  set  at  defiance,*  their  faith,  pledged  to  the  said  Indians,  and  their  con- 
t/      stitution  and  laws,  violated,  and  a  general  Indian  war  excited,  on  principles  disgraceful  to  the  Government. 

But,  there  is  another  point  of  view  in  which  this  subject  may  be  placed.     It  is  said,  the  Spanish  ofiicers  station- 
ed on  the  Mississippi,  alarmed  at  the  proposed  settlements,  have  decided  to  prevent  them  by  force.     Although  the 
settlements  should  be  made  in  opposition  to  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  yet,  .the  interference  of  tlie 
,'     Spaniards,  would  start  a  new  subject  of  discussion,  which  merits  some  consideration. 

,:  Hence  arises  the  following  question:    Is  not  the  General  Government  bound,  by  the  indispensable  obligations 

.i|      of  its  own  riglits  and  dignity;  by  the  principles  of  justice  and  good  fjiith  to  the  atoresaid  Indian  nations;  by  tlie 
'  \^      principles  of  humanity,  as  it  respects  the  innocent  inhabitants  ot  the  frontiers,  who  may  fall  victims  to  an  unjust 
Indian  war;  to  interpose  its  arm,  in  an  effectual  manner,  to  prevent  the  intended  settlements? 

That,  in  the  second  place,  the  protection  to  be  afforded  the  frontiers,  during  the  ensuing  year,  requires  an  imme- 
diate arrangement. 

That  it  IS  to  be  appi-ehended,  the  late  expedition  against  the  Miami  Indians  will  not  be  attended  witli  such 
consequences  as  to  constrain  the  said  Indians  to  sue  for  peace;  but,  on  the  contrary,  that  their  own  opinion  of  their 
success,  and  the  number  of  trophies  they  possess,  will,  probably,  not  only  encourage  them  to  a  continuance  of  hos- 
tilities, but  may  be  the  means  of  their  obtaining  considerable  assistance  from  the  neighboring  tribes.  In  addition  to 
which,  they  will,  probably,  receive  all  possible  assistance  in  the  power  of  certain  malignant  whites,  who  reside 
among  them. 
\  That  it,  therefore,  appears,  from  the  examination  of  this  subject,  to  be  incumbent  on  the  United  States  to  pre- 
pare immediately  for  another  expedition  against  the  Wabash  Indians,  with  such  a  decided  force  as  to  impress  them 
strongly  with  the  power  of  the  United  States. 

That  the  objects  of  the  expedition  will,  in  a  considerable  degree,  regulate  the  nature  and  number  of  troops  to  be 

That,  if  the  measure  of  establishing  a  strong  fortification  and  garrison  at  the  Miami  village,  should  be  decided 
upon  as  proper  and  necessary,  a  considerable  increase  of  the  regular  force  for  that  and  the  other  objects  mentioned 
in  this  report,  would  be  requisite. 

That  a  strong  post  and  garrison,  at  the  said  Miami  village,  with  proper  subordinate  posts  of  communication, 
have  always  been  regarded  as  but  little  inferior  to  the  possession  of  the  post  at  Detroit.  But,  while  there  were  exist- 
ing hopes  of  obtaining  the  latter,  it  did  not  appear  proper  to  incur  the  expense  of  an  establishment  at  the  former 
place.  Those  hopes,  however,  having  vanished  for  the  present,  it  seems  to  be  a  point  of  real  importance  to  eftect 
an  establishment  at  the  Miami  village. 

That  a  post  established  at  the  said  place,  as  the  consequence  of  a  successful  expedition,  would  curb  and  overawe 
not  only  the  Wabash  Indians,  but  the  Ottawas  and  Chippewas,  and  all  others  who  might  be  wavering,  and  disposed 
to  join  in  the  war.  The  said  post  would  more  eflectually  cover  the  line  of  frontier  along  the  Ohio,  than  by  a  post 
at  any  other  place  whatever. 

That  it  would,  therefore,  of  consequence,  afford  more  full  security  to  the  territory  of  the  United  States,  north- 
\vest  of  the  Ohio.  In  this  point  of  view,  it  would  assist  in  the  reduction  of  the  national  debt,  by  holding  out  a  secu- 
rity to  people  to  purchase  and  settle  the  public  lands.  The  purchasers  of  land  from  the  Government  will  have  a 
rigrit  of  protection,  and  there  will  be  no  doubt  of  their  claiming  it  forcibly. 

The  regular  force,  upon  the  frontiers,  seems  utterly  inadequate  for  the  essential  purposes  of  the  United  States. 
The  frontiers,  from  the  northeast  to  the  southwest,  are  nearly  enclosed  by  the  possessions,  garrisons,  and  claims 
of  two  formidable  foreign  nations,  whose  interests  cannot  entirely  coincide  Avitii  those  of  the  United  States. 

•Not  on  file. 


Numerous  Indian  tribes  reside  in  the  vicinity,  whose  hostilities  ai-e  easily  excited  by  their  jealousy  of  the 
encroaching  settlements  and  rapid  population  of  the  frontiers. 

Bold  and  unprincipled  adventurers  will  arise,  from  time  to  time,  who,  in  advancing  their  own  schemes  of  ava- 
rice, or  ambition,  \nll  be  incessantly  machitiating  against  the  public  peace  and  prosperity. 

These  several  circumstances,  and  the  distance  from  the  seat  of  Government,  require  that  a  wise  aud  vigorous 
system  should  be  adopted  and  executed,  as  well  to  protect  effectually  the  inhabitants  of  the  frontiers,  as  to  curb 
the  licentious,  and  prevent  the  evils  of  anarchy,  and  prevent  the  usurpation  of  the  public  lands. 

But,  besides  these  considerations,  it  would  appear,  from  information,  that  the  State  of  Georgia  is  desirous  that 
more  troops  should  be  placed  on  its  frontiers.  There  are  at  present  three  companies  in  Georgia,  and  another  is 
raising  there.    Those  four  companies  amount  to  one  quarter  part  of  the  establishment. 

The  paper  marked  B,  No.  1,  will  show  the  number  and  stations  of  the  troops,  at  present  in  service,  and  the 
numbers  wanting  to  complete  the  establishment  of  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  sixteen  non-commissioned  offi- 
cers and  privates. 

If  the  intended  settlements  upon  the  Choctaw,  Chickasaw,  and  Cherokee  lands  are  to  be  effectually  prevented, 
and  the  Government  enabled  to  place  troops  upon  the  Tennessee,  which  would  at  once  awe  the  Creeks,  if  turbu- 
lent, and  thereby  comply  with  the  desires  ot  Georgia,  and  prevent  the  projected  settlement  on  the  Muscle  Shoals, 
and  if  an  establishment  should  be  made  at  the- Miami  village,  it  would  require  that  the  establishment  should  be 
augmented,  so  as  to  form  a  legionary  corps  of  two  thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-eight  non-commissioned 
ofticers  and  privates. 

If  this  augmentation  should  take  place,  two  modes  present  themselves,  by  which  the  object  could  be  effected, 
both  of  which,  and  estimates  thereon,  are  contained  in  tlie  paper  marked  B.No.  2,  the  one  amounting  to  101.466  40 
dollars,  and  the  other  to  98,542  40  dollars. 
The  question,  which  arises  on  this  subject,  is. 

Whether  the  objects,  proposed  to  be  accomplished  by  the  troops,  will  fully  compensate  for  the  additional 
expense .'' 

The  United  States  have  come  into  existence,  as  a  nation,  embarrassed  with  a  frontier  of  immense  extent,  which 
is  attended  with  all  the  peculiar  circumstances  before  enumerated  and  even  witli  others,  which  are  obvious,  but 
which  are  unnecessary  to  recite. 

The  population  of  die  lands  lying  on  the  Western  waters  is  increasing  rapidly.  The  inhabitants  request  and 
demand  protectioii:  if  it  be  not  granted,  seeds  of  disgust  will  be  sown;  sentiments  of  separate  interests  will  arise 
out  of  their  local  situation,  which  will  be  cherished,  either  by  insidious,  dimiestic,  or  foreign  emissaries. 

It  therefore  appears  to  be  an  important  branch  of  the  administration  of  the  General  Government,  to  afford  the 
frontiers  all  reasonable  protection,  as  well  in  their  just  rights  as  against  their  enemies:  and,  at  the  same  time,  it  is 
essential  to  show  all  lawless  adventurers  that,  notwithstanding  the  distance,  Government  possess  the  power  of 
preserving  peace  and  good  order  on  the  frontiers.  It  is  true  economy  tn  regulate  events  instead  of  being  regulated 
by  them. 

But,  whether  the  regular  establishment  be  increased  or  not.  it  seems  indispensable  that  another  expedition  be 
made  against  the  Wabash  Indians.  Affairs  cannot  remain  where  they  are.  Winter  imposes  peace  for  the  present; 
but,  unless  the  attention  of  the  Indians  be  calle<l  to  their  own  country,  they  will,  upon  the  opening  of  tiie  spring, 
spread  general  desolation  on  the  frontiers  by  their  small  parties. 

That  the  said  Wabash  Indians  amount  to  about  eleven  hundred  warriors;  to  tliis  number  may,  perhaps,  be  added, 
of  other  more  distant  Indians,  one  thousand. 

If  this  should  be  the  case,  the  army,  for  the  campaisn.  oushl  to  consist  of  three  thousand  well  arranged  troops,  in 
order  to  be' superior  to  all  opposition,  and  to  prevent  the  trouble  and  expense  of  being  repeated. 

That  the  reports,  herewith  submitted,  marked  C,  No.  1,  \rill  exhibit  the  species  of  defensive  protection  per- 
niittecl,  during  the  last  year,  by  the  General  Government;  the  system  directed  by  the  Executive  of  Virginia,  during 
the  month  of  December.  1790;  and  the  plan  of  a  regiment  of  rangers,  proposed  to  be  raised  on  the  frontiers,  to  answer 
the  same  purpose,  and  an  estimate  of  the  expense  thereof. 

That,  in  case  the  said  plan  of  a  regiment  of  rangers  should  be  adopted,  the  same  would  furnish  five  hundred  non- 
commissioned officers  and  privates  for  the  proposed  expedition. 

That  the  otlier  force^  necessary  to  complete  the  number  of  three  thousand,  might  be  raised  under  the  term  levies, 
to  serve  for  the  expedition,  wiiich,  it  is  presumed,  would  not  exceed  four  months. 

That,  to  induce  the  men  to  engage  voluntarily  for  the  said  object,  it  is  respectfiilly  suggested,  that  it  might  be 
proper  to  appoint  the  best  and  most  popular  ofticers  in. Kentucky,  and  tiie  frontier  counties,  to  superior  commands, 
with  delegated  authority  to  appoint  their  subordinatejoflicers;  and  the  idea  is  also  submitted,  bow  far  a  bounty  ot  five 
dollars  in  money,  or  clothing,  would  be  proper. 

That  the  result,  therefore,  of  the  ideas  suggested  herein,  and  in  the  report  marked  C,  No.  1,  are, 

1 .  That  the  situation  of  the  frontiers  requires  an  additional  defensive  protection,  at  least  until  offensive  measures 
shall  be  put  into  operation.     The  plan  of  a  regiment  of  rangers  is  therefore  submitted. 

2.  That  the  peculiar  situation  of  the  frontiers  requires  die  augmentation  of  one  regiment  of  regular  troops,  to 
consist  of  nine  hundred  and  twelve  non-commissioned  ofticei-s  and  privates. 

3.  That  another  expedition,  which  shall  effectually  dispose  the  W  abash,  and  other  hostile  Indians,  to  peace,  seems 

Tnat  the  army,  for  the  said  expedition,  might  be  thus  composed: 

^e^w/ar  <>"oop*,  if  tiie  same  should  be  augmented,  -  -  -  -  -  1.200 

/?an^ers,  if  the  same  should  be  adopted.  ....--  500 

Ames,  so  called  for  the  sake  of  distinction,  ------  1.500 


But,  if  the  regulars  should  not  be  augmented,  nor  the  rangers  adopted,  then  the  number  of  levies  ought  to  be 
proportionably  increased. 

That  a  corps  of  levies,  raised  for  the  expedition,  whose  officers  should  be  selected  by  tiie  General  Government, 
and  who  should  possess  a  pride  of  arrangement  and  discipline,  would  be  more  efficacious,  and  more  economical,  than 
draughting  the  militia,  cannot  be  well  questioned.  •      i     • 

It  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  engagements  of  four  hundred  and  twenty  of  the  troops,  on  the  frontiers,  expire  during 
the  present  year;  and  that,  by  tiie  last  accounts,  only  sixty  of  tliat  number  had  re-enlisted  on  the  new  establishment. 

As  the  reduced  pay  of  the  late  establishment  has  therefore  discouraged  the  recruiting  service,  the  idea  is  sug- 
gested, that  a  bounty  of  eight  dollars  should  be  given  to  all  the  recruits  who  have,  or  shall  rc-enlist  for  three  years, 
on  the  said  establishment.  Were  Congress  to  authorize  this  bounty,  the  subscriber  is  of  opinion,  that  all  the  recruits 
required  would  be  immediately  obtained. 

That  the  paper  marked  B,  No.  3,  contains  an  estimate  of  the  expense  of  tiie  proposed  number  of  levies. 

That  the  paper  marked  B,  No.  4,  contains  in  one  view  tiie  extraordinaiy  expense,  whicli  would  be  incurred  by 
the  rangers,  levies,  and  other  objects  of  the  proposed  expedition. 

All  which  is  humbly  submitted.  -  ./:  .  „, 

1  H.  KNOX,  Secretary  of  Jfar. 

War  Department, /anwary  22rf.  1791.  ' 

114  ^  INDIAN   AFFAIRS.  [1791. 

i-.-      ;,     >,;••'.  K,    -V'..       A,   No.  2. 

./  Jin  Act  for  disposing  of  certain  vacant  lands  or  territory  within  this  State. 

*  Whereas  divers  persons  from  the  States  of  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  and  South  Carolina,  have  made  application 
for  the  purchase  of  certain  tracts  and  parcels  of  land,  lying  and  bordering  on  the  Tennessee,  Tom  or  Don  Bigby, 
Yazoo,  and  Mississippi  rivers,  within  this  State,  and  have  offered  to  engage  to  settle  the  same,  a  part  of  whicli  terri- 
tory has  been  already  settled,  on  behalf  of  some  of  the  applicants,  under  and  by  virtue  of  an  act  ot  the  General 
Assembly  of  this  State,  bearing  date  the  seventh  of  February,  one  thousand  seven  iiundred  and  eighty-five,  at  Savan- 
nah, entitled  •'  An  act  for  laying  out  a  district  of  land  situated  on  the  river  Mississippi,  within  the  limits  of  this 
State,  into  a  county  to  be  called  Bourbon:"    Now,  therefore,  .      .     Ir, 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  in  General  Jissemhly  met. 
That  all  that  tract  or  part  of  territory  of  this  State,  within  the  following  limits,  to  wit:  Beginning  at  the  mouth 
of  Cole's  creek,  on  the  Mississippi,  continuing  to  the  head  spring  or  source  thereof;  from  thence  a  due  east  course 
to  the  Tom  or  Don  Bigby  river:  thence,  continuing  along  the  middle  ot  the  said  river,  up  to  the  latitude  thirty-three; 
thence  down  along  the  latitude  thirty-three,  bounding  on  the  territory  ot  the  Virginia  Yazoo  company,  a  due  west 
course  to  the  middle  of  the  Mississippi;  thence,  down  the  middle  of  the  Mississippi,  to  the  mouth  ot  Cole's  creek 
aforesaid;  and  containing  about  five  millions  of  acres;  shall  be  reserved  as  a  pre-emption  for  the.  Soutli  Carolina 
Yazoo  company,  for  two  years,  from  and  after  the  passing  of  this  act;  and  if  the  said  South  Carolina  Yazoo  company 
shall,  within  the  said  term  of  two  years,  pay  into  the  public  treasury  of  this  State  the  amount  of  sixty-six  thousand 
nine  hundred  and  sixty-four  dollars,  then  it  shall  belawtul  for  tlie  Governor,  at  the  time  being,  and  he  is  hereby 
empowered  and  directed,  to  sign  and  deliver  a  grant,  in  the  usual  form,  to  Alexander  Moultne,  Isaac  Huger,  William 
Clay  Snipes,  and  Thomas  Washington,  Esquires,  and  the  rest  of  their  associates,  and  to  their  heirs  and  assigns  for- 
ever, in  fee  simple,  as  tenants  in  common,  all  the  tract  of  land  included  in  the  aforesaid  boundaries. 

Jlnd  be  it  further  enacted.  That  all  that  tract  or  part  of  territory  of  this  State,  included  within  the  following  limits, 
that  is  to  say;  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Bear  creek,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Tennessee  river,  running  thence,  up  the 
said  creek,  to  the  head  or  source;  thence  a  due  west  course,  to  the  Tom  or  Don  Bigby,  or  Twenty-mile  creek;  thence 
down  the  same,  to  latitude  thirty -three;  thence,  along  the  said  latitude,  bounding  on  the  South  Carolina  Yazoo  com- 
pany's line  a  due  west  course,  to  the  middle  of  the  Mississippi;  thence,  up  the  said  river  in  the  middle  thereof,  to  the 
northern  boundary  of  this  State;  thence,  along  the  said  boundary  line  a  due  east  course,  to  the  Tennessee  river;  tlnence, 
up  the  middle  of  the  said  river,  to  the  beginning  thereof,  and  containing  seven  millions  of  acres;  shall  be  resei-ved  as  a 
pre-emption  for  the  Virginia  Yazoo  company,  for  tlie  term  of  two  years  from  and  alter  the  passing  of  this  act;  and 
if  the  said  company  shall  cause  to  be  paid  into  the  public  treasury  of  this  State,  within  the  said  term  of  two  years, 
the  amount  of  ninety-tliree  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty-one  doUai-s,  then  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  Governor, 
at  the  time  being,  and  he  is  hereby  empowered  and  required,  to  sign  and  deliver,  in  the  usual  form,  a  grant  of  the 
aforesaid  tract  of  land,  to  Patrick  Henry.  David  Ross,  William  Cowan,  Abraham  B.  Venable,  John  B.  Scott,  Wil- 
liam Cock  Ellis,  Francis  Watkins,  and  John  Watts,  Esquires,  and  the  rest  ot  their  associates,  and  to  their  heirs 
and  assigns  forever,  in  fee  simple,  as  tenants  in  common  of  all  the  tract  of  land  included  in  the  aforesaid  boundaries. 
Andbe  it  further  enacted.  That  all  that  tract  or  part  of  the  territory  of  this  State,  included  within  the  limits  follow- 
ing, to  wit:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Bear  creek,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Tennessee  river,  in  the  latitude  of  thirty- 
four  degrees  forty-three  minutes;  running  thence,  up  Bear  creek,  to  the  head  or  source;  thence  a  due  west  course, 
to  the  Tom  Bigby,  or  Twenty-mile  creek;  thence,  down  the  said  Bigby,  or  Twenty  mile-creek,  to  the  latitude  thirty- 
four  degrees;  thence,  a  due  east  course  one  hundred  and  twenty  mdes;  thence,  a  due  north  course,  to  the  northern 
boundary  line  of  this  State;  thence,  a  due  west  course,  along  the  northern  boundary  line,  to  the  great  Tennessee 
river;  thence,  up  the  middle  of  the  said  river  Tennessee,  to  the  place  of  beginning,  and  containing  three  millions  and 
a  half  acres;  shall  be  reserved  as-a  pre-emption  for  the  Tennessee  company,  for  the  term  of  two  years,  from  and 
after  the  passing  this  act;  and  if  the  said  company  shall  cause  to  be  paid  into  the  public  treasury  of  this  State,  within 
the  said  term  ot  two  years,  the  amount  of  forty-six  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-